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Family Lauraceae
Abukado
Persea americana Mill.
AVOCADO
You li

Scientific names Common names
Laurus persea Linn. Abukado (Tag.)
Persea americana Mill. Abokado (Ceb.) 
Persea drymifolia Schltdl. & Cham. Aguacate (Span.) 
Persea edulis Raf. Alligator pear (Engl.) 
Persea gigantea L. O. Williams Avocado (Engl.) 
Persea gratissima C. F. Gaertn.  
Persea leiogyna S. F. Blake  
Persea nubigena L. O. Williams  
Persea paucitriplinervia Lundell  
Persea steyemarkii C. K. Allen  
Persea americana is the preferred name. Tropicos resource / EOL

Other vernacular names
AMHARIC: Avocado.
BURMESE: Htaw bat, Kyese.
CHINESE:Zhang li, Huang you li, Lao li, Xi yin du lao li, E li, You li.
CREOLE: Zaboka.
CROATIAN : Americhki avokado.
DANISH: Avocado, Avogatpære.
DUTCH: Advocaat.
FRENCH: Avocat, Avocatier, Zabelbok, Zaboka.
GERMAN: Alligatorbirne, Avocado, Avocadobaum, Avocadobirne, Avocato-Birne.
HUNGARIAN: Avokado.
INDONESIA: Adpukat, Avokad.
ITALIAN: Avocato.
JAPANESE: Abokado, Perusea.
KHMER: 'avôkaa.
KOREAN: Ah bo k'a do .
MALAY: Adpukat, Avocad, Aviokad, Bash apukado, Buah mantega, Buah apokat.
NORWEGIAN: Avokado.
PORTUGUESE: Abacate, Abacateiro.
RUSSIAN: Avokado.
SPANISH: Aguacate, Cura, Cupandra, Devora, Okh, Palta, Pagua, Sikia
THAI: Awokhado.
VIETNAMESE: Bó, Lê daù.

Botany
Abukado is a medium-sized tree reaching a height of up to 10 to 15 meters. Leaves are alternate, leathery, oblong to oval or obovate, about 20 centimeters long. Flowers are small, yellow, borne in naked, panicled hairy cymes. Stamens are 12, in groups of 3 in 4 whorls. Fruit is large, fleshy, elongated, of various sizes and shapes, often resembling a pear, 8 to 18 centimeters long, some weighing as much as two kilos, soft and edible, with a nutty flavor, color varying from yellow-green to purple.

Distribution
- Introduced from tropical America before the end of the sixteenth century.
- Now extensively cultivated in the Philippines for its edible fruit.
-
Usually grown from seeds, but may be propagated by budding, grafting, and marketing.

Constituents
- Fruit: fixed oil, 6-10%; protein 1.3-6%.
- Leaves contain a volatile oil,, 0.5%, with methyl-chavicol, d-d-pinene and paraffin.
- Leaves yielded isorhamnetin, luteolin, rutin, quercetin and apigenin.
- Seed is rich in saponins, tannins, flavonoids and alkaloids.
- Study of seed extract yielded alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, cyanogenic glycosides. Proximate analysis yielded moisture, 12.90± 1.57%; crude fat, 18.53 ±0.26%; crude protein, 18.55 ±1.26%; carbohydrate, 47.35±24%; ash, 2.6±0.63%; and crude fiber, 3.17 ±0.17%. Mineral content showed calcium 12.30±0.08 mg; iron 0.307±0.13 mg; magnesium 21.12 ±3.86 mg; phosphorus 46.00 ±1.72 mg; potassium 103.8±0.22 mg; sodium 0.302±0.02 mg; and zinc 0.087±0.01 mg per 100 gm weight. (34)
- Phytochemical constituent analysis of leaf, fruit, and seed (mg/100g) yielded: saponins 1.29±0.08 L, 0.14±0.01 F, 19.21±2.81 S; tannins 0.68±0.06 L, 0.12±0.03 F, 0.24±0.12 S; flavonoids 8.11±0.014 L, 4.25±0.16 F, 1.90±0.07 S; cyanogenic glycosides ND L & F, 0.06±0.02 S; alkaloids 0.51±0.21 L, 0.14 F, 0.72±0.12 S; phenols 3.41±0.64 L, 2.94±0.13 F, 6.14±1.28 S; steroids 1.21±0.14 L, 1.88±0.19 F, 0.09 S. (42)
- Leaf and bark extracts yielded saponins, tannins, flavonoids, and terpenoids. (see study below) (42)
- The fruit yields a caloric density of 1.7 kcal per gram and a half unit (± 70 g) yields 114 kcal, 4.6 g of fiber, 345 mg potassium, 19.5 mg of magnesium, 1.3 mg vitamin E and 57 mg of phytosterols. About 75% of fiber contents are insoluble, 25% are soluble. Lipids are 71% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), 13% polyunsaturated (PUFA), and 16% saturated (SFA). (see study below) (49)

