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Family Myrtaceae
Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels

Hai nan pu tao

Scientific names Common names
Calyptranthes capitellata Buch.-Ham. ex Wall. Duat (Pamp.)
Calyptranthes caryophyllifolia (Lam.) Willd. Duhat (Tag.)
Calyptranthes cumini (L.) Pers. Dungboi (Ig.) 
Calyptranthes cuminodora Stokes Duwet (Indon.)
Calyptranthes jambolana (Lam.) Willd. Lomboi (Ilk., Tag., C.Bis.) 
Calyptranthes jambolifera Stokes Longboi (Ilk.) 
Calyptranthes oneillii Lundell Lumboi (Ibn., Ilk., P. Bis., Bik.) 
Calyptranthes pedunculata Forsyth f. Lungboi (Ilk.) 
Calyptranthes tenuis Buch.-Ham. ex Wall. Black plum (English) 
Caryophyllus corticosus Stokes Duhat plum (English) 
Caryophyllus jambos Stokes Indian blackberry (Engl.)
Eugenia brachiata Roxb. Jambolan (Engl.)
Eugenia calyptrata Roxb. ex Wight & Am. Java plum (English) 
Eugenia caryophyliifolia Lam. Malabar plum (Engl.)
Eugenia cumini (L.) Druce  
Eugenia djouat Perrier  
Eugenia fruticosa (DC.) Roxb.  
Eugenia jambolana Lam.  
Eugenia jambolana var. caryophylliifolia (Lam.) Duthie  
Eugenia jambolana var. obstusifolia Duthie  
Eugenia jambolifera Roxb. ex Wight & Am.  
Eugenia obovata Poir.  
Eugenia obtusifolia Roxb.  
Eugenia odorata Wight  
Eugenia tenuis  Duthie  
Eugenia tsoi Merr. & Chun  
Jambolifera chinensis Spreng.  
Jambolifera coromandelica Houtt.  
Jambolifera pedunculata Houtt.  
Myrtus corticosa Spreng.  
Myrtus cumini L.  
Myrtus obovata (Poir.) Spreng.  
Syzygium brachiatum (Roxb.) Miq.  
Syzygium caryophyllifolium (Lam.) DC.  
Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels  
Syzygium cumini var. caryophyllifolium (Lam.) K.K.Khanna  
Syzygium cumini var. obtusifolium (Roxb.) K.K.Khanna  
Syzygium cumini var. tsoi (Merr. & Chun) H.T.Chang & R.H.Miao  
Syzygium fruticosum DC.  
Syzygium jambolanum (Lam.) DC.  
Syzygium jambolanum var. acuminata O.Berg  
Syzygium jambolanum var. axillare Gamble  
Syzygium jambolanum var. elliptica O.Berg  
Syzygium jambolanum var. obovata O.Berg  
Syzygium obovatum (Poir.) DC.  
Syzygium obtusifolium (Roxb.) Kostel.  
Syzygium pseudojambolana Miq.  
Syzygium tenue (Duthie) N.P.Balakr.  
Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
CAMBODIA: Pring bai, Pring das krebey.
CHINESE: Hei mo shu, Wu kou shu, Wu mu, Hai nan pu tao.
FIJIAN: Kavika ni India.
FRENCH: Faux pistachier, Jambolon, Jambolanier, Jamelonguier, Jamelongue, Prune de Java.
GERMAN: Jambolanapflaume, Wachsjambuse.
HINDI: Jamun, Jamun beej.
INDIA: Jam, Jaman, Jambo, Jambu, Jambudi, Jambul, Jamni, Jamuk, Kudijamu, Naga, Nagai, Nairuri, Narala, Nasedu, Nava, Naval, Navvel, Neeran, Neerly, Neredu, Nerlu, Nerula, Phalinda, Pharenda, Phaunda, Sambal.
ITALIAN: Aceituna dulce, Giambolana.
JAPANESE: Janboran, Murasaki futo momo.
KHMER: Pring bai, Pring das krebey.
MALAY: Jambhool, Jamblang (Indonesia), Jambul, Jambulan, Jambulana,Jumbul, Jiwat, Juwet (Bali), Doowet (Indonesia), Djoowet (Indonesia).
MYANMAR: Thabyay-hpyoo.
NEPALESE: Ban jamun, Jambu, Jaamun, Kaalo jaamun, Kainyu, Kako jamun, Kyarnuro, Phaniir.
PALAU: Mesegerak, Mesekerrak, Mesigerak.
PORTUGUESE : Azeitona da terra (Brazil), Jambol, Jambolao (Brazil), Jambulao, Jamelao (Brazil), Jalao, Murta (Brazil).
RUSSIAN: Sitsigium kminovyj.
SAMOAN: Nonu fi1afi'a.
SPANISH: Ciruelo de Java, Jambolan (Costa Rica), Jambolana, Guayabo pesgua, Guayabo pesjua (Venezuela), Pesjua extranjera (Venezuela), Yambolana.
TANZANIA: Mzambarau.
THAI: Hakhiphae, Look hwa, Ma ha, Hwa.
VIETNAMESE: Tram moc, Voi rung.
TRADE NAME: Jaman, Jamun, Jambolan/

