Cyperus rotundus is a slender,
erect, glabrous, perennial grasslike plant, 10 to 40 centimeters high.
Rhizomes or underground stems are wiry, bearing black, hard, ovoid
tubers which are about 1 centimeter in diameter. Ground stems are usually solitary, distinctly
3-angled above. Leaves are 5 to 15 centimeters long, sometimes as long as the stems, about 3 millimeters wide, and narrowly linear. Umbel is simple or compound, 2 to 6 centimeters long, with 2 to 8 unequal primary rays. Spikes are dense or rather lax. Spikelets are 3 to 8, 10 to 25 millimeters long, brown, slender, with 10 to 25 florets in each spikelet, linear, and slightly compressed. Rachilla of the spikelet
distinctly winged. Glumes are 2.5 to 3 millimeters long, closely or loosely imbricate. Glumes of the floret distichously arranged,
the first 2 empty, the third one bisexual. Fruit is an achene, obovoid or oblong, black or granulate, 3-angled, one-seeded, covered with a scurfy bloom.
- Found throughout the Philippines in open areas at low and medium altitudes.
A common weed in gardens, lawns and wastelands.
- Pantropic in distribution.
• Norcyperone, a novel norsesquiterpene isolated from CR.
• Rhizome yields an essential oil.
• Tubers yield fat, sugar, gum, carbohydrates, albuminous matter,, starch, fiber, ash, and traces of alkaloid.
• Constituents include 1,8-cineole, 4alpha,5alpha-oxidoeudesm-11-en-3-alpha-ol, Alkaloids, Alpha-cyperone, Alpha-rotunol, Beta-cyperone, Beta-pinene, Beta-rotunol, Beta-selinene, Calcium, Camphene, Copaene, Cyperene, Cyperenone, Cyperol, Cyperolone Cyperotundone D-copadiene, D-epoxyguaiene, D-fructose, D-glucose, Eo, Flavonoids, Gamma-cymene, Isocyperol, Isokobusone, Kobusone, Limonene, Linoleic-acid, Linolenic-acid, Magnesium, Manganese, Mustakone, Myristic-acid, Oleanolic-acid, Oleanolic-acid-3-o-neohesperidoside, Oleic-acid, P-cymol, Patchoulenone, Pectin, Polyphenols, Rotundene, Rotundenol, Rotundone, Selinatriene, Sitosterol, Stearic-acid, Sugeonol, Sugetriol.
• Phytochemical screening yielded tannins, saponins, carbohydrates and alkaloids, with an absence of protein and sterols.
• Study of essential oil yielded more than 33 compounds were identified. Principal compounds were cyperene, alpha-cyperone, isolongifolen-5-one, rotundene, and cyperorotundene were the principal compounds comprising 62% of the oil. (see study below) (24)
• Study of minor constituents of essential oil yielded three new sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (−)-isorotundene, (−)-cypera-2,4(15)-diene, (−)-norrotundene and the ketone (+)-cyperadione. (26)
• Ethanol extract of leaves yielded carbohydrates, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, tannins, glycosides, and phytosterols. (27)
• Major chemical components are essential oils, flavonoids, terpenoids, sesquiterpenes. Other constituents are cyprotene, acopaene, cyperene, aselinene, rotundene, valencene, cyperol, gurjunene, trans-calamenene, dcadinene, gcallacorene, cadalene, cypertundone, amuurolene, gmuurolene, cyperotundone, mustakone, isocyperol, acyperone, 4,11-selinnadien-3-one, and 1,8-cineole.
• Fragrant, slightly
bitter tasting rhizome.
• Fragrance resembles lemon and cardamom.
• Considered analgesic, alternative, astringent, antispasmodic, antibacterial, carminative, contraceptive,
demulcent, emmenagogue, emollient, febrifuge, immunostimulant, laxative, stimulative, tonic, vermifuge.
· Harvest from December to January.
· Wash and sun-dry or heat-dry in a clean frying pan.
· Scrape off the fibrous roots.