Properties
- Digestive, emmenagogue, antibacterial, antioxidant, antifungal, pectoral, stomachic, anthelmintic, antiperiodic, antidiarrheal.
- Pulp considered to have aphrodisiac and emmenagogue properties.
- Seed considered insecticidal, fungicidal, anti-microbial, hypocholesterolemic

Parts used
Bark, fruit, leaves and seeds.

Uses
Edibility / Nutritional
• Fruit eaten with a dressing as a salad.
• Makes an excellent ice cream and dessert.
• A good source of vitamins A, some B, C and E, potassium (higher than bananas) and fiber ; fair source of iron; low in calcium. A fruit with high-energy producing value, each edible pound allegedly provides an average of 1,000 calories.
• Fat content averages about 20 percent and increases with maturity of the fruit. The digestibility of the fat is comparable to that of butter fat.
• The caloric or energy-producing value of avocado is high. One pound of edible portion represents an average of 1,000 calories. The maximum yield is about twice that of lean meat.
• High in fat, about 25-35 gms on average. however, about 65% of it is health-promoting monounsaturated fat, particularly oleic acid.
• Mineral content is considered greater than in any other fresh fruit. Salts of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium compose more than one-half of the ash. It yields an excess of base-forming elements, compared to nuts which furnish an excess of acid-forming elements.
• Protein content, which averages 2%, is higher than any other fresh fruit.
• Leaves used as a substitute for tea.
Folkloric
• The pulp is thought to promote menstruation.
• The pulp is used to hasten the suppuration of wounds.
• The pulp is considered aphrodisiac and emmenagogue.
• Ointment from pulverized seeds sometimes employed as rubefacient.
• Decoction of pulverized seeds used as gargles for toothaches; also, a piece of the seed placed in the cavity of the tooth to relieve toothaches.
• The leaves and bark promote menstruation; the tea has been used to expel worms.
• Used for diarrhea and dysentery.
• Rheumatism and neuralgia: Pulverize seeds or bark, mix with oil and apply on affected area as
counterirritant.
• Beverage: Take decoction of leaves as tea.
• Pulp is applied to shallow cuts, prevents infection.
• Flesh of ripe fruit is soothing to sunburned skin.
• In different parts of the world, has been recommended for anemia, exhaustion, high cholesterol, hypertension, gastritis and duodenal ulcers. The leaves have been reported effective as antitussive, antidiabetic, antiarthritic and anti-inflammatory.
• In Mexico, rind of the fruit used as anthelmintic. In the form of a liniment, used in intercostal neuralgia. Seeds, crude or toasted, are used to treat skin rashes, diarrhea, asthma, hypertension, rheumatism, and dysentery caused by helminths and amoebas,
• In many
African countries used in traditional medicine for gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcers, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, anemia.
• In
Nigeria, seed extracts used for hypertension.

Others
Ink: Juice from seeds yields a milky juice which turns red on exposure; used to make permanent ink for fabric lettering.

Toxicity
• Lactating livestock eating avocado leaves may develop non-infectious mastitis and agalactia.