Gen info
- Syzygium is a genus of flowering plants in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae, comprising about 1200 species, with a native range extending from Africa and Madagascar through southern Asia east through the Pacific.
- Etymology: The genus name Syzygium derives via Latin from the Greek word syzygos, meaning "joining together or conjunction," referring to the paired leaves.

Duhat is a smooth tree, about 8 to 15 meters high with white branchlets and reddish young shoots. Leaves are opposite, shiny and leathery, oblong-ovate to elliptic or obovate-elliptic, 6 to 12 centimeters long, the tip being broad and shortly pointed. Panicles are borne mostly from the branchlets below the leaves, often being axillary or terminal, about 4 to 6 centimeters long. Flowers are small, numerous, scented, pink or nearly white, in clusters, without stalks, borne in crowded fascicles on the ends of the branchlets. Calyx is funnel-shaped, about 4 millimeters long, and 4-toothed. Petals cohere and fall all together as a small disk. Stamens are numerous and about as long as the calyx. Fruit is oval to elliptic, 1.5 to 3.5 centimeters long, dark purple or nearly black, luscious, fleshy and edible with a sweet astringent taste; containing a single large seed.

• Fairly fast-growing tree with dense crown, reaches full size in 40 years. Typically forks into multiple trunks at around 0.9-1.5m near the ground. Foliage: Mature leaves glossy dark green with yellow mid-rib, young leaves pinkish, scented like turpentine. Flowers: Flowers small, produced in powderpuff inflorescences, fragrant. aging from creamy-white to rose-pink before dropping off. Fruit: Fruit formation occurs around 32 days after flowering. Fruits are fleshy, obong berries (2 x 1.7cm), ripening from green to purplish-red to shiny purplish-black. 

- Introduced into the Philippines.
- Found throughout the Philippines, planted, and in many regions spontaneous.
- Probably of prehistoric introduction from Malaya.
- Native to
Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Hainan, India, Jawa, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Queensland, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Thailand, Vietnam. (25)

