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Family Flacourtiaceae
Flacourtia rukam Zoll. and Morr.

Luo Geng Guo

Scientific names  Common names
Flacourtia edulis Griff. Agasas (C. Bis.) 
Flacourtia euphlebia Merr. Amaiit (Tag.) 
Flacourtia megaphylla Merr. Bitongol (Tag.) 
Flacourtia peninsula Elmer Kalamasati (Sbl.)
Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Mortizi Kalominga (Ig.)
Flacourtia sulcata Elmer Kaluminga (Ig.)
  Kalunga (Ig.)
  Lalamasali (Sbl.)
  Obieng (Ilk.)
  Salabagin (C. Bis.)
  Indian plum (Engl.)
  Indian prune (Engl.)
  Rukam (Engl.)
Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BORNEAN: Tepetatah.
CHINESE: Luo geng mei, Luo geng guo, Shui zhuang, Niu ya guo, Da ye ci li mu.
FRENCH: Prunier café, Prunier de Chine, Prunier malgache.
GERMAN: Madagaskarpflaume.
INDONESIAN: Ganda rukem, Klang tatah kutang, Rokam, Rukam,Tenggolan.
JAPANESE: Jawa rukamu.
MALAYALAM: Shemmanellika.
MALAYSIA: Kupa landak, Rokam, Rukam gajah, Rukam manis, Rukem, Saradan.
SPANISH: Ciruela de Madagascar.
THAI: Khrop dong, Takhop thai.
VIETNAMESE: Mung guan ru'ng.

Amaiit is an erect tree reaching a height of 20 meters. Leaves are oblong-ovate to elliptic, 5 to 18 centimeters long by 5 to 7 centimeters wide, pointed tips, pointed or rounded base, and toothed margins. Flowers are small and greenish, occurring in clusters in the axil of leaves. Fruit is somewhat rounded, 2 to 2.5 centimeters in diameter, light green to dark red, fleshy, subacid and pleasing in flavor. The wild forms are sour.

- In forests at low and medium altitudes in the provinces of Benguet, Pangasinan, Zambales, Laguna, Quezon, Bataan, Rizal and Sorsogon; in Mindoro, Negros, Cebu and Mindanao.
- Also occurs in the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago.

- 100 g of edible flesh yield 94 kcal, 0.5 g protein, 0.6 g fat, 24.2 g carbohydrate, 1.2 g fiber, 33 mg calcium, 0.7 mg iron, 17 mg phosphorus, 171 mg potassium, 5 mg vitamin C, 0.01 mg thiamine (B1), 0.2 mg riboflavin (B2), 0.4 mg niacin (B3), and 30 IU vitamin A.
- Fruit yields secondary metabolites like saponins, flavonoids, polyphenols, and tannins.
- Study of dichlormethane extract isolated monogalactosyl diacylglycerols (1), ß-sitosteryl-3ß-glucopuranoside-6ß-O-fatty acid esters (2) ß-sitosterol (3), and triacylglycerols (4) from the pulp; compound 3 and chlorophyll -a (5) were isolated from the peel; and compound 4 from the seeds. (see study below) (7)

- Considered appetite stimulant, digestive, diuretic, depurative, refrigerant, alexipharmic.

Parts utilized
Roots and leaves.

- Fruit of the cultivated form is edible; eaten raw.
- Used in making jams and pies; also pickled.
- Young leaves and red young shoots are eaten raw in salads and side dishes.
- Rolling the fruit between the palms before eating reduces the fruit's n natural astringency.

- Decoction of roots taken internally by women after childbirth.
- Juice of the young fruit is astringent, used for diarrhea and dysentery.
- Fruit is also used for dysmenorrhea.
- Juice of the leaves is applied to inflamed eyelids.
- In Mindanao, Philippines, the Higaonon tribe of Rogongon, Iligan City, decoction of roots is drunk three times daily for relief of muscle pains over fatigue of "bughat" in women, stomach ulcer, lung infection, to enhance menstruation in women after birth, and for anemia. (3)
- In Java, dried leaves are pounded and applied to wounds.
- In Sabah, roots used for abdominal colic; leaves used for headaches.

- Wood: Wood, hard and strong, used in making household utensils and small furniture.

Chemical Constituents / Biological Activities / Fruit:
Study of dichlormethane extract isolated monogalactosyl diacylglycerols (1), ß-sitosteryl-3ß-glucopuranoside-6ß-O-fatty acid esters (2) ß-sitosterol (3), and triacylglycerols (4) from the pulp; compound 3 and chlorophyll -a (5) were isolated from the peel; and compound 4 from the seeds. Compounds 1-5 exhibited diverse biological activities. Compound 1 has been reported to exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in human articular cartilage and inhibited the growth of human melanoma cells in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 of 114 µM. Compound 1 has also exhibited cytotoxicity against human stomach adenocarcinoma (AGS) cell line and has exhibited potent anti-complement activity. Compounds 2, 3, and 5 have also exhibited biologic activities. (7)


Updated September 2018 / April 2016

LINE GRAPHIC: Digitized and modified from: Minor Products of Philippine Forests / Vol 2 / Wild Food Plants of the Philippines / William Brown and Arthur Fisher / Fig 68 / Flacourtia rukam (Amaiit) / 1920
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Fruits / File:Flacourtia rukam.JPG / Michael Hermann / CC BY-SA 3.0 / Wikipedia
Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Sorting Flacourtia names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
Flacourtia rukam Zoll. et Moritzi (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
Medicinal Plants Used by the Higaonon Tribe of Rogongon, Iligan City, Mindanao, Philippines / Lilybeth F. Olowa, Mark Anthony J. Torres, Eduardo C. Aranico and Cesar G. Demayo / Advances in Environmental Biology, 6(4): 1442-1449, 2012
Flacourtia rukam / Synonyms / The Plant List
Flacourtia rukam / GlobInMed
Flacourtia rukam / Useful Tropical Plants
Chemical Constituents of Flacourtia rukam Zoli. & Moritzi Fruit / Consolacion Ragasa, Jo Madeleine Ann Reyes, Theresa Joyce Tabin, Maria Carmen S Tan, Irving D Chiong, Robert Brkjaca, Sylvia Urban / International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Researc, 2016; 8(12): pp 1625-1628

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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