Studies
Anticonvulsant:
Anticonvulsant effect of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) (Avocado) leaf aqueous extract in mice: In African traditional medicine, Persea americana has been used in various human ailments including childhood convulsions and epilepsy. A study showed that avocado leaf aqueous extract (PAE) produces anticonvulsant effect by the enhancement of GABAergic neurotransmission and/or action in the brain. (1)
Hypoglycemic / Leaves:
Hypoglycemic activity of aqueous leaf extract of Persea americana: A Nigerian study revealed that the leaf extract contained various pharmacologically active compounds such as saponins, tannins, phlobatannins, flavonoids, alkaloids and polysaccharides. Although the results were incomparable to the reference drug (chlorpropamide), it confirms the ethnomedical use of the plant for diabetes management. More studies are needed to identify the hypoglycemic principles and its mechanism of action. (2)
Hypoglycemic / Hypolipidemic:
Hypoglycemic and Hypocholesterolemic Potential of Persea americana Leaf Extracts: A effect of aqueous and methanol extracts of Persea americana on plasma glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-CHOL), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-CHOL) in rats was investigated. Results suggested lowering effects on glucose and lipid metabolism influences with lowering of Total and LDL cholesterols, an effect of HDL-cholesterol and a potential protective mechanism against atherosclerosis. (3)
Antiobesity / Hypolipidemic:
Effects of Persea Americana leaf extracts on body weight and liver lipids in rats fed hyperlipidemic diet: The study results hypothesize that P. americana leaf extract increases catabolism of lipids accumulated in adipose tissue causing a decrease in mean body weight gain and raises the question if higher concentrations of the leaf extract would reduce liver levels in obesity and fatty liver conditions.
(4)
Hypotensive / Leaves: Leaf constituents of Persea americana given intravenously induced a marked fall in mean arterial blood pressure lasting 2-3 mins. The short duration was assumed due to rapid metabolism. (6)
Toxicity / Persin: Study of avocado leaves isolated an active principle, persin. Previously shown to have antifungal properties and to be toxic to silkworms. At high doses, persin can induce mammary gland necrosis and myocardial fiber necrosis, the mechanism for which still remain to be resolved.
Cytotoxic/ Antitumor / Pesticidal: Study of unripe avocado fruit isolated three major bioactive constituents which showed activity against six human tumor cell lines with selectivity for human prostate adenocarcinoma, with one compound being as potent as adriamycin. also, one compound was shown to be more effective than rotenone, a natural botanical insecticide, against yellow fever mosquito larva.
Toxicity / Larvicidal / Antifungal: Study of extracts of avocado seeds showed toxicity towards Artemia salina, activity against Aedes aegypti. Extracts were also active against all yeast strains, Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermis. (8)
Vasorelaxant: Study of aqueous leaves extract on isolated rat aorta produced significant vasorelaxation, an effect attributed to the synthesis or release of endothelium-derived relaxing factors and/or release of prostanoids. Extract also reduced vasoconstriction probably through inhibition of Ca influx through calcium channels. (9)
Antimicrobial / Antimycobacterial: Study demonstrated antimycobacterial activity and suggests a potential source for antituberculosis drugs. (10)

Persealide / Cytotoxicity: Study of ETOH extract isolated 'persealide' which showed moderate cytotoxicity against three solid tumor cell lines: human lung carcinoma, human breast carcinoma and human colon adenocarcinoma. (11)
Anti-Viral : Study showed infusion of P. americana leaves strongly inhibited herpes simplex virus type 1, Adenovirus type 3 and Aujeszky's disease virus. (12)