- Early study of seeds yielded neither alkaloid nor enzyme, but an abundance of starch and tannin. Proximate analysis showed: Moisture 8.0, starch (diatase) 41.4, crude fiber 2.3, pentosans 2.1, protein 6.3, ash 2.9, dextrin 2.1, and tannin 6.0.
- Seeds yield glycosides, a trace of pale yellow essential oil, fat, resin, albumin, chlorophyll2, an alkaloid- jambosine3, gallic acid, ellagic acid, corilagin and related tannin,3,6-hexahydroxydiphenoylglucose and its isomer 4,6- hexahydroxydiphenoylglucose, 1-galloylglucose, 3-galloylglucose, quercetin and elements such as zinc, chromium, vanadium, potassium and sodium. Unsaponifiable matter of seed fat contains β-sitosterol.
- Phytochemical screening of the seeds yielded alkaloids, proteins and amino acids, flavonoids, phenols, glycosides, saponins, tannins, steroids, triterpenoids.
- Mineral analysis showed calcium to be abundant in all fruit parts (pulp, kernel, and seed coat)
and extracts. Fresh pulp was rich in carbohydrates, protein, and minerals. Total phenolics, anthocyanins, and flavonoid contents of pulp were 3.9 ±0.5, 1.34 ±o.2 and 0.07 ±0.04 g kg (-1), respectively. Kernel and seed coat contained 9.0 ± 0.7 and 8.1 ± 0.8 g kg (-1) total phenolics, respectively. (see study below)
- Proximate composition of fresh jamun seed yielded (g/100g of seed dry basis) moisture 47.0, carbohydrate 72.0, protein 6.8, fat 0.35, crude fiber 2.9, ash 2.0. (29)
- Proximate analysis of fruit pulp composition yielded moisture content of 82.19±2.46%, crude protein 2.15±0.06%, crude fat 0.83±0.02%, crude fiber 1.76±0.05%, ash 2.04±0.06%, and NFE (nitrogen free extract) 11.03±0.33. Jamun seed yielded moisture of 16.34±0.49, crude protein 1.97±0.59%, crude fat 0.65±0.01%, crude fiber 4.19±0.12%, ah 2.18±0.06 and NFE 74.67±2.24%. (38)
- Study of pet-ether and carbon tetrachloride soluble fractions of seeds isolated secondary metabolites viz. 7-hydroxycalamenene, methyl-ß-orsellinate, ß-sitosterol, and oleanolic acid. (42)
- In a study five extraction solvent of leaves for phytoconstituents, ethanolic and methanolic extracts contained most of the phytochemical constituents viz., alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, phenols, proteins, triterpenoids, steroids, fixed oils and fats. (51)
- In a study of various extracts for antioxidant activity, a methanol extract showed the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents at 474 ± 2.2 mg GAE/ g dw and 668 ± 1.4 mg QUE/g dw, respectively. (see study below) (52)

- Considered astringent, carminative, stomachic, diuretic, anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal.
- Studies have shown anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, radioprotective, gastroprotective, antioxidant, CNS depressant, anti-allergic, anti-cancer, antibacterial, cardioprotective, antihypertriglyceridemic, biosorbent, antiseptic, diuretic, immunomodulatory, antihypertensive properties.

Parts used
Fruit and bark.

Edibility / Nutrition
- One of the most popular fruits in the Philippines.
- Ripe fruit is eaten outright.
- Juice can be made into wine; used in the manufacture of red wine, "tinto dulce."
- Fruit is a good source of calcium and a fair source of iron.
- In Malaya, vinegar is made from the juice of the unripe fruit.
- In the Philippines, decoction of bark given internally for dysentery.
- Bark decoction also used as an enema.
- Diarrhea: Liberal amounts of the fleshy portion of the fruit.
- Decoction of the bark used as a gargle or mouthwash for gingivitis and mouth ulcerations.
- Fresh juice of the bark given with goat's milk for diarrhea in children.
- Bark decoction as an astringent wash for wounds.
- Ripe fruit is astringent and considered an efficient remedy for diabetes. Decoction of leaves and bark also used for the same purpose, but the ripe fruit is considered the best.
- Pulverized dried seeds also used for diabetes.
- Powdered seeds and root-bark used for diarrhea.
- In India, seeds used for diabetes. Bark used for diarrhea, dysentery, and spongy gums. Poultice of leaves used for skin complaints. Powdered seeds also used for metrorrhagia.
- In Unani medicine, seeds used as liver tonic, to enrich the blood, strengthen the teeth and gums, and as lotion to remove ringworm of the head.
- Fruit is used as astringent in bilious diarrhea; used as a gargle for sore throat and as lotion in tinea capitis.
- Vinegar prepared from juice of the ripe fruit used as stomachic, carminative, and diuretic.
- Juice of leaves, alone or with other
, used for dysentery.
- Bark used for sore throats, indigestion, appetite loss, leucorrhea, bronchitis, asthma, ulcers and dysentery.
- In Brazil, leaves and fruits used to treat infectious diseases, diabetes and stomachaches.
- Wine: Wine and fruit drink from the ripe fruits.
- Fodder:
Leaves used as food for livestock.
- Wood: Wood is water resistant after being kiln-dried; used in railway sleepers and to install motors in wells. Not easy for carpentry use; used for making cheap furniture.
- Cultural: In Maharashtra, Syzygium leaves are used in marriage pandal decorations.
- Religious: Many Hindus refer to the plant as "fruit of the gods" because the Lord Rama is said to have subsisted on the fruit in the forest for 15 years during his exile from Ayodhya.

