Family Fabaceae
Balatong
MUNGO
Vigna radiata (L.) R.Wilczek
MONGO BEAN
Lu dou

Scientific names  Common names  
Azukia radiata (L.) Ohwi Balatong (Tag., Ibn., If., Ilk.)
Phaseolus abyssinicus Savi Mongo (Tag.)
Phaseolus aureus Roxb. Mungo (Tag., Bis.)
Phaseolus aureus Wall. Mungos (Tag.)
Phaseolus hirtus Retz. Mongo bean (Engl.) 
Phaseolus aureus Wall. Mung bean (Engl.)
Phaseolus mungo sensu auct.fl.As.Med. Golden gram (Engl.)
Phaseolus radiatus L. Green gram (Engl.)
Rudua aurea (Roxb.) F.Maek.  
Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek  
Balatong is a shared common name for (1) Mungo, Phaseolus aureus, mongo bean, green gram (2) Soya, utau, Glycine max, soybean.
Vigna radiata (L.) R.Wilczek is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Mung, mug.
BURMESE : Pe-di, Pe-di-sein, Pè di sien, Pe-nauk, To-pi-si.
CHINESE: Qing xiao dou, Xiao dou, Xi dou, Lu dou.
CZECH : Vigna zlatá.
DANISH : Jerusalembønne,Mung-bonne.
FINNISH : Mungopapu.
FRENCH : Ambérique, Ambérique jaune, Haricot doré, Haricot mung à grain doré, Haricot velu de la basse Nubie.
GERMAN : Jerusalem-Bohne, Jerusalembohne, Mungbohne, Mungobohne.
HINDI: Moong, Pessara.
INDONESIAN: Kacang djong, Arta ijo.
ITALIAN : Fagiolino verde, Fagiolo aureo, Fagiolo mungo, Fagiolo semi-verdi.
JAPANESE: Bundou, Fundou, Yaenari, Ryokutou.
KANNADA: Hesaru, Pacche hasiru.
KHMER : Sândaèk ba:y.
LAOTIAN : Thwàx khiêw, Thwàx ngo:k, Thwàx sadê:k.
MALAY : Arta ijo (Indonesia), Kacang djong (Indonesia), Kacang hijau (Malaysia).
MALAYALAM: Cheru payaru, Putsja-paeru.
MANIPURI: Mung-hawai.
MARATHI: Mung, Udid.
NEPALESE: Mas.
ORIYA: MUGA.
POLISH : Fasola złota.
PORTUGUESE : Feijão-mungo-verde.
PUNJABI: Moongi.
RUSSIAN: Mash, Fasol' vidov, Fasol' zolotistaya, Vigna luchistaia.
SINHALESE : Bu me, Mun, Mun eta.
SPANISH : Frijol de oro, Frijol mungo (Latin America), Frijolito chino (Peru), Loctao (Peru).
SRI LANKAN: Bu me, Mun eta.
SWAHILI : Mchooko, Mchoroko.
TAMIL : Chiruppataru, Chiruppayaru , Pani-payir, Pasi payaru.
THAI: Thuaa khiaao, Thua khieo, Thua thong.

Botany
Mungo is an erect, annual herb branching at the base, more or less clothed with spreading, brownish hairs. Leaves are long-petioled, compound, with three leaflets which are ovate and entire, broad based with pointed tips, 8 to 15 centimeters long, the lateral ones being inequilateral. Flowers are yellow, about 1 centimeter long, arranged near the end of the short stalks. Pods are linear, hairy, spreading, 6 to 8 centimeters long, about 6 millimeters wide, and covered with scattered, long, brownish hairs. Seeds are 4 to 6 millimeters in length.

Distribution
- Cultivated throughout the Philippines.
- Not a native of the Archipelago.
- Scarcely naturalized.
- Also occurs in India to China and Malaya, in cultivation.

Constituents
- Seeds are high in carbohydrate (>45%) and protein (>21%); fair source of calcium, iron, vitamins A and B. deficient in vitamin C.
- Sprouts are a good source of vitamin B.