Acute and Subacute Toxicity Studies: Acute toxicity study showed a relatively low LD50 for the seed extract. Treatment for 14 days decreased food consumption, body weight, blood glucose, Hb and hepatic cholesterol levels. (13)
Hypoglycemic / Pancreatic Protective: Study showed restorative effect of the ethanolic extract on pancreatic islet cells. Results suggest a potential for the management of diabetes.(14)
Immunomodulating / Anti-Adhesion Property: Study showed that P americana has the potential to interfere with the adhesion of all the oral bacteria in host epithelial surfaces. Its significant inhibition property suggests that like cranberry juice, avocado juice can also be consumed to avoid urinary tract infections with E coli. (16)
Hypolipemic Effects: (1) Study showed treatment with various doses of a methanolic extract of Persea americana seeds caused a significant reduction in the levels of TC, TG, LDLC, and VLDLC while the levels of HDLC increased significantly. (17)
Antioxidant / Leaves Phytoconstituents: Study of leaves isolated isorhamnetin, luteolin, rutin, quercetin and apigenin. On free radical scavenging testing using the DPPH and H2O2 assays, quercetin showed the highest scavenging activity.
Wound Healing: Study evaluated the wound-healing activity of a fruit extract
in rats. Results showed the rate of wound contraction, epithelialization time together with hydroxyproline content and histological findings support its use in the management of wound healing. (19)
Anti-Ulcer Activity: Study in rats showed both aqueous and methanolic extracts of Persea americana were not potent enough to reduce gastric acid secretion in rats but inhibited histamine-stimulated acid secretion probably by inhibition of H2-receptors. (21)
Chemo-Protective: Studies have shown phytochemicals extracted from avocado fruit selectively induce cell cycle arrest, inhibit growth, and induce apoptosis in precancerous and cancer cell lines. This study suggest phytochemicals from the fruit have a potential as a chemoprotective ingredient for lowering the side effect of chemotherapy like cyclophosphamide in cancer therapy. (22)
Antibacterial / Antimycobacterial: Methanol extracts from both Persea americana and Gymnosperma glutinosum showed to possess antimycobacterial activity. Persea americana showed higher antimicrobial activity against the mycobacteria strains.
Liver-Kidney Effects: Study evaluated the histopathologic effects of P. americana leaf extract on liver and kidneys of rabbits. Histopath of the liver and kidney of recommended and high dosage groups were not different from the control suggesting the plant extract to be beneficial, except for loose stool suggesting increased bowel emptying. (23)
Wound Healing Benefits / Oil: Study showed avocado oil is rich in oleic acid and essential fatty acids. When used in natura or in pharmaceutical formulations for topical use, avocado oil can promote increased collagen synthesis and decrease the numbers of inflammatory cells during the wound healing process.
(26)
Anti-Hyperlipidemic Activity / Leaf Extract: Study evaluated the anti-hyperlipidemic activity of a methanol leaf extract in cholesterol-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Results showed a dose-dependent reversal of hyperlipidemic by the methanol extract of leaves. The MEPA also caused a dose-dependent reduction of plasma lipid peroxidation in rats. The anti-hyperlipidemic effect was comparable to standard drug cholestyramine. (27)
Anti-Ulcer / Leaves: Study of an aqueous extract of leaves against ethanol/Hcl and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer showed anti-ulcer effects, with significant reduction of ulcer index, possibly through a decrease in gastric secretion. (28)
Antiprotozoal / Antimycobacteria / Seeds: Study of chloroformic and ethanolic extracts of seeds showed significant activity against E. histolytica, G. lamblia, and T. vaginalis. The chloroformic extract inhibited the growth of M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Results showed amoebicidal, giardicidal and antimycobacterial activities. (29)
Hypotensive / Seeds: Study of aqueous seed extract showed reduction of blood pressure in normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats, possibly through reduction of heart rate. (30)
Cardiotoxicity of Acetogenins: Study evaluated a new acetogenins-enriched extract from the seed of Persea americana to investigate its toxicity on cardiac tissue. Results showed the acetogenins-enriched extract could directly modulate permeability transition, resulting in cardiotoxicity. (31)
Hypolipidemic / Seeds: Study evaluated the effect of avocado seed flour (ASF) on lipid levels of mice on a hyperlipidemic diet. Treatment with ASF significant reduced the levels of total cholesterol, LDL-C, and prediction of the atherogenic index. The effect was attributed to the antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds and dietary fiber in ASF. (33)
