Panapanarahan is an erect, branched
shrub, growing to a height of 0.5 to 2 meters. Leaves are simple,
ovate to oblong, 6 to 14 centimeters in length, round at the base, pointed
at the tip. Racemes are terminal, at the axils of the leaves,
5 to 15 centimeters long, composed of numerous, thin, rounded or kidney-shaped, folded, imbricated, green
bracts, about 1.5 to 2.5 centimeters long, enclosing the fascicles or dwarfed cymes
of small flowers. Rachis of the racemes are zigzig. Corolla is yellowish-green, with a tinge of
purple, about 8 millimeters long. Pods are swollen, oblong, 1 centimeter long,
containing 2 seeds.
- Abundant throughout the Philippines in settled areas, in open, dry, waste places.
- Probably introduced.
- Also occurs in India to Malaya, Mauritius and the West Indies.
- Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, phytosterols, phenolic compounds, tannins, proteins and amino acides.
- Phytochemical screening of root and leaf showed phytosterols, lipids, phenolic compounts, carbohydrates, flavonoids and tannins.
· Decoction or infusion of leaves and flowers used for tuberculosis.
· Decoction of leaves used for postpartum baths. (See: Suob)
· In India, root paste applied externally
to body swellings. Roots also used for epilepsy.
· In Malaya, decoction of leaves administered after childbirth and for bathing.
· Decoction of leaves used for rheumatism.
· In Java, decoction of leaves used internally and externally as vermifuge for children.
· In Nepal, Root juice (fresh roots
crushed in cup of water by mortar and pestle) is taken twice daily for
7 days for diarrhea and dysentery. source
· In Trinidad and Tobago,
used for kidney problems.
· In the Philippines, dried bracts used for stuffing pillows and cushions.
• Antibacterial: Out of twenty-five species of ethnomedicinal
plants were screened for their antibacterial activity, 13, including
F strobilifera, showed positive response to at least one of the tested
bacteria. F strobilifera showed positive response to two bacterial species.
• Antimicrobial: A New Flavanone
from Flemingia strobilifera (Linn) R. Br. and its Antimicrobial Activity:
The study isolated Flemingiaflavanone which showed significant antimicrobial
activity against Gram-positive bacteria ( S epidermis, S aureus, MRSA), Gram-negative bacteria (P aeruginosa, E coli) and fungi (C albicans).
• Isoflavone / Antibacterial / Antioxidant: Study yielded a new isoflavone from the roots of FS and was identified as 5,7,4í-trihydroxy 8,2í,5í-tri(3-methylbut-2-enyl)isoflavone along with other known phytoconstituents. The compounds were tested in vitro for antimicrobial activity and antioxidant activity and compounds (1-3) proved to be moderately active.
• Phagocyte Stimulation / Immune Regulation: Study showed F strobilifera as an herbal medicine that can stimulate phagocytosis and have a potential to enhance innate immunity medications.
• Anti-Ulcerogenic / Antimicrobial: Study showed pretreatments of a chloroform extract of F. strobilifera reduced the characteristic water immersion-induced stress ulcer lesions in female wistar rats. Free radical scavenging was observed. Antimicrobial activity of the CE was observed against bvoth gram positive and negative bacteria.
• Anthelmintic / Antimicrobial: Study evaluated various extracts of FS for anthelmintic activity. Results showed the alcohol and chloroform extracts to exhibit significant anthelmintic activity. Piperazine citrate was used as standard drug.
• Antioxidant: Phyto screen showed high flavonols and phenolics. A methanolic extract of root and leaf showed a concentration dependent DPPH radical scavenging activity. A butanolic and DCM extract showed good nitric oxide scavenging activity. Results suggest FS as a potential source of natural antioxidant.