- Raw green gram contains trypsin inhibitor which is destroyed by cooking.
- Mung beans contain greater carbohydrate content (50%-60%) than soybeans; starch is the predominant carbohydrate of the legume. Mung beans yield about 20%-24% protein, with globulin and albumin the main storage proteins in seeds, making up 60% and 25% of total mung bean protein, respectively. (12)

- Mung bean protein is rich in essential amino acids viz., total aromatic amino acids, leucine, isoleucine, and valine, but deficient in threonine, total sulfur amino acids, lysine and tryptophan. (12)
- Methanol extract of sprouted beans yielded glycosides, steroids, phenols, saponins, alkaloids, and flavonoids as major active constituents.
- Proximate analysis of whole V. radiata yielded moisture content 9.74 ± 0.19 %, ash content 2.91 ± 0.072 %, fiber content 2.9 ± 0.61 %, fat 1.35 ± 0.048 %, protein content 22.5 ± 0.24 %. (20)
- Nutritional value for mung beans (1 cup/124g) yielded: (Proximity) 25 Kcal, 0.99 Kcal from fat, 115.8 g water, 109 kJ energy, 2.52 g protein, 0.11 g total fat (lipid), 0.37 g ash, 5.2 g carbohydrate, 1 g total dietary fiber, 3.52 g total sugars; (Minerals) copper 0.151 mg, iron 0.81 mg, manganese 0.174, zinc 0.58 mg, phosphorus 35 mg, mangnesium 17 mg, potassium 125 mg, calcium 15 mg, selenim 0.7 µg, sodium 12 mg; (vitamins) vitamin K 28.1 µg, vitamin C 14.1 mg, vitamin B1 (thiamin) 0.062mg, vitamin B2 (riboflavin) 0.126 mg, vitamin B3 (niacin) 1.013 mg, vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) 0.301 mg, vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) 0.067 mg, vitamin B9 (folate) 36 µg, choline 12.3 mg, vitamin E (alpha tocopherol) 0.09 mg, vitamin A 1 µg, beta carotene 5 µg, alpha carotene 5 µg, beta cryptoxanthin 5 µg; (Lipids) total saturated fatty acids 0.031 g, total unsaturated FA 0.04 g, total monounsaturated FA 0.015 g; (Amino Acids) tryptophan 0.035 g, isoleucine 0.122 g, valine 0.12 g, histidine 0.064 g, lysine 0..153 g, threonine 0.072 g, tyrosine 0.047 g, cystine 0.015 g, methionine 0.031 g, phenylalanine 0.107 g, arginine 0.181 g, alanine 0.091 g, aspartic acid 0.44 g, glutamic acid 0.149 g, glycine 0.057 g, serine 0.03 g. (https://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/foods/show/2847) (21)

Properties
- Seeds are considered tonic and aperient.

- Studies suggest antioxidant, hypolipidemic, anti-irritant, hypotensive, antiatherogenic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic properties.

Uses
Culinary
- Seeds and sprouts are extensively used in Philippine cuisine, in salads or boiled, in soups or stews.
- In Chinese cooking, bean sprouts is considered a yin or cooling food.
Folkloric
- Decoction of seeds used as diuretic in cases of beriberi.
- The seeds, boiled or raw, used in maturative poultices.
- Extracts used for its protective and curative properties in polyneuritis galinarum.
- Roots considered narcotic, used for bone pains.
- In India, seeds are used, internally and externally, for paralysis, rheumatism and a variety of nervous system ailments.
- Used for fevers.
- The seeds are used for coughs, hemorrhoids and liver afflictions.
- Powdered beans used to promote suppuration.
- Seeds used in anorexia.

- Poultice used for checking secretions of milk and reducing distention of the mammary glands.
- Powdered beans rubbed into scarifications over tumors and abscesses to promote suppuration.
- In Indo-China, seeds considered antiscorbutic and diuretic.
- In Chinese medicine, used for detoxicification, to refresh mentality, alleviate heat stroke.