Antidiabetic / PTP1B Inhibitory Effect: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of leaves and its fractions for inhibitory activity on protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) as target of type 2 diabetes. Results showed promising antidiabetic property with concentration dependent inhibition of the enzymatic activity of PTP1B. PTP1B (protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B) has been implicated in the negative regulation of insulin signaling by dephosphorylating the insulin receptor and its substrate. In addition to insulin sensitization, inhibition of of PTPB1 also has potential benefit for weight loss. (35)
Antisickling Property: Study evaluated the antisickling properties of crude juice extracts of edible portions of three commonly consumed tropical fruits, viz., Persia americana, Citrus sinensis, and Carica papaya, alongside a new drug preparation Ciklavit which has antisickling activity. Results showed Ciklavit produced the highest level of antisickling effect, followed by the alkaline and alcoholic extracts of P. americana. (36)
• Antihepatotoxic: Study of methanolic extract showed antihepatotoxic activity in rats with acute paracetamol intoxication. The activity was attributed to the antioxidant action of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase, which are primary intracellular defense mechanisms to cope with increased oxidant stress. (Martins Ekor et al) (38)
• Acute Toxicity Study / Non-Genotoxic / Seed:The ethanolic extract of seed showed an acute toxic effect at concentration starting at 500 mg/kg. Study showed no genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test in rodents. Lack of in vivo genotoxic activity suggests potential of seed extract as possible food, cosmetic, or pharmaceutical material. (39)
• Hypocholesterolemic / Seeds and Leaves: Study evaluated the effects of aqueous extracts of leaves and seeds on cholesterol and various enzyme markers. Results showed a hypocholerolemic effect suggesting benefit in the treatment of hypertension and reduction of cardiovascular risks. Prolonged administration of aqueous extracts of leaves and seeds may cause inflammation or damage of liver cells. (40)
• Interactions with Coumadin: Avocado has been reported to decrease the effectiveness of warfarin (Coumadin). Decreasing the effect of warfarin might increase the risk of clotting and might require an change in warfarin dose. (41)
• Antibacterial / Leaf and Bark: Study evaluated the antibacterial activities of methanolic extract of leaf and bark against S. pyogenes, P. mirabilis, S. typhi, K. pneumonia, E. coli, B. subtilis, S. aureus, and P. aeruginosa. The bark extract showed higher antibacterial activity compared to the leaf extract. (42)
• Larvicidal Against Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae / Seeds: Study evaluated the potential larvicidal activity of P. americana seed extracts against A. gambiae 3rd and 4th instar larvae. Results showed dose dependent mortalities after 24 hours at 40µg. LC50 value was lowest for the chloroform extract. (43)
• Effect on Aminotransferase, Cholesterol and Bile Acids in Hypertensive Patients: Study evaluated the effect of liquid extract of leaf on plasma levels of aminotransferases, total bile acids, and total and LDL cholesterol in 50 anicteric newly diagnosed hypertensive patients. Results showed a significant increase in plasma ALT and AST which suggest a toxic liver effect with potential for liver damage. Evaluation of these biochemical parameters are suggest in the use of extract for hypertensive patients. (44)
• Hepatotoxic Effect / Seeds: Study evaluated the hepatotoxic effect of aqueous and phenolic extracts of Persia americana seed. Serum levels of AST, ALT, and ALP were significantly higher in extract groups. Liver biopsy of extract treated groups showed severe degeneration of hepatocytes. Study suggests seeds extracts may contribute significantly to liver damage at higher doses. (45)
• Antivirucidal / Virustatic Anti-HIV Effects / Leaves: Study evaluated aqueous and methanolic extracts of leaves for cellular toxicity and anti-HIV-1 activity both in virustatic and virucidal assays. Results showed moderate anti-HIV-1 activity in vitro. (46)
• Avocado Peel as Tea / Antioxidant: Study evaluated the chemical and mineral composition, total phenolic and flavonoid content and antioxidant activity by DPPH and FRAP assay. Dried avocado peel yielded major phenolic compounds (10,847.27±162.34 mg GAE/kg) and flavonoids (1,360±188.65 mg EQ/kg). Antioxidant activity by DPPH was 1,954 ± 87.92 µmol TE. Results showed good antioxidant activity and good sensory acceptability. (47)
• Antidiabetic / Seed: Study evaluated the effects of aqueous extract of seeds on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Results showed a significant decrease (p<0.001) in blood glucose. The results may be due to certain mineral elements and phytochemicals. (48)
• Avocado and Cardiovascular Health: Review summarizes the potential benefits of avocado consumption in the prevention of cardiovascular risk factors. Studies suggest avocado may improve hypercholesterolemia and be beneficial in the treatment of hypertension and T2DM. (see constituents above) (49)