Anti-Diabetes / Bark: Animal study of aqueous extract from SC bark showed stimulation of development of insulin positive cells from the pancreatic duct epithelial cells.
Anti-Diabetic / α-Glucosidase / Seed Kernels: Study of SC seed kernel extracts in vitro and in Goto–Kakizaki (GK) rats
showed inhibition of a-glucosidase as a possible mechanism for its anti-diabetic effect. (3)
Phytochemicals: Investigation on a Tropical Plant, Syzygium cumini from South India: Phytochemical screening of extracts of Syzygium cumini seed revealed alkaloids, amino acids, phytosterols, saponins, steroids, tannins and triterpenoids. These phytochemicals probably explain the plants medicinal properties. (4)
Anti-inflammatory / Seeds: The study on SC extracts established the anti-inflammatory activity of the SC seed.
Radioprotective: Study evaluated the
influence of a seed extract of Syzygium Cumini (Jamun) on mice exposed to different doses of .GAMMA.-radiation : SCE treatment protected mice against radiation sickness and mortality against all doses and showed an increase survival. (6)
Gastroprotective / Bark: The gastroprotective effect of tannins extracted from duhat (Syzygium cumini Skeels) bark on HCl/ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in Sprague-Dawley rats: The study suggests the tannins extracted from SC have gastroprotective and anti-ulcerogenic effects.(7)
Antioxidant / Tannins / Fruits: Study isolated tannins from the fruit of SC and suggests the use of the fruit as a significant source of natural antioxidants.

