|DATE RAPE DRUGS|
E phedra, Cloud 9
Herbal ecstasy is a combination of stimulants - ephedrine (ma huang), or pseudoephedrine and caffeine (kola nut) - that may simulate the effects of ecstasy. It is commonly used as a stimulant or weight-loss agent and is available at many health food stores and by mail order from sources advertised in drug culture magazines. Ephedra or ma huang is an ingredient in some Chinese herbal medications and in nutritional supplements such as Metabolift and Metabolife 356. A 300-mg dose of ephedra is equivalent to 30 mg of ephedrine. Ephedrine is found in many over-the-counter cold preparations. Neither ephedra nor its extracted form ephedrine are regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration. Some preparations combined ephedra with pseudoephedrine and caffeine. Besides herbal ecstasy, there are many ephedra-based conconctions: raptor and magic mushrooms, to name two.
The effects of herbal ecstasy last 3 to 4 hours when taken orally. Three tablets taken together have an effect similar to amphetamines or a large dose of caffeine.
Adverse effects include tachycardia, hypertension, stroke, seizure, myocardial infarction, and death. The doses needed to produce these effects are not known. These substances are not regulated by the FDA, and it is hard to know exactly how much of any given substance a product contains.
MANAGEMENT OF OVERDOSE
An overdose of herbal ecstasy may be associated with restlessness, muscle spasms, tachycardia, dry throat, and cold extremities. Neither ephedra or ephedrine should be used by people with cardiac problems or high blood pressure. Hypertension in persons who have overdosed on herbal ecstasy may respond to the use of benzodiazepines to decrease anxiety. Nitroprusside should be used in hypertensive crisis.
C rystal meth
Methamphetamine is a highly addictive stimulant that causes the release of large amounts of dopamine, enhancing mood and body movement. It is sold either as a white powder that is taken orally, intranasally, intravenously, or rectally, or as a clear, crystal-shaped "rock" that is heated and smoked like crack cocaine. The smoked form is called ice, crystal, and glass.
Smoking and intravenous use give a rush described as an intense, very pleasurable sensation that lasts a few minutes. Intranasal and oral use do not produce this rush, but rather a "high." Effects occur within 3 to 5 minutes with intranasal use and within 15 to 20 minutes with oral use, and can last up to 24 hours.
Adverse effects include a wide variety of physical and psychological effects: eg, wakefulness, increased physical activity (a hyperalert state, restlessness), decreased appetite, headache, mydriasis, sensation of hair "standing on end," vasoconstriction of extremities, dry mouth, hyperreflexia, tremors, tachycardia, hypertension, palpitations, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiomyopathy, stroke, hyperthermia, seizures, euphoria, irritability, insomnia, anxiety, hallucinations, paranoia, psychosis, and death.
Methamphetamine may cause degeneration of neurons containing the neurotransmitter dopamine, with damage of these neurons known to be the underlying cause of the motor disturbances seen in Parkinson disease.
MANAGEMENT OF OVERDOSE
Effects of methamphetamine tend to last 5 to 10 hours. The drug is metabolized to amphetamine. Urine toxicology screening may pick up both methamphetamine and amphetamine. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can differentiate methamphetamine from amphetamine.
In case of overdose, haloperidol can be used to control agitation, and benzodiazepines can be used to control seizures. Hypertension can be managed with intravenous beta-blockers. Cardiac monitoring and precautions to prevent seizure are usually indicated. Some patients may require airway protection.
Goob, Jeff, Speed, Bathtub speed, Mulka, Gagers, gaggers, The C, Wild Cat, Wonder star, Cadillac express, Ephedrone
A Russian designer amphetamine that emerged from U.S. clandestine labs in the early 90s, easily manufactured from a salmagundi of grocery and hardware stores ingredients. The active ingredient, methcathinone - chemically -2-(methylamino)propiophenone - is a derivative of a naturally-occurring stimulant drug, cathinone, found in the "khat" plant, Cathula edulis.
First synthesized in Germany in 1928, and used in the
Soviet Union as an anti-depressant during the 1930's and 1940's. In the
mid-1950's, American pharmaceutical manufacturer Parke Davis & Company
conducted preliminary studies on methcathinone to determine if it had
any medicinal potential, but abandoned soon because of safety risks and
side effects. It is a very potent CNS stimulant, which appears to
produce its stimulus effect, at least in part, via a dopaminergic
LSD, one of the most potent hallucinogenic and mood-changing chemical, discovered in 1938, derived from lysergic acid found on ergot, a fungus that grows on rye and other grains. The hippie-hallucinogen, surf-and-turf to marijuana in the 60s' sparse drug menu, "acid" has made interim comebacks, settling into a niche on the club scene. "Hits" are available in a variety of formulations: liquid, tablet, capsule, thin squares of gelatin, or absorbed on and licked from decorative and colorful blotter paper. Although colorless and odorless, LSD has a slight bitter taste.
Over the past 2 years, the percentage of seniors who have used LSD has remained relatively stable. Between 1975 and 1997, the lowest lifetime use of LSD was reported by the class of 1986, when 7.2 percent of seniors reported using LSD at least once in their lives. In 1997, 13.6 percent of seniors had experimented with LSD at least once in their lifetimes. The percentage of seniors reporting use of LSD in the past year nearly doubled from a low of 4.4 percent in 1985 to 8.4 percent in 1997.