Availability
- Cultivated.
- Seasonal fruiting.

Updated August 2017 / May 2015

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Anticonvulsant effect of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) (Avocado) leaf aqueous extract in mice /
John A O Ojewole and George Amabeoku / Phytotherapy Research • Vol 20 Issue 8, Pages 696 - 700, 2006
(2)
Hypoglycemic activity of aqueous leaf extract of Persea americana Mill / B S Antia et al / Indian J Pharmacol | October 2005 | Vol 37 | Issue 5 | 325-326
(3)
Hypoglycemic and Hypocholesterolemic Potential of Persea americana leaf extracts / Bartholomew I.C. Brai, A.A. Odetola, P.U. Agomo / Journal of Medicinal Food. June 1, 2007, 10(2): 356-360. / doi:10.1089/jmf.2006.291.
(4)
Effects of Persea americana leaf extracts on body weight and liver lipids in rats fed hyperlipidaemic diet
/
B. I. C. Brai, A. A. Odetola and P. U. Agomo / African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 6 (8), pp. 1007-1011, 16 April 2007
(5)
Effect of Aqueous Extract of Persea Americana Seeds on the Glycemia of Diabetic Rabbits / N'guessan Koffi et al / European Journal of Scientific Research / Vol.26 No.3 (2009), pp.376-385
(6)
A preliminary study on the hypotensive activity of Persea americana leaf extracts in anaesthetized normotensive rats / J O Adeboye et al / Fitoterapia Vol 70, Issue 1, 1 February 1999, Pages 15-20 / doi:10.1016/S0367-326X(98)00015-X /
(7)
Cytotoxic and Insecticidal Constituents of the Unripe Fruit of Persea americana / J. Nat. Prod., 1998, 61 (6), pp 781–785 / DOI: 10.1021/np9800304
(8)
Chemical composition, toxicity and larvicidal and antifungal activities of Persea americana (avocado) seed extracts / Joao Jaime Giffoni Leite et al / Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical 42(2):110-113, mar-abr, 2009
(9)
Vasorelaxant action of aqueous extract of the leaves of Persea americana on isolated thoracic rat aorta / Mbang A Owolabi et al / Fitoterapia Vol 76, Issue 6, September 2005, Pages 567-573 / doi:10.1016/j.fitote.2005.04.020
(10)
Antimicrobial Activity of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) (Avocado) and Gymnosperma glutinosum (Spreng.) Less (Asteraceae) Leaf Extracts and Active Fractions Against Mycobacterium tuberculosis / R Gomez-Flores et al / American-Eurasian Journal of Scientific Research 3 (2): 188-194, 2008
(11)
Persealide: A Novel, Biologically Active Component from the Bark of Persea americana (Lauraceae) / Summary Pharmaceutical Biology / 1996, Vol. 34, No. 1, Pages 70-72
(12)
Flavonol monoglycosides isolated from the antiviral fractions of Persea americana (Lauraceae) leaf infusion / PTR. Phytotherapy research / 1998, vol. 12, no8, pp. 562-567
(13)
Acute and subacute toxicity studies of Persea americana Mill (Avocado) seed in rats / Taha Nael Abu et al / International Journal of Medical Toxicology & Legal Medicine • 2008, Volume : 11, Issue : 2
(14)
Hypoglycemic Effects of Ethanolic Extracts of Alligator Pear Seed (Persea Americana Mill) in Rats / D O Edem et al / European Journal of Scientific Research • ISSN 1450-216X Vol.33 No.4 (2009), pp.669-678
(15)
Interactions of Avocado (Persea americana) Cytochrome P-450 with Monoterpenoid / David Hallahan et al / Plant Physiol > v.98(4); Apr 1992
(16)
AN INVESTIGATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL COMPOUNDS FOR IMMUNOMODULATING AND ANTI-ADHESION PROPERTIES / Nafisa Hassan Ali / Pakistan Research Repository
(17)
Hypolipemic effects of methanolic extract of persea americana seeds in hypercholestrolemic rats / Asaolu Modupe Fisayo et al / Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences Vol. 1(4) pp. 126-128 May 2010