- In the Philippines, used for dysentery.
- For indigestion and
constipation, 2 to 6 gms of dried material in a standard cup of water,
boil to concentration and drink.
- For skin diseases, wash the diseased portion with a warm decoction.
- For chest pains caused by deterred blood flow of blood and energy
circulation: boil to decoction 4 to 9 gms of dried drug preparation
together with 4 gms of Citrus (dalanghita, kahel, suha, kalamansi, etc.)
- Neurogenic gastralgia, abdominal distention, heaviness at the
chest, acidic vomiting: 3 to 9 gms dried material in decoction.
- Irregular menstruation, painful menstruation: 3 to 9 gms dried
material in decoction.
- Sprains and bruises, furuncle infections: Use pounded fresh
material as poultice or cook the pulverized drug material in vinegar
and apply as hot poultice.
- In various oriental traditional systems, rhizomes used for stomach and bowel disorders.
- In Ayurveda, used for leprosy,
fever, dysentery, itching, and as anthelmintic. Also for memory loss, depression and epilepsy.
- In India, used for wound healing. Roots used medicinally as a diaphoretic, astringent, stimulant, tonic, diuretic and demulcent. Also used as vermifuge and emmenagogue.
- In China, tubers used as tonic, stimulant, and stomachic.
- Fresh tubers applied to breast as paste or warm plaster as a galactagogue.
- Dried tubers used for spreading ulcers.
- In Indo-China, used for women in childbirth and to infants for indigestion.
- In Cambodia, tubers used for liver complaints with icterus, for malaria, and headaches.
- In Java, used for urinary problems.
- In Unani, used for ulcers and
sores, fevers, dyspepsia.
- Decoction of rhizome with stem bits of Tinospora cardifolia and dried ginger is used to treat malarial fever. Rhizome juice used to treat constipation. Fresh tubers applied to breast as galactagogue. (37)
- In traditional Iranian medicine, used to treat memory and cognition disorders. (40)
leaves used in the weaving of baskets and hats.
• In Asia, tubers are used as perfume for clothing and as insect repellent.
• Oil: Essential oil from the tuber used in perfumery, soap making and insect repellent cream.
Antidiabetic / Antioxidant: Study evaluated the antidiabetic
activity of hydro-ethanolic extract of Cyperus rotundus in alloxan induced
diabetes in rats. Results showed CR significantly lowered the
blood glucose levels and showed antioxidant activity and radical scavenging
in vitro. (1)
Cytoprotective effects of Study of Cyperus rotundus against ethanol induced gastric
ulceration in rats showed cytoprotective action attributed to inhibition
of gastric motility and endogenous prostaglandins. (2)
• Wound healing:
Extract showed effects in wound healing parameters: contracting ability,
wound closure time and tensile strength. (3)
• Stress-Reducing Effects:
Physiological effects of herbal mixture with Cyperus rotundus
L. on blood pressure, norepinephrine, cortisol and psychological variables
in healthy medical students under examination: Herbal mixture that included
CR seems to help reduce stress-related physiological and psychological
Aqueous extract of C rotundus showed a hypotensive effect in rats probably acting both centrally and peripherally altering the peripheral resistance and cardiac mechanics. Phytochemical screening yielded tannins, saponins, carbohydrates and the absence of alkaloids, proteins and sterols. (4)
• Antimicrobial Activity: Study showed antimicrobial activity against K pneumonia, A niger and S aureus.
