Bayating is a stout, woody vine. Stem has a gray bark and milky sap. Leaves are thin, ovate, 15 to 25 centimeters long, and about 10 centimeters broad, smooth except at the nerves beneath, with a broad rounded base and pointed tip, on long petioles, up to 15 centimeters in length. Flowers are yellow, fragrant, about 1 centimeter across, and occurring in considerable numbers on long, slender, drooping branches which grow in clusters, usually on the stems.
- Found in Pangasinan, Quezon, and Laguna Provinces in Luzon; in Lanao and Davao Provinces in Mindanao, in forests at low and medium altitudes.
- Yields a crystalline compound, Picrotin, a tutinolide sesquiterpene lactone.
Picrotoxin has been reported to have CNS stimulant effect, insecticidal and nematocidal properties.
- Picrotoxin may also be used as an antidote to barbiturates. (5)
- Studies have suggested antiangiogenic, antibacterial properties.
- White milky sap diluted with water used as eyewash.
• Fish poison: Fruit used as fish poison.
• Crystalline Principle / Constituent: Roots yielded a crystalline principle in the form of white needles. On elementary analysis and molecular weight determinations lead to the molecular formula C21H26O6. A tertiary phenolic alkaloid and a quaternary base are also present in the roots. (2)
• Tinophyllone: Study isolated tinophyllone, a diterpenoid, with a formula of C21H26O6.
• Anti-Angiogenic / Antibacterial / Toxicity Evaluation / Leaves: Study evaluated the toxicity profile, anti-angiogenic and antibacterial activity of crude and semi-crude leaf extracts of T. philippinense. A dichlormethane leaf extract at 1000 µg/disc showed the highest antiangiogenic activity with 37.46% inhibition. All fractions exhibited bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect on three bacterial strains, with P. aeruginosa showing higher sensitivity to the dichlormethane semi-crude extract. The ME of leaves was non-toxic at maximum dose of 5000 mg/kg. (4)