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Family Asteraceae
Hugas
Microglossa pyrifolia (Lam.) Kuntze
Jiu li ming

Scientific names Common names
Conyza heudelotii Oliv. & Hiem Hugas (Buk.)
Conyza pyrifolia Lam. Maniak (Lan.)
Conyza syringifolia Meyen & Walp. Saroka (Bag.)
Conyza volubilis Wall.  
Erigeron pyrifolius (Lam.) Benth  
Frivaldia volubilis Zoll. & Mor.  
Microglossa petiolatris DC.  
Microglossa pyrifolia (Lam.) Kuntze  
Microglossa volubilis DC. [Illegitimate]  
Pluchea subumbellata Klatt  
Psiadia volubilis (DC.) Baill.  
Microglossa pyrifolia (Lam.) Kuntze is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
AFRICAN: Asibogo.
CHINESE: Guo shan long, Li ye xiao she ju, Jiu li ming.
CONGO: Muntantali.
EAST AFRICA: Nyabungu odide
KENYAN: Nyabungu odide, Muhinga, Muteei, Olabai-oibor.
MALAY: Ragin.
MYANMAN: Bizat, Bezat.
NIGERIAN: Anikan segbo, Anikan segbo torisa, Okbakakwu.
PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Gogo, Pundari.
TANZANIAN: Kichwaghwmbe, Lauhala, Mswaswaki, Uswaswaki.

Botany
Hugas is a rambling shrub with longitudinally furrowed branches. Leaves are stalked, ovate-lanceolate, 3.5 to 7.5 centimeters long, pointed at both ends, and obscurely toothed at the margins. Heads are numerous, less than 1 centimeter across, and clustered on the branches of rounded corymbs. Involucral bracts are lanceolate. Achenes are compressed and 4-angled, with the reddish pappus about 3 millimeters long, or much longer than the minute achenes.

Distribution
- In thickets, chiefly at medium altitude and ascending to 1,500 meters, in Bontoc and Benguet Subprovinces, and Nueva Viscaya in Luzon; and in Negros and Mindanao.
- Also occurs in India to China and Malaysia.

Constituents
- Study on essential oil of leaves yielded(E)-ß-farnesene and ß-caryophyllene as main constituents. (See study below) (9)
- Study isolated diterpenes phytol and 6-E-geranylgeraniol-19-oic acid.
- Study of essential oil of leaves characterized 50 components, representing 98% of the total oil with germacrene-D as the major component.
- Study of roots isolated seven dihydrobenzofurans and seven triterpenoids (five dammaranes and two 28- nor-oleanenes). (3)

Properties
- In folklore medicine, considered anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, analgeisc, anti-filarial, abortifacient.
- Studies suggest anticonvulsant, antiplasmodial, sedative, and antiseptic properties.

Parts used
Leaves, root, root bark.

Uses

Folkloric
- Decoction of roots used for stomachache.
- Leaf decoction used for colds.
- In the Gold Coast, plant used for enema to cure fever in babies.
- In Liberia used as a remedy for cough.
- In
Tanzania used for the treatment of headaches and colds.
- In West Africa powdered root used as snuff to relieve colds.
- In
West Tropical Africa , juice of root, passed through fine linen, used as eye drops.
- Juice of warmed leaves applied as remedy for ringworm of the scalp.
- Tea-like infusion used for fever with headache; also used as inhalant or fumigant to cause sweating.
- Decoction is taken by women in labor.
- In
Tanzania decoction of root and root bark used for epilepsy. Compresses soaked in root decoction applied to heal wounds of incised abscesses. Root juice applied to the eyes for cataracts. Leaf applied to inside of nose, in man and cattle, to treat coryza.
- Used for yellow fever, dropsy and backwater fever.
- In
Africa M. pyrifolia is used for malaria.
- In
Kenya pounded roots soaked in water used for colds and headache. Infusion of leaves used for malaria. Pound leaves used for treatment of limb fractures. (11)
- In
Cameroon leaves of Microglossa pyrifolia, softened in fire, eaten as vermifuge.
- In
Ghana used for the treatment of dermal infections and wounds.
- In
Rwanda used for cough, elephantiasis and wounds.
- In
Ethiopia leaves of M. pyrifolia used for mastitis. The Bench people use the leaves and roots mixed with I spicata for treatment of meningitis. (12)

