Coral tree is a flowering medium-sized tree, growing
to a height of 5 to 8 meters.. The trunk is woody with irregular spiny
branches. Leaves have three leaflets, smooth, alternate, up to 6 centimeters
long. Leaflets are dark green, elliptic, acute with entire margins.
Flowers are papilionate, petals 5 centimeters long, separate stamens about 1
centimeters long. Fruits are woody, elongated, cylindrical, up to 3 centimeters long.
- Grown in Baguio gardens.
- Native to South America.
- Contains an alkaloid
with powerful narcotic and purgative effects.
- Yields mellein, nectriapyrone, 4-hydroxymellein, scyoalone, tyrosol,
clavatol, mevinic acid, and mevalonolactone.
- Studies suggest anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antimicrobial properties.
- Considered disinfectant, narcotic, purgative.
In the Philippines,
not known for any medicinal use.
• In Argentina,
used as anti-inflammatory and for treatment of wounds.
• In Brazil,
several Erythrina species are used by indigenous tribes in Brazil as
insecticides, fish poison, medicine, and sleep aid.
• Analgesic: Analgesic properties of extracts
and fractions from Erythrina crista-galli (Fabaceae) leaves:
The study describes the analgesic activity of extracts from Erythrina
crista-galli leaves in experimental mice models. (2)
Antimicrobial / Isoflavonoids: Study isolated isoflavonoids coumestrol, genistein and daidzein from
the acetone extract of E crista-galli leaves. The compounds showed antimicrobial
activity against Bacillus brevis.(9) (3)
Phomol / Anti-Inflammatory: The majority of endophytes isolated from different collections of E
crista-galli are species of the genus Phomopsis. Phomol,
a novel antibiotic, was isolated from an endophytic fungi from the medicinal
plant E crista-galli. (4)
Curarizing Effect: Study evaluated the effect of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of E. crista-galli in cats anesthetized with dial. Extracts produced depression of responses of effectors innervated by cholinergic nerves when the nerves are stimulated by injected by acetylcholine. (7)
Biosynthesis of Erythrina Alkaloids: Study evaluated the Erythrina alkaloid formation in E. crista-galli. (S)-coclaurine as well as (S)-norreticuline were metabolized to erythraline and erythrinine, suggesting a coclaurine-norreticuline pathway. (8)
Pterocarpan Compounds Synthesis / Anti-Malarial: Study yielded sandwicensin (1), a major compound from the stem bark of Erythrina crista galli. Compounds 2 (3-acetyl sandwicensin) and compound 3 (2,7,-dibromo sandwicensin) were synthesized by acetylation and bromination of sandwicensin. Compound 1 from the stem bark and synthesis compounds 2 and 3 showed activity against Plasmodium falcifarum. (10)
• Phenolic Compounds / Anti-Malarial / Antioxidant: Study isolated three phenolic compounds from the stem bark of E. crista-galli: phaseollidin (1), sandwicensin (2), and lonchocarpol A (3). Evaluation for antimalarial activity against P. falcifarum showed IC50 of 1.66, 183, and 1.69 µg/mL, respectively. Antioxidant activity against DPPH showed IC50 of 209.4, 305.6 and 1115.7 µM, respectively. (11)
• Lectin / Matrix for Human Pluripotent Stem Cells: Study reports on an Erythrina cristagalli lectin (agglutinin) (ECA) matrix that supported the undifferentiated growth and significantly increased the plating efficiency of both hESC (human embryonic stem cells) and human induced pluripotent stem cells when used in conjunction with pinacidil. Findings suggest ECA is a potent simple defined matrix for human pluripotent stem cells. (12)