Suha is a small tree, 6
to 13 meters in height, with long, sharp, solitary spines. Leaflets are entire or nearly so, sparingly hairy beneath and on the margins, ovate-oblong to elliptic, and 8 to 12 centimeters long. Petioles are obovate and broadly winged. Flowers
are white, fragrant, and crowded in short, axillary racemes. Fruit
is large, obovoid to spherical, up to 20 centimeters in diameter. Rind is very thick and spongy, easily removed from the segments of the fruit. Pulp
is pale yellow, pink or red, sweet or acrid, with large, distinct vesicles.
- Found throughout the Philippines,
in settled areas, usually planted.
- Probably not a native of the Archipelago.
- Found throughout all warm countries.
- Native of the Old World.
• Leaves - volatile
oil, 1.7% - dipentene, 25%; linalool, 15%; citral, 3.5%; a-pinene, 0.5-1.5%;
Pericarp yields saccharose, reducing sugar; organic acid.
• Juice yields insulin like substance; lycopene; vitamin C; peroxidase;
sugar, 14.3%; acid, 1.1%; fat, 0.33%; cellulose, 1.3%; nitrogenous substances,
• Rind yields a crystalline glycosidal bitter principle, naringin (previously
reported as hesperidin), 0.2-1.6% ; , 10%; pectin, 10%; peroxidase. Also yields a volatile oil, "pompelmus" oil, containing d-pinene, o.5-1.5%; d-limonene, 90-92%,; linanlool, 1-2%; citrate, 3-5%' geraniol, 1.2%; linalyl and geranylacetate; citral 25%; free alkaloid, 8.61%; and ester, 4.38%.
• Phytochemical studies of various Citrus spp. yielded naringin,
hesperidin, diosmin and naringenin.
• Phytochemical study of the peel of the grapefruit isolated five
compounds: friedelin, b-sitosterol, limonin, cordialin B, and a previously
unreported compound, 7(3',7',11',14'-tetramethy)pentadec-2',6',10'-trienyloxycoumarin.
Leaves and fruit.
Food - Fresh fruit and preserved
Fresh fruit is a good source of vitamin B, iron and calcium.
- Nausea and fainting: Squeeze
rind near nostrils for patient to inhale.
- In the Philippines, leaves are used for aromatic baths.
- Infusion or decoction of flowers, leaves and pericarp used as sedative for nervous affections; also for
coughs and ulcers.
- Peel or rind, dried or in decoction, used for dyspepsia.
- Boiled seeds in a gallon of water can be used for sitz-baths.
- In Malaya, lotion of boiled leaves used for painful swellings.
In the Himalayas,
fruit juice recommended for ulcers; used in diabetes; and mixed with
black pepper and a little rock salt, used for malaria. Fruit juice with
its pulp, with honey, is given to improve urinary flow. source
of with Cytochrome P450 Enzymes: Study
of the relationships of plant constituents and CYP450 enzymes, such
as grapefruit with CYP2A6. (1)
• Antimicrobial: Grapefruit seed
extract (C paradisii) was found effective against P aeruginosa. The active
ingredient was naringenin.
• Anthelmintic: Alcoholic
extract of the rind of Citrus decumana showed good in vitro anthelmintic
activity against human Ascaris lumbricoides.
• Antioxidant / Anti-inflammatory / Analgesic: Study of peel extract in four solvent systems showed significant dose-dependent antioxidant activity, a significant decrease in paw volume and pain. Results suggest the peel extract may be a useful as a natural antioxidant in the treatment of inflammation and pain.
• Antioxidant / Free Radical Scavenging: Fresh red pomelo juice is an excellent source of antioxidant compounds and showed great efficiency in scavenging different forms of free radicals including DPPH, superoxide anion, and hydrogen peroxide radicals.
• Cyclosporin / Pharmacodynamic Effects / : Co-administration of Citrus grandis peels significantly decreased the systemic exposure of cyclosporin and resulted in higher macrophage and Th1 type activities than in mice treated with cyclosporin alone. (9)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Nobiletin: Study yielded a nobilietin, shown to contribute to pharmacological activities such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Results showed dangyuja leaves can inhibit LPS-induced production of inflammatory markers by blocking NF-kB and MAPKs signaling in RAW264.7 cells.
• Flower Fragrance / Components: Study of active components attributed to the fragrance of the C. grandis flowers showed the buds and blossoms of the flower possessing a strong floral-, jasmine- and orange-like aroma contain B-myrcene, limonene, ocimene, linalool and caryophyllene as the major compounds. (11)
• Antidepressant / Leaves: Study evaluated the antidepressant effect of an aqueous extract of leaves of Citrus maxima Merr. in mice. Results showed significant reduction of immobility time in both TST and FST. It showed psychostimulant effect of locomotor activity testing. The antidepressant effect may be mediated by an increased in norepinephrine level in the synapses. (14)
• Hypoglycemic / Glucose Tolerance and Lipid Profile Effects: Study evaluating C. maxima fruit juice showed beneficial effects on glucose tolerance and lipid profile in STZ-induced type-II diabetic rats. (15)
• Antibacterial / Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A comparative study was done on antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of V. negundo, F. vesca, T. arjuna, and C. maxima. Citrus maxima showed maximum zone of inhibition for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (16)
• Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase Activity / Radical Scavenging: Study evaluated the effects of some citrus fruit juices-- C. maxima, C. paradisii, C. limoni, C. reticulata. shaddock--on acetylcholinesterase activity in vitro. The juices exhibited dose-dependent radical scavenging and dose-dependent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. Results suggest citrus juices make good dietary supplements for the management of Alzheimer's disease. (18)
• Cardioprotective / Doxorubicin (DOX)-induced Cytotoxicity: Study investigated the protective effect of pummelo (C. maxima) fruit juice in rat cardiac H9c2 cells against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cytotoxicity. Results showed CM fruit juice can be promoted as a functional fruit to protect cells from oxidative cell death, enhance phase II GSTP enzyme activity, and decrease senescenvce phenotype population induced by cardiotoxic agent suc as DOX. (19)
interactions / Impaired Absorption
P-Glycoprotein / Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide: Concerns
have been reported on drug-grapefruit interactions because of the ability
of grapefruit juice to inhibit the metabolism of some drugs. Grapefruit weakly inhibits the intestinal wall
P-glycoprotein (p-GP), an efflux pump in enterocytes which is responsible for the intestinal secretion
of many drugs. Another transport system affected by grapefruit is the OATP, organic anion transporting polypeptide; drugs handled by this system may suffer decreased absorption.
(B) Furanocoumarins / Bergamottin: Grapefruit contains furanocoumarins, the most common are bergamottin and 6'7'-dihydrobergamottin which irreversibly inhibits cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzymes in the intestinal wall, which may affect the metabolism of certain drugs consumed up to 72 hours of grapefruit consumption.
Some Drugs that should be avoided with grapefruit (incomplete list)
Some Drugs that should be used with caution with grapefruit (incomplet list)
|aripiprazole (Abilify) 5
||felodipine (Renedil, Plendil)
For a complete list of food to be avoided with grapefruit, go to: