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Family Solanaceae

Utong
Solanum mammosum Linn.

MICKEY MOUSE PLANT
Wu jiao qie

Scientific names Common names
Solanum globiferum Dunal Tagotong (S. L. Bis.)
Solanum mammosum Linn. Talong susu (Tag.)
  Utong (Tag.)
  Apple of Sodom (Engl.)
  Berenjenita peluda (Span.)
  Cow's udder (Engl.)
  Fox face (Engl.)
  Love apple (Engl.)
  Mickey mouse plant (Engl.)
  Nipple fruit (Engl.)
  Titty fruit (Engl.)
Mickey mouse plant/ bush is a common name shared by (1) Ochna serrulata, bird's eye bush, and (2) Solanum mammosum, utong
Solanum mammosum is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BRAZIL: Jurubeba-do-para, Peito-de-moca.
CHINESE: Wu jiao qie, Wu zhi qie, Huang jin guo, Niu tou qie.
COLUMBIA: Friega platos, Hoja de lun, Ku-ku-na, Lulo de perro, Pepito, Tetilla.
CUBA: Gurito, Gurito espinoso, Pantomina, Pechito, Pecho de doncella.
FRENCH: Tétons de jeune fille, Morelle à fruit ornemental, Morelle molle.
GERMAN: Zitzen Nachtschatten, Euter-nachtschatten.
GUYANA: Jumby bybby, Tuwawa.
INDONESIAN: Terung susu, Tioeng londo.
JAPANESE: Kanaria nasu.
MALAYSIAN: Terong susu, Terung tujang, Terong semangat.
MEXICO: Berenjena, Kan'tzu.
SAMOAN: Lapiti, Lau lau faiva.
SPANISH: Tetilla, Berenjena de gallina. Berenjena peluda, Berenjena de teta.
SWEDEN: Karingtomat.
TURKEY: Sofur.
VENEZUELAN: Tuna, Una de gata.
VIETNAMESE: Ca vu de.

Botany
Utong is a coarse and branched half-woody plant, prickly or unarmed, growing to a height of 0.4 to 1 meter. Stems are prickly and covered with soft short hairs. Leaves are ovate to oblong-ovate, broad as they are long, 10 to 25 centimeters long, armed on both surfaces with long, stout spines, stellate-hairy beneath, and irregularly and shallowly lobed at the margin. Inflorescences are umbelliform and lateral, with 1 to 6 flowers. Flowers are axillary, about 2.5 centimeters long, purplish or bluish. Fruit is fleshy, smooth, purple when ripe, up to 25 centimeters long, extremely variable in shape - rounded, oblong, or cylindric-oblong.

Distribution
- In thickets and waste places along the roads at low altitudes in Leyte; Zamboanga, Mindanao, and Jolo.
- Cultivated in some gardens in Manila and neighboring towns as a curiosity because of the shape of the fruit.
- Introduced from tropical America.
- Propagated by seeds.

Constituents
- Fruit contains trigonelline, choline, vitamins A, B, and C; fat 0.1 percent, and protein 2.2 percent.
- Fruit considered toxic, containing solanine saponin, mallic and gallic acids.
- Fruit yields a glycoalkaloid, solamargine.

- Nutrient analysis per 1 cup/100 g fruit yielded: protein 0.96 g, total dietary fiber 0.78 g, total sugars 3.23 g, calcium 7 mg,
vitamin C 0.05 mg.


Properties
- Fruit considered purgative, phlegmatic, generative.
- Leaves are anodyne, narcotic.


Parts used
Roots, leaves, fruits.

Uses
Nutrition
- Fruit makes an excellent vegetable, the elongated kind is most cultivated, eaten before it ripens, before the seed hardens.
- Good source of calcium, phosphorus, iron, and vitamin B.
The green leaves are a good source of vitamin C.
Folkloric
- Root decoction taken for asthma and as general stimulant.
- Leaves used for hemorrhoids.
- In Costa Rica, decoction of leaves used as remedy for diseases of the kidney and bladder.
- In El Salvador, seeds used as a remedy for colds.
- In Yucatan, decoction of leaves used for cleansing wounds.
- Root, boiled with sour milk and grain porridge used to treat syphilis.
- Juice of fruit with pounded leaves and roots used for a variety of skin diseases.
- Roots, dried stalk, and leaves used in decoction for washing sores.
- Astringent for bladder hemorrhage.
- Decoction or infusion of leaves used for stomach problems.
- Burnt fruit used for liver problems.
- Fruit is cooling, and when bruised with vinegar, is used as a poultice for abscesses and cracked nipples.
- Fruit used for phthisis, cough and loss of appetite.
- The peduncle (stalk of flower or fruit) when burned is used for piles, toothache and intestinal hemorrhages.
- Seeds are used as stimulant but may cause dyspepsia and constipation.
- In Belize, leaf juices rubbed to afflicted areas with athlete's foot.
- In Bolivia, fruit used for scabies.