• Mosquito Repellent / Root Tuber: C rotundus extract was screened for repellent activity against mosquito vector Anopheles culicifacies, A stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus. Study showed the tuber extracts to be more effective for repellency of all the mosquito vectors even at low dose. The extract can be applied as an effective personal protective measure against mosquito bites. (8)
• Polyphenols / Antioxidant: Study on the rhizome extract of Cyperus rotundus exhibited concentration-dependent scavenging effect on superoxide anion radicals, OH radicals, NO radicals, H2O2, metal chelating and reducing power. Results suggest CR rhizome extract can be a potential source of natural antioxidant. (9)
• Anti-Obesity Effect: Study of C rotundus tubers hexane extract for 60 days induced a significant reduction in weight gain without affecting food consumption or inducing toxicity. In vitro, the extract was able to stimulate lipolysis. The effect in weight gain may be partially mediated through activation of ß3-AR. Results suggest CR tuber extract has a potential as a herbal supplement for controlling body weight. (10)
• Anti-Candida Activity: Study of essential oils and ethanolic extracts of leaves and/or roots of 35 medicinal plants in Brazil were screened for anti-candidal activity. The essential oils of 13 plants, including Cyperus rotundus, showed anti-Candida activity. (12)
• Anti-Inflammatory: Study showed the methanol extract of rhizomes of CR showed inhibition of NO production in a dose-dependent manner from the suppression of iNOS protein, as well as iNOS mRNA expression. Results suggest a potential for the methanol extract to be developed as an anti-inflammatory agent for diseases mediated by overproduction of NO and O2. (13).
• Gastroprotective: Study results indicate that CR extracts have gastroprotective effect against acute mucosal lesions induced by ischemia/reperfusion. (14)
• Antimutagenicity / Essential Oil: Study shows the oil of CR does not seem genotoxic. The oil exhibited effects against both direct and indirect mutagens. (15)
• Infectious Diarrhea / Tubers: Study evaluated the antidiarrheal activity of C. rotundus tubers decoction. The decoction showed antigiardial activity, reduced bacterial adherence to and invasion of HEp-2 cells. However, the decoction does not have marked antibacterial activity and its antidiarrheal action was attributed to mechanisms other than direct killing of pathogen. (19)
• Antimicrobial / Rhizomes: Various rhizomes extracts were evaluated against six important pathogenic microbes (S. epidermis, B. cereus, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, A. niger, and C. albicans). An ethanolic extract showed the highest antibacterial activity . All extracts were ineffective against fungal strains tested. (20)
• Antiplatelet Effects / Nootkatone: Study of an EtOH extract showed significant and concentration-dependent inhibitory effects on collagen-, thrombin-, and/or AA-induced platelet aggregation. Of the eight components, (+)-nootkatone had the most potent inhibitory effect. (21)
• Anticonvulsant: Study showed pretreatment of mice with ethanolic extract of C. rotundus provided significant protection against strychnine and leptazol-induced convulsions in mice. Effect was attributed possibly to flavonoids. (22)
• Analgesic / Antimicrobial / Cytotoxic: Study of crude extract showed analgesic effect by the tail-flick method, antimicrobial activity, and non-toxicity at different concentrations in the brine shrimp bioassay. (23)
• Antioxidant / Cytotoxic / Apoptotic / Essential Oil: Essential oil showed antioxidant, cytotoxic and apoptotic properties. On on-vitro cytotoxicity assay, essential oil showed to be very effective against L1210 leukemia cell lines. Results correlate with significantly increased apoptotic DNA fragmentation. Oxidative effects were evaluated using DPPH, xanthine/xanthine oxidase assay, and scavenging of superoxide radicals. (see constituents above) (24)
• Antimicrobial / Leaves: Ethanolic extract of leaves were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumonia, A. niger and C. albicans. Results showed significant activity against both bacterial and fungal pathogens. (see constituents above) (26)
• Decreasing Hair Growth / Role in Androgenic Hair / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the efficacy and safety of Egyptian C. rotundus essential oil in decreasing androgenic hair (hirsutism and axillary hair) in 91 female patients. Results showed topical application of essential oil is an effective method in treating moderate degrees of hirsutism and axillary hair., without affecting serum testosterone. (27)