(18)
Bioactivity of the phytoconstituents of the leaves of Persea americana / M A Owalabi, H A B Coker, S I Jaja / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 4(12), pp. 1130-1135, 18 June, 2010
(19)
Wound healing activity of Persea americana (avocado) fruit: a preclinical study on rats / Nayak BS, Raju SS, Chalapathi Rao AV. / J Wound Care. 2008 Mar;17(3):123-6.
(20)
SOME BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE LEAVES AND FRUITS OF PERSEA AMERICANA / Agomuo, E. N., Amadi, B.A. and Duru M. K. C. / IJRRAS 11 (3) ● June 2012
(21)
Effects of Aqueous and Methanolic Extracts of Persea Americana Leaf (Avocado Pear) On Gastric Acid Secretion in Male Albino Rats / Francis S. Oluwole et al / European Journal of Scientific Research ISSN 1450-216X Vol.61 No.4 (2011), pp.474-481
(22)
Avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill) exhibits chemo-protective potentiality against cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity in human lymphocyte culture. / Paul R, Kulkarni P, Ganesh N. / J Exp Ther Oncol. 2011;9(3):221-30.
(23)
Histopathologic Effect of Persea americana Aqueous Leaves Extract on the Liver and Kidney of Weaner Rabbits (California Species) / Adisa, J. O.; Ajayi, Y. & *Egbujo, E. C / .Int. J. Morphol., 29(4):1384-1387, 2011.
(24)
Persea americana Mill. / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
(25)
Sorting Persea names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher, / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
(26)
Effect of Semisolid Formulation of Persea Americana Mill (Avocado) Oil on Wound Healing in Rats / Ana Paula de Oliveira et al / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2013 (2013) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/472382
(27)
Methanol Leaf Extract of Persea americana Protects Rats against Cholesterol-Induced Hyperlipidemia /
O. T. Kolawole*, S. O. Kolawole, A. A. Ayankunle and I. O. Olaniran / British Journal of Medicine & Medical Research 2(2): 235-242, 2012
(28)
Anti-Ulcer Effects of Aqueous Extract of Persea Americana Mill (Avocado) Leaves in Rats / BAMIDELE V. OWOYELE*, ISMAILA K. ADEBAYO AND AYODELE O. SOLADOYE / Comp. Bio. Nat. Pro. Vol. 3—Effects, Safety & Clinical Evaluation (Pt-II)
(29)
Antiprotozoal and antimycobacterial activities of Persea americana seeds / Adelina Jiménez-Arellanes*, Julieta Luna-Herrera, Ricardo Ruiz-Nicolás, Jorge Cornejo-Garrido, Amparo Tapia and Lilián Yépez-Mulia / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013, 13:109 doi:10.1186/1472-6882-13-109
(30)
Effect of the aqueous seed extract of Persea americana mill (Lauraceae) on the blood pressure of sprague- dawley rats / Ogochukwu N. Anaka, Raymond I. Ozolua* and Stephen O. Okpo / African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology Vol. 3(10). pp. 485-490, October, 2009
(31)
Cardiotoxicity of acetogenins from Persea americana occurs through the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and caspase-dependent apoptosis pathways / Christian Silva-Platas, Noemí García, Evaristo Fernández-Sada, Daniel Dávila, Carmen Hernández-Brenes, Dariana Rodríguez, Gerardo García-Rivas / Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes, August 2012, Volume 44, Issue 4, pp 461-471
(32)
Avocado (Persea americana) seed as a source of bioactive phytochemicals.
/ Dabas D, Shegog RM, Ziegler GR, Lambert JD. / Curr Pharm Des. 2013;19(34):6133-40.
(33)
Hypolipidemic effect of avocado (Persea americana Mill) seed in a hypercholesterolemic mouse model.
/
Pahua-Ramos ME, Ortiz-Moreno A, Chamorro-Cevallos G, Hernández-Navarro MD, Garduño-Siciliano L, Necoechea-Mondragón H, Hernández-Ortega M. / Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2012 Mar;67(1):10-6. doi: 10.1007/s11130-012-0280-6.
(34)
Studies on the Nutritional and Phytochemical Properties of Persea americana Seed / LA Nwaogu, CS Alisi, OA Ojiako / African Journals on Line; Vol 6, No 1 (2008) /
(35)
Inhibitory effect of Persea americana Mill leaf aqueous extract and its fractions on PTP1B as therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes / Evangelina MARRERO-FAZ, Janet SÁNCHEZ-CALERO, Louise YOUNG & Alan HARVEY / Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas 13 (2): 144 - 151