The Drug Enforcement Administration reports that the strength of LSD samples obtained currently from illicit sources ranges from 20 to 80 micrograms of LSD per dose. This is considerably less than the levels reported during the 1960s and early 1970s, when the dosage ranged from 100 to 200 micrograms, or higher, per unit. LSD is a Schedule 1 Controlled Substance with severe penalties for possession and use.
Colorless, odorless and slightly bitter tasting, LSD effects are wildly unpredictable, depending on dose, mood, environment and expectations. Effects begin in 30 to 90 minutes and the highs may last 10-12 hours. Hallucinogen accompaniments are: increased body temperature, pupillary dilatation, increased heart rate, hypertension, anorexia, sleeplessness, dry mouth, tremors, sweating, and unpredictable swings of emotions. Large doses may cause delusions and visual hallucinations. A "bad trip" consists of terrifying thoughts, panic, fear of insanity and death. These "trips" are long ; typically they begin to clear after about 12 hours. Also, the spectrum of effects changes when LSD is used with other drugs, as in "candyflipping," the combined use of ecstasy with LSD.
LATE LSD EFFECTS
LSD "flashback" experiences are not unusual - recurrence of certain aspects of a person's experience, without the user having taken the drug again. They occur suddenly, without warning, within a few days or more than a year after LSD use. Although flashback may occur in occasional healthy user, they are more likely to occur with chronic hallucinogen use or in the presence of an underlying personality problem. LSD use may have long lasting psychological consequences, including schizophrenia, psychosis, and severe depression.
Average urine drug screening detection time of 1-3 days, up to 5 days.
Blotter acid squares at $4 - $5 provides a "trip" or "high" that lasts 3 to 12 hours.
Treatment of anxiety associated with terminal illness
The fentanyls belong to a class of very potent narcotic/analgesic. Although different in its chemical structure from opiates and opioids, the fentanyl derivatives are pharmacologically and toxicologically similar to the opium-based narcotics, with a potency many times that of morphine. The parent drug fentanyl (trade name: Sublimaze) is used extensively in clincal medicine, initially introduced in 1968 as an intravenous analgesic-anesthetic. In 1979, illicit synthesized derivatives became available in the street as "China White."
Street fentanyl is cut large amounts of lactose or sucrose (powdered sugar) diluting it to less than 1 percent. It is sold as lightly or coarsely powdered, with color ranging from pure white (Persian White), to light tan ( Synthetic Heroin), to light brown (Mexican Brown), the brown color coming from heated and slightly caramelized lactose.
Derivatives Used in Clinical Medicine:
FENTANYL - has a potency about 100 times that of morphine, a short 30-minute duration of action, used as a preanesthetic in about 70 percent of U.S. surgeries.
SUFENTANYL - a potent derivative, 2000-4000 times stronger than morphine, use as an anesthetic-analgesic for cardiac surgery.
ALFENTANYL - 20 to 30 times the potency of morphine, used as a very short-acting analgesic for diagnostic, dental, or miinor surgical procedures.
LOFENTANYL - 6000 times stronger than morphine, used for prolonged anesthesia and respiratory depression
ALPHA-METHYL FENTANYL - first illicity street derivative, about 200 times the potency of morphine.
BENZYL FENTANYL - mixed with other street derivatives, possibly an unwanted synthetic by-product or intermediate in derivative synthesis, with no narcotic effect.
3-METHYL FENTANYL - the latest fentanyl street derivative, and one of the most potent, about 3000 times that of morphine.
The euphoria or "rush" is similar to that achieved from heroin, the intensity dependent on the dose and kind of derivative.
Respiratory depression, bradycardia, and high addiction potential.
Mushrooms, Magic shrooms, shrooms, caps
For thousands of years, a favorite ceremonial fungi of consumption. Effects researched by Timothy Leary in the 60s.
• Treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder, cluster headahces, anxiety in cancer patients.
Highs and "plateaus"
achieved depend on dosages:
Urine and serum toxicology screens may not be able to detect club drugs. For example, urine screening does not detect MDMA, though it does detect its metabolite, MDA. Urine screening does not detect LSD, inhalants, alcohol, benzodiazepines such as alprazolam (Xanax) and lorazepam (Ativan), and methylphenidate (Ritalin). Thin-layer chromatography can be requested, specifying suspected drugs based on the history and physical examination.
The United States Congress passed a law called the Drug-Induced Rape Prevention and Punishment Act of 1996. Under this law, anyone who gives a person a drug without his or her knowledge in order to commit a violent crime can receive a fine and a sentence of up to 20 years in prison. Although date rape drugs have been used in clubs and bars, they can be used in any social setting. Three drugs are used of this purpose: Rohypnol, GHB, and ketamine.
Teens Dextromethorphan Abuse Rampant. Internal Medicine News. July 2005 . TIMOTHY KIRN
IT'S A RAVE NEW WORLD: RAVE CULTURE AND ILLICIT DRUG USE IN THE YOUNG . Ellen S. Rome, MD, MPH. CLEVELAND CLINIC JOURNAL OF MEDICINE. Vol 68. Number 6. June 2001 <www.clevelandclinic.org/health>
Club Drugs: Tomorrow's Medicines?
American Medical News. October 1, 2007
"Roofies" The Date Rape Drug Hima Donepudi, MD; Robert Malcolm, MD; and John Cusack, DO .Emergency Medicine. January 2000