• Lipid Lowering / Rhizomes: Study of alcoholic extract of rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus demonstrated statistically significant reduction of serum lipid profile. (28)
• Pesticidal / Tubers: Study of C. rotundus for pesticidal activity showed the tuber can me made into an effective pesticide, more effective than Carbamate, with almost the same efficacy as that of Organophosphate. (29)
• Bioethanol Production: Study evaluated C. rotundus for the production of bioethanol via enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of CR biomass slurry. Findings showed 40% of simpler monomeric carbohydrate was converted into bioethanol. Results showed weed plants like C. rotundus can be a good alternative sources for ethanol production. (30)
• Effect on Learning and Memory in an Animal Model of Alzheimer / Tubers: Study suggests C. rotundus tubers ethanol extract has some repairing effects on the memory and behavioral disorders produced by lesioning of the NBM (nucleus basalis of Meynert) in rats. (31)
• Neuroprotective: Study investigated the possible neuroprotective effects of an EE of CR on a model of transient global ischemia in rat. Results showed the EECR cannot reduce ischemia-induced, cognitive impairments after transient global cerebral ischemia but can prevent pyramidal cell loss in CA1 region of the hippocampus. (32)
• Antimicrobial / Anti-Inflammatory / Tonsillitis: Study evaluated the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity of C. rotundus for tonsillitis. Results showed antibacterial activity against Streptococcus pyogenes responsible for throat infection. (33)
• Analgesic / Antioxidant / Modulation of Splenocyte Function: Study evaluated various extracts of C. rotundus showed peripheral analgesic activity with reduction of number of abdominal contractions caused by acetic acid in mice. There was no toxicity in mice up to dose of 300 mg/kbw. The extracts also showed significant enhancement of lymphocyte proliferation at 1 mg/ml. The extracts yielded potent components such as flavonoids which may be potentially useful in the modulation of immune cell functions, provoking analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antioxdant effects. (35)
• Ovicidal / Larvicidal / Essential Oil from Tubers: Study evaluated essential oils extracted from tubers on eggs and fourth instar larvae of Aedes albopictus. Results showed remarkable ovicidal and larvicidal activities indicated by EC50 values of <5 ppm and LC50 and LC90 values of <20 ppm. Results suggested the essential oil as a potential source of natural mosquitocidal agents. (36)
• Antimalarial / Tubers: Study of C. rotundus tubers isolated patchoulenone, caryophyllene or-oxide, 10,12-peroxycalamenene and 4,7--dimethyl-l-tetralone. The antimalarial activities of these compounds are in the range of ECso 10-4-10-6 M. A novel ndoperoxide sesquiterpene, 10,12-peroxycalamenene, exhibited the strongest effect at ECso 2.33 × 106 M. (36)
• Biosorption of Crystal Violet: Study evaluated the biosorption potential of two agricultural wastes, Citrillus lanatus rind and Cyperus rotundus to remove Crystal violet (CV) from aqueous solution. Results showed good sorption capactities of 46.68 and 54.24 mg/g for CV biosorption by C. lanatus rind and C. rotundus, respectively. (37)
• Antiamoebic / Cytotoxicity: Study evaluated the in-vitro antiamoebic activity and cytotoxicity (MTT assay) of an ethanol extract of C. rotundus whole plant. In an in-vitro study against E. histolytica trophozoites, the extract showed 100% mortality at concentration of 500 ppm. In cytotoxicity study, the MTT assay verified the safety of the extract with an IC50 of less than 100 µg/ml. (38)
• Antimicrobial / MDR P. aeruginosa Strains: Study evaluated ethanolic extracts of C. rotundus tubers for antimicrobial effect of multiple drug resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Extract concentrations greater than 01 mg/ml suppressed growth of all antibiotic sensitive and resistant P. aeruginosa strains. Results antimicrobial properties that can be used in treating MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced wounds and infections. (39)
• No Effect on Scopolamine Induced Learning Deficit in Mice: Study evaluated various extracts and essential oil of C. rotundus on scopolamine induced memory deficit in mice. Results showed none of the tested doses of extract or essential oil changed the memory status of animals, indicating either lack of effective ingredient or unsuitable method of evaluation. (40)
Extracts, oil and tinctures in the cybermarket.