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Family Rubiaceae
Kaatoan-bangkal
Anthocephalus chinensis (Lamk.) Rich. ex Walp
COMMON BUR-FLOWER
Huang liang mu

Scientific names Common names
Anthocephalus chinensis (Lamk.) Rich. ex Walp Kaatoan-bangkal (Tag.)
Anthocephalus cadamba Roxb. Cadamba (Engl.)
Anthocephalus indicus A. Rich. Kadam (Engl.)
Nauclea cadamba Roxb. Common bur-flower (Engl.)
Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb.) Bosser. Huang liang mu (Chin.)
Sarcocephalus cadamba (Roxb.) Kurz  

 

Botany
Kaatoan-bangkal is a medium-sized to large tree growing 15 to 45 meters high. Bark is gray, smooth in young trees, rough and longitudinally fissured in old trees. Bole is straight and cylindrical, branchless for up to 25 meters, with small buttresses and a broad crown. Leaves are large, 15 to 50 centimeters long and 8 to 25 centimeters wide, glossy green, opposite, ovate to elliptic, with acute to acuminate apex, loosely arranged, petioled with lanceolate stipules. Flowers are occur in terminal, solitary heads, 3 to 5 centimeters wide. Corolla is funnelform with five lobes. Fruits are united and embedded in a receptacle.

Distribution
- Found in primary forests at low and medium altitudes in the Philippines.
- Occasionally planted along roadsides.
- Also occurs in India, China, Australia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea.

Constituents
- Phytochemical screenings have yielded indole alkaloids, terpenoids, saponins, sapogenins, terpenes, steroids, fats and reducing sugars, glycoside, steroids, fats, and flavonoids.
- Isolated principles are glycosidic indole alkaloids; cadambine, 3a-dihydrocadambine, isodihydrocadambine, and two non-glycosidic alkaloids- cadamine and isocadamine.
- Bark yields tannins and an astringent principle.
- Stem bark yielded a pentacyclic triterpenic acid, cadambagenic acid, along with quinovic acid and ß-sitosterol.
- Leaves have yielded cadamine and isocadamine.

Properties
- Bark considered tonic, bitter, pungent, acrid, astringent, febrifuge, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, digestive, carminative, diuretic, expectorant, antiemetic, wound-healing.

Parts used
Bark, flowers, leaves.

Uses

Culinary
Flowers used as vegetable.
Folkloric
- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- Decoction of leaves used for ulcers, wounds, and metorrhea.
- Leaves used in treatment of snake bites.
- In the Western Ghats, paste used for treating skin diseases.
- In Ayurveda, plant used in the treatment of fever, anemia, uterine problems, skin diseases, leprosy, and to improve semen quality. Bark used for blood diseases and dysentery.


Studies
Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory:
(1) Defatted aqueous extract of leaves of N. cadamba showed significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. (2) Leaf extract showed significant reduction in the number of writhing induced by acetic acid and increased reaction time in hot plate test.
Antipyretic: Various extracts ( cholorform, ethanol, distilled water) showed significant antipyretic activity.
Antifungal: Alcoholic and aqueous fruit extracts showed significant antifungal activity against Candida albicans, T. rubrum, Microsporum, Aspergillus niger.
Diuretic / Laxative: Methanol extract of bark of Neolamarckia cadamba exhibited significant diuretic activity. A chloroform extract produced significant laxative property.
Hypolipidemic / Laxative: Study of root extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats showed significant decreases in total cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerides and lipid peroxides.
Antioxidant: Study showed potent antioxidant activity by inhibiting lipid peroxidation and increase in the superoxide dismutase and catalase activity.
Antihepatotoxic: Study in carbon tetrachloride model of hepatic injury showed intraperitoneal administration of chlorogenic acid (isolated from N. cadamba) to mice exhibited hepatoprotective action better than silymarin. The hepatoprotective activity was attributed to the antioxidative activity of CGA.
Antimicrobial / Wound Healing: Studies have reported potent antibacterial and antifungal activities against E coli, Micrococcus luteus, B. subtilis, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, K pneumonia, P. mirabilis, Candida albicans, A. niger, A. flavus among others. Study showed potent wound healing capacity as shown by wound contraction and increased tensile strength.
Triterpenoid Glycosides: Leaves yielded nine compounds: clethric acid-28-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl ester , mussaendoside T, β-stigmasterol, hederagenin, ursolic acid, clethric acid, 3β,6β,19α,24-tetrahydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid, mussaendoside I, and cadambine. Compounds 1 and 2 were new triterpenoid glycosides.
Antibacterial: Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of fruits showed significant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Hypoglycemic / Bark: Study of methanol bark extract in alloxan-induced diabetic mice exhibited significant hypoglycemic effects. Phytoanalysis revealed flavonoids, possibly stimulating or possessing an insulin-like effect.
Glucose Lowering / Roots: Study of root extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats showed significant dose-dependent blood glucose reduction.|
Sedative / Antiepileptic: Study of bark extract in various experimental animal models exhibited sedative and antiepileptic activities.
Genoprotective / Antioxidant: Study of methanol extract of bark showed good genoprotective potential comparable to gallic acid. The extract also showed potent antioxidant activity in all the assays.

