Pandakaking-Tsina is an erect, smooth, much-branched shrub 2 to 3 meters in height, with abundant, milky sap. Leaves are opposite, each pair unequal, glossy, elliptic-ovate to elliptic-oblong, 6 to 15 centimeters long, pointed at both ends. Flowers are usually double, white, fragrant, and borne singly or in pairs on peduncles at the axils of the leaves. Corolla-tube is about 2 centimeters long and the limb is spreading, about 5 centimeters in diameter, and yellow at the center.
- Of recent introduction in the Philippines.
- Cultivated in Manila and large towns for its flowers.
- Origin is unknown, but now cultivated in most tropical countries.
- Roots contain resin, extractive matter and a bitter alkaloid.
- The milky juice contains caoutchouc and resin.
- Studies have yielded alkaloids and non-alkaloid constituents, flavonoids, phenyl propanoids, phenolic acids and enzymes.
- Phytochemical screening of an ethanol extract yielded steroids, tannins, saponins, gums and reducing sugar.
- Considered antioxidant, anti-infection, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, analgesic.
Root, bark, leaves, sap, flowers.
- Root or root-bark chewed for relief of toothache.
- Root-bark used as anthelminthic.
- Root, rubbed with water into a thin paste, used as vermicide; also, mixed with lime juice, applied to remove opacities of the cornea and other eye diseases.
- Milky juice, mixed with oil, rubbed into the head to relieve eye pains.
- Juice of flowers mixed with oil used to relieve burning sensation of sore eyes; also used for skin diseases.
- Milky juice of leaves used as drops for ophthalmia; also used as cooling application to irritable surfaces and wounds to prevent inflammation.
- Decoction of leaves used for coughs.
- In India, root used as local anodyne.
- In Ayurveda, Chinese and Thai traditional medicine, used for fever, pain and dysentery.
• Phytochemicals: Study of roots and stems of Tabernaemontana divaricata isolated six compounds: bis
(2, 3-dihydroxypropyl) octacosanedioate, tetratriacontanol, palmitic acid, glycerol monopalmitate, ß-sitosterol and ß-daucosterol.
• Acethylcholinesterase Inhibitory Effect / Alzheimer Disease: (1) Study demonstrated the T. divaricata extract could be beneficial in slowing the process of memory loss with additional benefits on learning and memory process. Results suggest TDE could be used to develop a new acetylcholinesterase inhibitor for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. (2) Study showed T. divaricata extract is a reversible AChE-inhibitor and could be beneficial as a novel therapeutic agent for AD. (3) Study suggests subchronic administration of TDE might prevent beta 25-35 peptides-induced memory deficits by decreasing the AChE activity level. It presents a potential nootropic supplement for elderly people with Alzheimer's dementia.
• Cholinergic Alkaloids: At least 66 alkaloids have been isolated from T. divaricata. Possible cholinergic candidate alkaloids are: coronaridine, voacangine, isovoacristine, (19,20) dihydrotabemamine, and (19,20) dihydroervahanine A.
• Anti-Fertility: Study of ethanolic extracts of TD leaves on immature female rats exhibited oestrogenic activity. Enhanced uterine weight and increase in luminal epithelium height and histological changes suggest the TDE may be useful in anti-fertility therapy.
• Antioxidant / Anti-Inflammatory: Study of the ethanol extract of T. coronaria flowers showed anti-inflammatory activity attributed to its free radical scavenging properties.
• Gastroprotective: Study investigated the anti-ulcer property of T. divaricata flower methanolic extract. Results showed remarkable gastroprotective effect with significant decrease in volume of gastric juice, free and total acidities and ulcer index.
• Antidiabetic / Cytotoxic: Study investigated the antidiabetic activity of a methanol extract of flowers on alloxan-induced diabetic mouse model. Results showed antihyperglycemic effect and low cytotoxicity may provide new molecules for the treatment of diabetes.
• Antimicrobial / Antioxidant: Study investigated the biologic activities of stem extracts. Results showed antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. A crude ethanol extract exhibited inhibition of gram positive and gram negative bacteria, especially Staphylococcus aureus. An ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest antioxidant activities.
• Antinociceptive: Crude ethanol extract of leaves of T. divaricata produced significant writhing inhibition i acetic acid-induced mice model.
• Antioxidant / Flowers and Leaves: Study evaluated the antioxidant activity of flower and leaves of Td. Results showed significant antioxidant activity.
• Anticonvulsant: An alcoholic extract of flowers of Td tested in animal models showed anticonvulsant property with decreased duration of tonic extensor phase. Results lend pharmacologic credence to the plant's folkloric and ethnomedical use in the treatment of epilepsy.
• Cytotoxic / Antioxidant: A methanolic extract of leaves showed potent dose-dependent antioxidant property in all antioxidant assays. The extract also showed significant cytotoxic effect suggesting the presence of potent bioactive principles with a potential for antiproliferative, antitumor, and pesticidal applications.