(36)
PRELIMINARY IN VITRO ANTISICKILNG PROPERTIES OF CRUDE JUICE EXTRACTS OF PERSIA AMERICANA, CITRUS SINENSIS, CARICA PAPAYA AND CIKLAVIT®. / E.E. J Iweala*, F.O Uhegbu and G.N Ogu / Iweala et al., Afr. J. Trad. CAM (2010) 7 (2): 113 - 117
(37)
Persea americana / Synonyms / Tropicos resource / EOL
(38)
The phytochemical and pharmacological profile of Persea americana Mill / Mohammad Yasir, Sattwik Das, and M. D. Kharya / Pharmacogn Rev. 2010 Jan-Jun; 4(7): 77–84 / doi:  10.4103/0973-7847.65332
(39)
Acute Toxicity and Genotoxic Activity of Avocado Seed Extract (Persea americana Mill., c.v. Hass) / Eduardo Padilla-Camberos, Moisés Martínez-Velázquez, José Miguel Flores-Fernández, and Socorro Villanueva-Rodríguez / The Scientific World Journal, Volume 2013 (2013) /
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/245828
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Effect of the Aqueous Extract of the Leaves and Seeds of Avocado Pear (Persea Americana) On Some Marker Enzymes and Cholesterol in the Albino Rat Tissues / Oyeyemi A. O* Oyeyemi R.B / IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, Volume 9, Issue 3 Ver. I (Mar. 2015), PP 15-18 / DOI: 10.9790/2402-09311518
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Avocado / Interactions / WebMD
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CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PERSEA AMERICANA LEAF, FRUIT AND SEED / Arukwe, U., Amadi, B.A.,* Duru, M. K.C., Agomuo, E.N., Adindu, E. A., Odika, P.C., Lele, K.C., Egejuru, L., and Anudike, J. / IJRRAS 11(2): May 2012
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Persea americana (Mill.) seed extracts: Potential herbal larvicide control measure against Anopheles gambiae Giles, 1902 (Diptera: Culicidae) Malaria vector / Adesina JM, Jose AR, Rajashekar Y, Ileke KD / International Journal of Mosquito Research 2016; 3(2): 14-17
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Effect of Liquid Extract of Pear Avocado Leaf (Persea americana) on Plasma Levels of Aminotransferases, Cholesterol and Total Bile Acids in Hypertensive Patients / Mathew Folaranmi Olaniyan / American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, 2014;  4(3): 87-91 / doi:10.5923/j.ajmms.20140403.01
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Comparative Hepatotoxic Effects of Aqueous and Phenolic Extracts of Avocado (Persea americana) Seed in Wistar Albino Rats / Umar Abdullahi Zakariya, Umar Aliyu Umar, Sabiu Murtala Dambazau* and Abdullahi Sulaiman / IJBCRR, 10(4): 1-6, 2016
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In-vitro virucidal and virustatic anti HIV-1 effects of extracts from Persea americana Mill. (avocado) leaves / M.D. Wigg, A.A. AI-Jabri, S.S. Costa, E. Race, B. Bodo and J.S. Oxford / Antiviral Chemistry &Chemotherapy (1996) 7(4), 179-183
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Use of avocado peel (Persea americana) in tea formulation: a functional product containing phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity / Eliza Mariane Rotta, Damila Rodrigues de Morais, Polyana Batoqui França / Acta Scientiarum / DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v38i1.27397
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Effects of aqueous avocado pear (Persea americana) seed extract on alloxan induced diabetes rats
/ *A. J. Alhassan, M. S. Sule, M. K. Atiku, A. M. Wudil, H. Abubakar, S. A. Mohammed / Greener Journal of Medical Sciences, Vol. 2 (1), pp. 005-011, January 2012.
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Avocado and Cardiovascular Health / Camila Weschenfelder, Júlia Lorenzon dos Santos, Priscilla Azambuja Lopes de Souza, Viviane Paiva de Campos, Aline Marcadenti* / Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, 2015, 5, 77-83 / http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ojemd.2015.57010




 








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