Studies
Hypotensive: The study showed all the extracts were hypotensive and contained bioactive proteinaceous substances and stimulated urine flow. Combinations of the extracts showed subtractive or additive effects. (1)
Anti-irritation: Clinical studies on the anti-irritation effects of mung bean (Phaseolus aureus) extract in cosmetics: The study of extracts applied to irritant-containing cosmetic formulations showed considerable anti-irritation efficacy and suggesting a potential use for cosmetic products. (2)
Cardiovascular Effects: Previous studies have shown the hypotensive effect of green beans, common rue and kelp. In this study, green beans and kelp showed negative chronotropic effects, while rue showed positive chronotropic and inotropic effects. A combination of all three showed subtractive effects on the decrease of atrial rate. The three plants interacted to modify their various cardiovascular effects. (3)
Hypolipidemic / Antiatherogenic: Changes in serum lipids in normal and diabetic guinea pigs on feeding Phaseolus aureus (Green gram): Study showed green gram feeding showed lowering of both free and esterified fractions of cholesterol, significant lowering of triglycerides and decreased the total cholesterol / phospholipid ration indicating its antiatherogenic nature. (4)
Hypolipidemic: Hypercholesterolemic rats supplemented with Isoflavones biochanin A and formononetin) from three pulses, including P mungo, and p-coumaric acid showed hypolipidemic activity.
Anti-Irritation Effects / Cosmetics / Vitexin / Isovitexin: Ethanolic extract isolated vitexin and isovitexin, previously suspected of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Study confirmed anti-irritation effects and suggests that the mung bean extract could be applied to cosmetic products.
(5)
Germination and Antioxidant Capacity: The study evaluated the effect of germination of raw mung beans and sprouts on antioxidant capacity and content of antioxidant compounds. Results showed germination of mung beans and soybean seeds is a good process for obtaining functional flours with greater antioxidant capacity and more antioxidant compounds than the raw legumes. (9)
Trypsin Inhibitor / Pancreatic Effects: Study evaluated the effect of green gram trypsin inhibitor (GGTI) and raw green gram meal (RGG) on experimental animals. Elevated levels pf protease and amylase were observed in the pancrease, with a significant variation in amylase activity, together with active proliferation of acinar cells. Histological study showed hyperplasia of the acinar cells. (10)
Anticonvulsant / Leaves: Study evaluated the anticonvulsant activity of chloroform and methanol extracts of leaves of Vigna radiata in albino Wistar rats on electrically and chemically induced seizures. In MES (maximal electroshock seizures), Vr leaves sowed most significant (p,0.01) anticonvulsant effect. (13)
Antimicrobial / Sprouts: Study of chloroform and methanol extracts of mung bean sprouts showed antimicrobial activity against all tested gram negative bacteria ( P. aeruginosa, E. coli, Salmonella spp.)with the exception of K. pneumonia. The methanol extract showed more significant activity against P. aeruginosa compared to the chloroform extract. (14)
Antibacterial / Sprouts: Study evaluated the antibacterial activities of extracts of Vr against pathogens causing food borne diseases. Methanol extracts showed significant concentration dependent antibacterial activity against almost all the test pathogens. (see constituents above) (15)
Antisepsis / Sprouts: HMGB1, a nucleosoma protein, has been established as a late mediator of lethal systemic inflammation. Study explored the HMGB-1 inhibiting capacity and therapeutic potential of mung bean coat (MBC) extract in vitro and in vivo. The MBC extract dose-dependently attenuated LPS-induced releases of HMGB-1 and several chemokines in macrophage culture. Results suggest MCH extract if protective against lethal sepsis possibly by stimulating autophagic HMGB1 degradation. (16)
Anticancer / Cytotoxicity / Immunomodulatory / Sprouts: Study evaluated the anticancer and immunomodulatory activity of mung bean sprouts (MBS) against human cervical and hepatocarcinoma cancer cells. Results showed significant cytotoxic effects exerted by MBS extract against the cancer cell lines. The cytotoxicity to HeLa and HepG2 was highly selective. The MBS extract was a potent inducer for apoptosis in treated human cancer cells via caspase-dependent and maybe caspase-independent pathways. The effects may involve strong, multi-mechanisms, and synergistic anticancer and/or immunomodulatory effects. (17)
Anti-Inflammatory / Mung Bean Testa: Study investigated the effects of ethanol extracts of mung bean testa (MBT) on metabolic inflammation-induced lipogenesis in gastrocnemius muscle of KK-Ay diabese mice. An in vitro pilot study with 3T3-L1 cells showed vitexin, the functional chemical in MBT, inhibited inflammation induced-lipogenesis with lower amounts of IL-6 and MCP-1. Functional compounds in MBT ethanol extracts such as vitexin and isovitexin may regulate intracellular lipogenesis and adipogenesis via anti-inflammatory mechanisms and MEK/ERK pathways in KK-Ay mouse model. (18)
Silver Nanoparticles / Callus Culture: Study showed callus cultures of Vigna radiata are suitable for the biosynthesis of bio-compatible nanoparticles as compared to microbes or plant parts. (19)
• Lectin / Antidiabetic Potential: Study evaluated lectins from Vigna radiata for antidiabetic activity. Seeds yielded a galactose specific lectin and evaluated for antidiabetic activity in an alloxan induced diabetic model in Wistar rats. Results showed significant (p<0.001) reduction in elevated sugar levels. Activity was attributed possibly to an insulinmimetic mechanism as evidenced by binding with insulin antibodies in Western Blotting Analysis. (22)
• Major Lectins / Alpha- and Beta-Glucosidase Activity / Seeds: Study of Vigna radiata seeds using exchange and gell filtration chromatography yielded two major D-galactose-specific lectins, MBL-I and MQBL-II. MBL-I was found to have alpha-glucosidase activity, while MBL-II was associated with beta-galactosidase activity. (23)
• Whitening Effect / Inhibition of Melanogenesis / Vitexin and Isovitexin / Seeds and Sprouts: Study evaluated the inhibitory effects on melanogenesis of EA and MC fraction of 80% methanol extracts of mung bean seeds and sprouts. Results showed inhibition of melanogenesis more effectively than argutin, a known whitening agent. Also, the in-vitro tyrosinase inhibitory activity on mushroom tyrosinase was higher in the EA fraction. Active components of the EA fraction were identified as flavones vitexin and isovitexin. (24)
• Antidiabetic: Study of an aqueous extract of V. radiata in STZ-induced diabetic mice showed significant antidiabetic activity at 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg, the latter showing higher activity. (25)