Others
- Decorative: Fruit collected ripe with the branches used for interior decoration.
- Repellant / Insecticide: Kofan people of Columbia and Ecudaor use the plant as insect repellant especially against cockroaches. (7) Parts of the plant are toxic. Species used as poison against cockroaches, rats, and insects. (Hanelt et al, 2001) ( 11)
- Rituals: Fruits and foliage use as floral arrangements for religious festivals. Fruits use during Chinese Lunar New Year celebrations with the fruit color symboizing wealth. (Lim, 2013) (11)(12)

Studies
Antiproliferative / Indioside D: Study isolated indioside D, a furostanol glycoside from Solanum mammosum and was found to possess antiproliferative activity toward a panel of human cancer cell lines. Results showed indioside D induced apoptosis in HeLa cells via both intrinsic and extrinsic cell death pathways. (1)
Anticancer / Saponins / Solamargine: Of saponins isolated from the fruit, solamargine showed highest toxicity towards HeLa cell line followed by inidioside D, protodioscin, solasonine and pseudoprotodioscin. (7)
Antimalarial: In a study of 46 different species screened for antimalarial activity, Solanum mammosum fruit extract was one of those found moderately active. (2)
Antioxidant Activity: Study by Weitwitayaklung and Phaechamud (2011) reported low antioxidant activity of S. mammosum fruit, with a total phenolic content of 3.08 g/100 g crude extract gallic acid. (7)
Molluscicidal: Steroidal glycoalkaloid mixed from fruits, solasonine and solamargine and the stereoisomeric glycosidic alkaloid tomatine were toxic to Lymnaea cubensis and Biomphalaria glabratus.
(7)
• Solasodine in Steroid Production:Solasodine, present in Solanum mammosum, can be a potential alternative for the high-revenue synthesis of steroid hormones. Study reports on the use of added methyl jasmonate, cholesterol, and L-arginine into the modifeied liquid full-strength MS medium could influence the solasodine production in the hairy roots of S. mammosum. The amount of solasodine ws five times higher than those without both elicitor and precursor treatment. The improved solasodine production with high biomass growth can reduce the production cost of steroid synthesis in the long run. (8)
• Molluscicidal Against Pomacea canaliculata: The species Solanum mammosum, S. saponaria and J. curcas have shown molluscicidal properties against Pomacea canaliculata. Study evaluated a mixture of aqueous extracts of the three plants for synergistic effect between them. Results showed no synergistic effect. The formulations of S. saponaria (1--%) and S. mammosum and S. saponaria (50%-%0%) showed best results with LD 50 of 24.04 ppm and 17.78 ppm, respectively. (9)

Toxicity
- Despite known toxicity some reports list the fruits and leaves as palatable. (Lim, 2013) (12) (11)

Availability
- Wild-crafted.
- Seeds in the cybermarket.

© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Updated November 2017
March 2014



Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Seeds / Solanum mammosum L. - nipplefruit /Jose Hernandez @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Indioside D-Triggered Cell Death in HeLa Cells / Chin Chun Wong et al / J. Proteome Res., 2008, 7 (5), pp 2050–2058 / DOI: 10.1021/pr800019k

(2)
The search for natural bioactive compounds through a multidisciplinary approach in Bolivia. Part II. Antimalarial activity of some plants used by Mosetene indians / Muñoz V, Sauvain M et al / J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Feb;69(2):139-55.
(3)
Indigenous Plants and Schistosomiasis Control in South Africa Molluscicidal Activity of Some Zulu Medicinal Plants / John Ojewole /
(4)
Solanum mammosum as a source of solasodine in the lowland tropics / L. Telek, H. Delpin and E. Cabanillas / ECONOMIC BOTANY, Volume 31, Number 2 (1977), 120-128, DOI: 10.1007/BF02866581
(5)
Isolation of saponins from Solanum mammosum and characterization of their anticancer activity by proteomics / Chi-Chun Wong, Ãpë /
(6)
Sorting EGGPLANT names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia.
(7)
Edible Medicinal And Non-Medicinal Plants: Volume 6, Fruits, Volume 6
/ Tong Kwee Lim / Google Books
(8)
The influence of methyl jasmonate, cholesterol and l-arginine on solasodine production in hairy root culture of Solanum mammosum / Chai Theam Ooi, Ahmad Syahida, Johnson Stanslas, Mahmood Maziah / Engineering in Life Science / DOI: 10.1002/elsc.201500083
(9)
Molluscicidal activity of the aqueous extracts from Solanum mammosum L., Sapindus saponaria L. and Jatropha curcas L. against Pomacea canaliculata / M. Quijano, C. Riera-Ruiz, A. Barragan, M. Miranda, T. Orellana, P. Manzano / Emir. J. Food Agric. 2014; 26(10): 871-877 / doi10.9755/ejfa.v26i10.18804
(10)
Solanum mammosum / Synonyms / The Plant List
(11)
Solanum mammosum / CABI
(12)
Edible medicinal and non-medicinal plants, Vol 6. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer




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