Studies
Triterpenoids / Dihydrobenzofurans:
Study of roots of Microglossa pyrifolia yielded seven dihydrobenzofurans and seven triterpenoids. (3)
Herbal Hand Antiseptics: In a study of plant species used as herbal antiseptics, Microglossa pyrifolia showed inhibitory against E coli.
Anticonvulsant / Sedative: In a study of plants for anticonvulsant and sedative activity using animal models, M pyrifolia protected 50% to 100% of mice against convulsions and also exerted sedative activity by increasing duration of sleep induced by diazepam. (4) Extract of M. pyrifolia was shown to prolong the time to onset of convulsions induced by isonicotinic hydrazide acid and inhibit MES (maxima electroshock)-induced convulsions. Activity may involve antagonistic action on NMDA receptors. (15)
Antiplasmodial / Leaves: In an in vitro study of 13 Rwandan medicinal plants, the leaf extract of M pyrifolia was one among those that showed good results on antiplasmodial activity, active against chloroquine sensitive and resistant strains. (5)
Antiplasmodial / Aerial Parts: In an anti-plasmodial assay, aerial parts of M. pyrifolia methanol extract showed the highest activity against P. falcifarum chloroquine sensitive, D6 strain and chloroquine resistant W2 strain. (8)
Essential Oils / Leaves: Essential oil samples from hydrodistillation of leaves of M. pyrifolia found the main constituents to be (E)-ß-farnesene (73-78%) and ß-caryophyllene (11-14 %). (9)
Antibacterial: Study of M. pyrifolia on MIC testing showed 8mg/ml against both Staphylococcus aureus and S. sonnei. (12)
Essential Oil / Antibacterial Essential oil evaluated for antimicrobial activity showed moderate activity with inhibition of a number of common human pathogenic bacteria (S. aurues, E. coli, Shigella flexneri, and G. scabra). Antioxidant capacity was examined using an in vitro radical scavenging test, The essential oil scavenged DPPH, with an IC5050>30% Equivalent quercetin. (13)
Anxiolytic Activity:
Study showed M pyrifolia, A ambrosioides, and M pudica possess anxiolytic-like and antipyretic like activity which could be helpful in the treatment of anxiety and fever in traditional Cameroon medicine.(14)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Updated November 2017 / November 2015

IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph / Microglossa pyrifolia (Lam.) Kuntze / © BT Wursten / Click on image to go to source page / www.mozambiqueflora.com / Flora of Mozambique
IMAGE SOURCE: Line Drawing / Microglossa pyrifolia / © African Museum / Click on image to go to source page

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Microglossa pyrifolia / Prelude Medicinal Plants Database
(2)
Medicinal plants used for intestinal diseases in Mbalmayo Region, Central Province, Cameroon / E Noumi, A Yomi / Fitoterapia 722001.246254
(3)
New dihydrobenzofurans and triterpenoids from roots of Microglossa pyrifolia / Schmidt TJ et al /
Planta Med. 2003 Mar;69(3):258-64 / DOI: 10.1055/s-2003-38480
(4)
Validation of anticonvulsant and sedative activity of six medicinal plants / E Ngo Bum, G S Taiwe et al /

Epilepsy & Behavior, Vol14, Issue 3, March 2009, Pages 454-458 / doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2008.12.022
(5)
Antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activities of Rwandan medicinal plants used in the treatment of malaria / Raymond Muganga, L Angenot et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 128, Issue 1, 2 March 2010, Pages 52-57
(6)
INVENTORY OF PLANTS USED IN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE IN TANZANIA. I. PLANTS OF THE FAMILIES ACANTHACEAECUCURBITACEAE/ Inga Hedberg and Olov Hedberg /
(7)
Microglossa pyrifolia (Lam.) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
(8)
The Anti-malarial and Biochemical Studies of Microglossa pyrifolia (Lam.) Ktze and Trimeria grandifolia (Hochst.) Warb from Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya / Charles Onyango Omollo / JKUAT Abstracts of PostGraduate Thesis, 2011

(9)
Composition of the essential oils from the leaves of Microglossa pyrifolia (Lam.) O. Kuntze and Helichrysum odoratissimum (L.) Less growing in Cameroon / J R Kuiate, P H Amvan Zollo, E H Nguefa, J M Bessiere, G Lamaty and C Menut / Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 14, 82-84 (1999)
(10)
Microglossa pyrifolia / Synonyms / The Plant List
(11)
The Anti-malarial and Biochemical Studies of Microglossa pyrifolia (Lam.) Ktze and Trimeria grandifolia (Hochst.) Warb from Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya / Charles Onyango Omollo / Thesis 2011 /
(12)
Antibacterial activities of Microglossa pyrifolia (Lamk.)Kuntze, Leucas deflexa / Hook. and Indigofera spicata Forssk Jemal Dilebo / International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research (IJPSR)
(13)
Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Guizotia scabra and Microglossa pyrifolia from Rwanda / MJ Mukazayire , JC Tomani , JC Chalchat , C Stévigny , P Duez / Planta Med 2009; 75 - P I38 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0029-1234802
(14)
Anxiolytic activity evaluation of four medicinal plants from Cameroon.
/ Bum EN / Soudi S / Ayissi ER Dong,Lakoulo NH, Maidawa F, Seke PF, et al. / African journal of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicines : AJTCAM / African Networks on Ethnomedicines 8:5 Suppl 2011 pg 130-9
(15)
The effects of herbal medicine on epilepsy / Wei Liu*, Tongtong Ge*, Zhenxiang Pan, Yashu Leng, Jiayin Lv and Bingjin Li / Oncotarget. 2017; 8:48385-48397 / https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.16801
(16)
Microglossa pyrifolia: Common names / Umbertp Quattrocchi / CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants: Common names

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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