Availability
Wild-crafted.
Seeds and extracts in the cybermarket.

August 2012

IMAGE SOURCE: Anthocephalus Cadamba / File:Anthocephalus Cadamba flower.jpg / Vinayaraj / 12 April 2009 / Creative Commons Attribution / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Anthocephalus Cadamba / KARTHIK'S JOURNAL / Flowering Trees /Commons Attribution / Wild Wanderer

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
ANTHOCEPHALUS CADAMBA (ROXB) : AN OVERVIEW / Rakhi Gautam, Raghuveer Irchhaiya, Ramji Swarnakar / IJPRD, 2011; Vol 4(04): June-2012 (169 - 173) International Standard Serial Number 0974 – 9446
(2)
Two new triterpenoid glycosides from the leaves of Anthocephalus chinensis. / Xu XY, Yang XH, Li SZ, Song QS. / J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2011 Oct;13(11):1008-13. Epub 2011 Oct 10.
(3)
Indole Alkaloids from the Leaves of Anthocephalus chinensis / by Hua Zhou, Hong-Ping He, Ning-Chuan Kong, Tie-Jun Wang, and Xiao-Jiang Hao / 2148 Helvetica Chimica Acta – Vol. 91 (2008)
(4)
Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb.) Bosser / Catalogue of Life, China
(5)
Antibacterial Properties of Anthocephalus Cadamba Fruits. / Mr. Ram P Mishra / WebmedCentral AYURVEDIC MEDICINE 2011;2(8):WMC002073
(6)
Antimicrobial activity of Anthocephalus cadamba Linn
/ K.S.Chandrashekar, K.S.Prasanna / Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2009, 1(1): 268-270
(7)
HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECTS OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ANTHOCEPHALUS CADAMBA BARK IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS (ROX B) MIQ / Himanshu Gurjar, S K Jain, et al / IJPSR (2010), Vol. 1, Issue 3
(8)
STUDIES ON GLUCOSE LOWERING EFFICACY OF THE ANTHOCEPHALUS CADAMBA (ROXB.) MIQ. ROOTS. / S. ACHARYYA, G. K. DASH, S. MONDAL, AND S.K. DASH / International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences V1(2)2010
(9)
Antimicrobial, Wound Healing and Antioxidant Activities of Anthocephalus Cadamba / Prahalad Umachigi Sanjay, G S Kumar, KN Jayaveera, Kumar DV Kishore, Kumar CK Ashok, and R Dhanapal / Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2007; 4(4): 481–487.
(10)
Sedative and antiepileptic effects of Anthocephalus cadamba Roxb. in mice and rats / Pandian Nagakannan, Basavaraj D. Shivasharan, Veeresh P. Veerapur, and Boreddy S. Thippeswamy / Indian J Pharmacol. 2011 Nov-Dec; 43(6): 699–702.
(11)
Analgesic activity of Anthocephalus cadamba leaf extract / H R. Ambujakshi / Journal of Pharmacy Research, Vol 2, No 8 (2009)
(12)
Studies on the genoprotective/antioxidant potential of methanol extract of Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb.) Miq / Madhu Chandel, Satwinderjeet Kaur, and Subodh Kumar / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 5(19), pp. 4764-4770, 23 September, 2011
(13)
Anti-inflammatory effect of the methanol extract from Anthocephalus cadamba stem bark in animal models / Kodangala Subraya Chandrashekar, Borthakur Abinash, Kodangala Subraya Prasanna / International Journ of Plant Biology, Vol 1, No 1, 2010


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