Availability
Wild and cultivated.

© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Updated November 2017 / May 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: /Seeds / Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek mung bean//Steve Hurst @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
The hypotensive effects of green bean (Phaseolus aureus), common rue (Ruta graveolens) and kelp (Laminaria japonica) in rats / K. W. Chiu, A. Y. L. Fung
(2)
Clinical studies on the anti-irritation effects of mung bean (Phaseolus aureus) extract in cosmetics / Jo B K et al / SÖFW-journal • 2006, vol. 132, no1-2, [Note(s): 8-16 /
(3)
The cardiovascular effects of green beans (Phaseolus aureus), common rue (Ruta graveolens), and kelp (Laminaria japonica) in rats
/ K W Chiu and A Y L Fung /General Pharmacology: The Vascular System Volume 29, Issue 5, November 1997, Pages 859-862 / doi:10.1016/S0306-3623(97)00001-3
(4)
Changes in serum lipids in normal and diabetic guinea pigs on feeding Phaseolus aureus (Green gram)
/ Anurag Srivastav , L. D. Joshi, and S. P. Singh / Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry • Volume 4, Number 1 / January, 1989 / DOI 10.1007/BF02867652
(5)
Clinical studies on the anti-irritation effects of mung bean (Phaseolus aureus) extract in cosmetics / Jo B K, Ahn G W et al / SÖFW-journal, 2006, vol. 132, no1-2, [Note(s): 8-16

(6)
Studies on protein quality of green gram (Phaseolus aureus) / Khader, V (V); Rao, S V (SV) / Plant foods for human nutrition / 1996-Feb; vol 49 (issue 2) : pp 127-32

