Apot is a spreading undershrub, 60 to 90 centimeters tall. Stems and branches are terete, the latter opposite or in subwhorls, and smooth. Leaves are opposed, with short petioles, narrowly oblong to lanceolate, 10 to 15 centimeters long, and only the larger ones 5 centimeters wide, leathery and smooth, with the margins (except near the base), toothed with sharp teeth and the tip pointed. Inflorescence is paniculately few-branched, upon a 3-centimeter long peduncle, with ascending spicate branches. Flowers are minute, sessile, with a subtended bract. Fruit is a rather small, one-seeded drupe, with somewhat juicy flesh and vermillion-red skin.
- Common and widely distributed in the Philippines in primary forests at medium and higher altitudes.
- Also occurs in India to Japan, southward to Malaya.
- Study yielded 11 compounds: shizukanolide, furanodienone, lupeol, 24-hydroxylupeol, pinostrobin, 2', 6'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxydihydrochalcone, 7-rnethylnaringenin, eleutheroside B1, 3,4-dihydroxybenzonic acid, palmitic acid and β-sitosterol.
- Yields terpenoids, flavanoids, coumarins and phenolic acids.
- Study yielded two new sesquiterpenes: glabranols A and B. (4)
- Chloroform and EtOH extracts yielded six compounds, viz. 4, 4'-biisofraxidin, esculetin, fraxetin, scoparone, isofraxidin, scopoletin. (See study below) (11)
- Study of aqueous acetonic extract of whole plant yielded a new eudesmanolide sesquiterpene, atractylenolide IV, together with 7 known compounds. (14)
Both warm and sweet, detoxifying, anti-inflammatory.
Whole plant, leaves.
In Malaya, leaves reportedly used to scent tea or added to tea for bulk.
- Infusion of the plant used for headaches.
- In traditional Chinese medicine used for treatment of bruises, bone fractures, arthritis, nausea, joint swelling and cough.
- An herb included in Chinese Pharmacopoeia used as anti-tumor, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and for increasing blood platelets.
• Beneficial Effect on Chemotherapy-Induced Thrombocytopenia: Study showed Sarcandra glabra had obvious activity in the treatment of thrombocytopenia and can prevent thrombocytopenia induced by 5-FU. (5)
• Toxicity Study: Study to provide toxicology evidences for the dietary safety of Sarcandra glabra showed its oral LD50 for mouse was within the limit of nonpoisonous. All mutagenic tests were negative. (6)
• Chemical Constituents: Study isolated 9 compounds: isoscopletin, syringaresinol monoside, styraxjaponoside B, 5-O-caffeoylshikimic acid, shizukanolide E, isoastilbin, neoisoastilbin, astilbin, neoastilbin.
• Anti-Cancer / Anti-Leukemic: Study showed selective growth inhibition of an EA (ethyl acetate) extract on cancer cells; leukemic HL-60 was most responsive. Cytometric studies showed the extract might interfere with DNA replications and pro-apoptotic Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was up-regulated by more than 178%. Findings suggest the extract initiated apoptosis to kill the leukemic cells. Results suggest further research and a potential for S. glabra as an efficacious anticancer agent. (8)
• Anti-Tumor: Study evaluating Sarcarndra glabra extracts on anti-tumor effect and apoptosis of implanted human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines in nude mice showed SG suppresses the growth of tumor in vivo through a mechanism of down-regulation of the expression of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of the expression of Bax to promote apoptosis. (9)
• Immune System Effect: Study showed SG extract has an immunologic protective effect in restrained mice probably via the amelioration of immune cells proportion and number. (10)
• Constituents / Antibacterial Potential: Study of chloroform and EtOH extracts isolated six compounds, viz. 4, 4'-biisofraxidin (1), esculetin (2), fraxetin (3), scoparone (4), isofraxidin (5), scopoletin(6). Results suggest potential for the development of plant-derived oral antibacterial agents. (11)
• Decreased Susceptibility and Severity of Influenza: Extract of SG was investigated in mice for its effect against influenza. Results showed improvement in susceptibility markers and inhibition of inflammatory cytokines through down-regulation of NF-kB protein expression to ameliorate lung injury. Data showed reduction of susceptibiity and severity of influenza. (12)
Tablets and herbal formulations in the cybermarket.