TAGALO AND LOCAL NAMES  ENGLISH and OTHER REGIONAL NAMES 
Alakaak Tuel, balat, dulama Croaker
Alumahan  Tuna, tambacol, tanigi, tanigigi Long-jawed Mackerel
Apahap  Katuyot, matang-pusa, mangagat Sea bass; bulgan (Negros); Barramundi (Australia)
Asohos Whiting
Bakoko Sea bream, reddish variety or sweet lips; related to snapper, with a smaller mouth; passed off as grouper (lapu-lapu)
Bañgus Milkfish
Bisugo Threadfin bream
Betilya Emperor, white snapper; passed off as maya-maya
Blue marlin / Royal blue marlin Swordfish (billfish)
Chabita Hiwas, Isabita, Bilong-bilong, Tahas Moonfish
Dagum-dagum Kabayo-kabayohan Seahorse
Dalag Mud fish
Dalagang bukid  (Lapas, morong, boyoyod) Yellow tail fusilier
Danggit Rabbit fish with white dots
Dapa Indian halibut or tongue sole
Dilis  (Bulinau, silag, bombra, sibuyan) Anchovy
Dorado or kabayo Mahi-mahi, dolphin fish
Duhol Sea snake
Espada Beltfish
Galunggong Hard-tail mackerel (galunggong babae); round scad (galunggong lalaki), muro-aji in Japan.
Gindara  Oil fish (escolar); two types: smooth-skinned and rough-skinned, the latter with a higher oil content; for both, servings of more than 6 oz or 150 g may cause bothersome loose oily stools, for which it has been referred to as "xenical' fish. A good "colon-cleansing" fish, but a traveler's nightmare, a fish to avoid if travel is contemplated in a day or two.
Hasa-hasa Short-bodied mackerel
Haol-haol Bilis, Tamban-tuloy Sardines
Hito Catfish
Isdang lawin Flying fish
Japayuki Mackerel
Kanduli  Salmon catfish  
Labahita  (Mangadlit, isdang ilong, pulang ikog) Surgeon fish or unicorn fish
Lapu-lapu Bato-bato Kulapo, Kakab Grouper
Loro Parrot fish, brightly colored with beak-shaped mouth
Malasugui Black or white marlin
Maming Wrasse
Matang baka Purse-eyed scad
Matang-dagat Tilefish
Matumbok Sailfish
Maya-maya  (Bambangon, matangal, alsis) Red snapper
Pagi Manta orsting ray
Palos Eel
Pampano  Apahan, damis lawin, pulang buntot Pomfret, silver or black
Pla-pla Tilapia bigger than 1 kg
Sapsap Hiwas, Laway-laway Small flat fish, Ponyfish
Salay-salay Pampano, Apahay, Tarakitok Smooth-tailed trevally
Sinarapan Mistichthys Luzonensi, world's smallest edible fish
Talakitok  
Tambakol  Tulingan, barilis, talingay Skipjack tuna
Tamban Sardinella
TanguingueTangi,Tanige Spanish mackerel; kingfish (U.S.); a bigger variety is called wahoo.
Tawilis Herring; found only in Taal Lake.

Sources
Kitchen Rescue. Reggie Aspiras / Philippine Daily Inquirer. Nov 24, 2005

Fishes of the Philippines / Genevieve Broad / Anvil Publishing