(7)
Isoflavones and hypercholesterolemia in rats / 10.1007/BF02533528 /
(8)
Sorting Vigna names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
(9)
Kinetic study of the antioxidant compounds and antioxidant capacity during germination of Vigna radiata cv. emmerald, Glycinemax cv. jutro and Glycine max cv. merit / Rebeca Fernandez-Orozcoa, Juana Friasa, Henryk Zielinskib, Mariusz K. Piskulab, Halina Kozlowskab, Concepción Vidal-Valverdea /
Food Chemistry, Volume 111, Issue 3, 1 December 2008, Pages 622–630
(10)
Effect of dietary green gram trypsin inhibitor and raw green gram meal (Phaseolus aureus roxb) on the pancreatic activity in rats / V. Sathyamoorthy, V. Kamalakannan, D. B. Motlag / Research in Experimental Medicine, 1982, Volume 180, Issue 2, pp 169-178
(11)
Vigna radiata (L.) R.Wilczek / Synonyms / The Plant List
(12)
A review of phytochemistry, metabolite changes, and medicinal uses of the common food mung bean and its sprouts (Vigna radiata) / Dongyan Tang, Yinmao Dong, Hankun Ren, Li Li, and Congfen He / Chem Cent J. 2014; 8: 4. / doi: 10.1186/1752-153X-8-4
(13)
ANTICONVULSANT ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACT OF VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILEZEK / M. Nishanthi*, M. Vijey Aanandhi, M. Shankar, N.L. Gowri Shankar, V.D.T. Basavaraj, B.Vijayakumar / International Journal of Biological & Pharmaceutical Research. 2012; 3(7): 839-842.
(14)
In vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Vigna radiata (L) Wilzeck Extracts Against Gram Negative Enteric Bacteria / Siti Nazrina Camalxaman, Zuhaida Md Zain, Zulkhairi Amom, Maimunah Mustakim, Emida Mohamed and 1Azlin Sham Rambely / World Applied Sciences Journal 21 (10): 1490-1494, 2013 /
DOI: 10.5829/idosi.wasj.2013.21.10.2133
(15)
Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of Vigna radiata L. against bacterial pathogens involved in food spoilage and food borne diseases / Jaya Prakash Priya. A, Yamini SudhaLakshmi. G, Fouzia Banu, Gopalakrishnan. S, Dhanalakshmi. P, Sagadevan. E, Manimaran. A and Arumugam. P / J. Acad. Indus. Res. Vol. 1(6) November 2012
(16)
It Is Not Just Folklore: The Aqueous Extract of Mung Bean Coat Is Protective against Sepsis / Shu Zhu, Wei Li, Jianhua Li, Arvin Jundoria, Andrew E. Sama, and Haichao Wang / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2012 (2012) /
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/498467
(17)
Novel molecular, cytotoxical, and immunological study on promising and selective anticancer activity of Mung bean sprouts / Rand R Hafidh†, Ahmed S Abdulamir†Email author, Fatimah Abu BakarEmail author, Farid Azizi Jalilian, Faridah Abas and Zamberi Sekawi / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
(18)
Effects of Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) Ethanol Extracts Decrease Proinflammatory Cytokine-Induced Lipogenesis in the KK-Ay Diabese Mouse Model / Kang Inhae, Choi Seojin, Ha Tae Joung, Choi Munji, Wi Hae-Ri, Lee Byong Won, and Lee Myoungsook / Journal of Medicinal Food. July 2015, 18(8): 841-849. / doi:10.1089/jmf.2014.3364.
(19)
Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Callus Cultures of Vigna radiata / R. Indira Iyer*, C. Selvaraju, S. T. Santhiya / Indian Journal of Science & Technology, Vol 9, Issue 9, Marc 2016
(20)
Comparative nutritional analysis between Vigna radiata and Vigna mungo of Pakistan / Shabnum Shaheen*, Nidaa Harun, Farah Khan, Rana Abrar Hussain, Sehrish Ramzan, Sumaira Rani, Zaryab Khalid, Mushtaq Ahmad and Muhammad Zafar / African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 11(25), pp. 6694-6702, 27 March, 2012 / DOI: 10.5897/AJB11.3496
(21)
Mung Beans Facts and Health Benefits / HealthBenefits
(22)
Complex of zinc and lectins from seeds of Vigna radiata as potential anti-diabetic agent / Chhaya Harihar Gadgoli, Lalit Sali, Mahesh Abhyankar, and Prachi Pathak / Ist International Electronic Conference onn Medicinal Chemistry, Nov 2015
(23)
Characteristics of two major lectins from mungbean (Vigna radiata) seeds. / Suseean KN, Bhatia CR, Mitra R / Plant foods for human nutrition (Dordrecht, Netherlands) 50:3 1997 pg 211-22
(24)
Inhibitory effect of mung bean seed (Vigna radiata L.) and time-dependent germinated sprouts extracts on whitening effect / Yoo Minn Jeong, Ji Hoon Ha, Geun Young Rho, and Soo Nam Park
(25)
ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT FROM VIGNA RADIATA IN STREPTOZOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC MICE. / Kassahun Dires Ayenewu / IAJPR (Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research)

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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