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Family Sapotaceae
Abiu
Pouteria caimito (Ruiz & Pav.) Radllk.
YELLOW STAR APPLE

Scientific names Common names
Achras caimito Ruiz & Pav. Abiu (Tag.)
Achras guapeda Casar. Caimo (Engl.)
Caleatia caimito (Ruiz & Pav.) Mart. Egg fruit (Engl.)
Guapeba caimito (Ruiz & Pav.) Pierre Yellow star apple (Engl.)
Guapeba lasiocarpa (Mart.) Pierre  
Guapeba laurifolia Gomes  
Labatia lasiocarpa Mart.  
Labatia reticulata Mart.  
Lucuma caimito (Ruiz & Pav.) Roem. & Schult.  
Lucuma lasiocarpa (Mart.) A.DC.  
Lucuma temare Kunth  
Lucuma ternata Kunth  
Pouteria caimito (Ruiz & Pav.) Radlk.  
Pouteria laurifolia (Gomes.) Radlk.  
Pouteria leucophaea Baehni.  
Pouteria temare Aubr.  
Richardella temare (Kunth) Pierre  
Pouteria caimito (Ruiz & Pav.) Radlk. is the preferred name. GBIF

Other vernacular names
JAPANESE: Abiu.
PORTUGUESE: Abi, Abieiro, Abiu, Abiurana, Camiteiro.
SPANISH: Caimito, Caimo, Cauje, Madura verde.
TRINIDAD: Caimitt.
OTHERS: Caimitt, Camio, Temare.

Botany
Abiu is an evergreen tree with a dense crown that grows to a height of 6 to 24 meters; in favorable conditions, as high as 35 meters. Leaves are elliptic to oblong, varying in size from 10 to 20 centimeters in length, 3.5 to 65 centimeters in width. Fruits vary in shape, from spherical to oval; vivid yellow when ripe, containing one to four ovate seeds. Seeds are covered by a thin layer of pulp. Flesh of the fruit is transluscent, with a creamy or custard-like texture, with a flavor hinting of rambutan. Not fully ripe fruits yield a latex that stick to lips. Flowers are hermaphroditic, arising singly or in clusters from leaf axils, borne by slender, elongated shoots. Petals are small, four to five, cylindrical, white to greenish in color. Flowers blossom in the morning and staying open for about two days.

Distribution
- Recently introduced.
- Widely distributed throughout Latin America.

Constituents
- Nutrition analysis per 100 g of edible portion yielded: energy 140 cal (588 kJ), protein 1.8 g, fat 0.4 g, carbohydrate 36.3 g, fiber 0.9 g, ash 0.9 g, calcium 22 mg, iron 1 mg, niacin 34 mg, phosphorus 41 mg, riboflavin 0.02 mg, thiamin 0.02 mg, niacin 3.4 mg, vitamin C 43 mg, vitamin A 130 mg, lysine 316 mg, methionine 178 mg, threonine 219 mg, tryptophan 75 mg. (7)
- Oil components of fruit yielded α-copaene (27.7%) as dominant component, with hexadecy acetate (19.0%), and palmitic acid (12.4%). (7)
- Bark extract yielded taraxerol and ß-sitosterol. (7)
- Benzoic extract of fruit revealed the presence of lupeol, a-amyrin, erythrodiol and the rare tetracyclic triterpene Dammaremdiol II. (5)

Properties
- Considered antidiarrheal, febrifuge, anti-inflammatory.
- Studies suggest antioxidant and antidiabetic properties.

Parts used
Fruit, latex, leaves.

Uses

Edibility
- Fruit is edible; eaten raw or used in ice cream, sherbets, and fruit salads.
Folkloric
- No reported medicinal use in the Philippines.
- In Brazil, fruit used for treating coughs, colds, bronchitis, and various pulmonary disorders.
- Latex used for diarrhea and fever; applied to abscesses. (7)
- Used as astringent, anti-inflammatory, anti-anemic, febrifuge, and anti-diarrheal.
Others
- Wood: Wood is durable and straight-grained; used for construction.

Studies
Radical Scavenging Activity / Leaves:
Study evaluated various extracts of leaves of Pouteria caimito for radical scavenging activity. The aqueous extract showed the highest total phenol and proanthocyanidin contents (173.6 µg/mL) and highest radical scavenging activity (ED50=38.1 µg/mL. A hexane extract yielded spinasterol. There was a high correlation between total phenolic and proantocyanidin content and radical scavenging activity. (1)
α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity / Antidiabetic Potential: In a study of several Brazilian plant cerrado species. Pouteria caimito was one of five plant extracts that showed strong α-amylase (IC50=13.6 µg/mL) and α-glucosidase in (IC50=2.50 µg/mL) inhibitory activity.

Availability
Cultivated.

© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

October 2017

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Potential radical - scavenging activity of Pouteria caimito leaves extracts / Cecilia Vilela França, João Paulo Silvério Perfeito, Inês Sabioni Resck , Sueli Maria Gomes, Christopher William Fagg, Carlos Frederico Souza Castro, Luiz Alberto Simeoni, Dâmaris Silveira** / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science Vol.6 (07). pp.. 184 - 188, July 2016 / DOI: 10.7324//JJAPS..22016.60727
(2)
Sorting Pouteria names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia.
(3)
Pouteria caimito / Useful Tropical Plants
(4)
Pouteria caimito / Synonyms / GBIF
(5)
TRITERPENES FROM POUTERIA CAIMITO / R. Pellicciari, A. Ardon, V. Bellavita / Planta Med 1972; 22(6): 196-200 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0028-1099603
(6)
Inhibitory activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase by plant extracts from the Brazilian cerrado. / Luiz Alberto Simeoni, Elton Clementino Silva, Damaris Silveira / Planta Med 2012 Mar 1;78(4):393-9
(7)
Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants: Vol 6, Fruits / T K Lim / Google Books

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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