Antioxidant / Fruit Study showed a significant correlation between extract concentration and percentage of free radical inhibition or lipid peroxidation. Authors suggest the antioxidant property of the fruit skin may come in part from the antioxidant vitamins, phenolics, tannins and anthocyanins present in the fruit. (12)
Red Wine Source: Study prepared a red wine from the anthocyanin-rich fruit of SC through fermentation using wine yeast.
Depressant Central Nervous System Activity: Animal study of seed extract of SC showed dose-dependent depressant effect of locomotion attributed to the presence of saponins. (10)
α-Amylase Inhibition / Anti-Hyperglycem
ic / Seeds: Study of 11 medicinal plants showed Syzygium cumini seeds with strong inhibition of a-amylase activity. Crude ethanolic and aqueous extracts reduced glycemia of diabetic rats. The bark showed anti-hyperglycemic activity on oral glucose tolerance testing. Seed extract yielded betulinic acid and 3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxy flavanone. The compound showed high a-amylase inhibitor activity, but the inhibitory activity of the individuals compounds needs further testing and verification. (11)
Anti-Cervical Cancer: Study of Z cumini extract showed inhibition of growth and induction of apoptosis in HeLa and SiHa cervical cancer cell lines in a time- and dose-dependent manner. (13)
Anti-Allergic: Study of on the aqueous leaf extract of Syzygium cumini showed the main components to be hydrolyzable tannins and flavonoids. Results showed inhibition of paw edema, edema induced by histamine, prevention of mast cell degranulation and consequent histamine release in Wistar rat peritoneal mast cells. The findings demonstrate an anti-allergic effect; the anti-edematogenic effect is attributed to inhibition of mast cell degranulation.
Prophylactic Anti-Septic Effect: Study concluded that treatment with S. jambolanum has a potent prophylactic anti-septic effect not due to a direct microbicidal effect but rather, associated with a recruitment of activated neutrophils to the infectious site and to a diminished anti-inflammatory response.
Antibacterial / Glucoamylase Inhibitor / Anti-Diabetic / Seeds: Study of ethanol extract of seeds showed moderate to good antibacterial activity against E. coli, B subtilis, P aeruginosa and S aureus. It also showed to be a potent inhibitor of glucoamylase and suggests a hypoglycemic function in type-2 diabetes that may be independent of functioning B-cells.
Cardioprotective / Seeds: Study of a methanolic extract of SC seeds on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats confirmed a cardioprotective effect.
Radioprotective: Study demonstrated jamun extract protected mice against radiation-induced DNA-damage and inhibition of radiation-induced free radical formation may be one of the mechanisms of radioprotection.
Randomized, Double-blind, Double-Dummy, Controlled Diabetic Trial / No Antihyperglycemic Effect: Results showed significant reduction in patients treated with glyburide, with no changes in those treated with Syzgium cumini tea. The tea and extracts prepared from leaves of S. cumini were shown to be pharmacologically inert, showing no antihyperglycemic effect.
Anti-Vibrio Cholera Activity: Study investigated the ethanol extract of leaf of Syzgium cumini against Vibrio cholerae serogroups Ogawa and Inaba. The EEL effectively inhibited the growth of both serogroups, with fragmentation of genomic DNA. Results showed potential growth inhibitory activity against multi drug resistant Vibrios, and suggests a potential for effective candidates to combat cholera. (23)
Fruit-Pulp Activity Against Fluoride-Induced Toxicity: Study evaluated the ameliorative effect of SC fruit extract in male albino mice against fluoride exposure. Results showed revitalization of steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis, with ameliorative potentials in male sex related toxicology, with reclamation of spermatogonia and interstitial tissue after jambul extract treatment. (24)
Antioxidant Study / Fruit Pulp, Kernel, Seed Coat: Jamun pulp ethanol extract (PEE), kernel ethanol extract (KEE), and seed coat ethanol extract (SCEE) showed high degree of phenolic enrichment. An alcoholic extract was evaluated for antioxidant potential against DPPH, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, peroxide radicals, and lipid peroxidation. (see constituents above) (26)
Diuretic / Bark: Study evaluated the diuretic activity of various extracts of bark of S. cumini in Wistar albino rats. Results showed the methanol and aqueous extracts possess diuretic activity as evidenced by increase in total urine output, significant increase in excretion of sodium and potassium. (27)
Anti-Diabetic / Mycaminose / Seed: Study of isolated compound mycaminose and EA and ME of S. cumini seeds against STZ-induced diabetic rats showed anti-diabetic effects with significant reduction (p<0.05) in blood glucose. (28)
Immunomodulatory / Seeds: Mastan et al suggested the methanolic extract of seeds possesses promising immunomodulatory activity. In a hemagglutination reaction and delayed type hypersensitivity response in rats induced by Sheep RBC, there was a significant dose-dependent increase in total WBC, neutrophils and lymphocytes. (Immunomodulatory activity of methanol extract of S. cumini seeds. / Mastan et al / Pharmacogyonline, 2008). (29)
Biosorbent / Leaves: Study reports the adsorption capabilities of S. cumini leaves for crystal violet and eosin B using batch adsorption method. Adsorption of crystal violet was endothermic while that of Eosin B was exothermic, both spontaneous at all temperatures. (30)
Anti-Breast Cancer / Fruit Pulp: Study evaluated various concentrations of methanolic extract of fruit pulp for in-vitro cytotoxicity activity against MCF-7 cells using MTT assay. Cell viability was inhibited to different extents by different concentrations of the extract. (31)
Antimicrobial Cancer / Fruit Pulp: Study of various extracts of stems and leaves showed antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria. Maximum zone of inhibition was seen against routella plantikola. It also showed maximum inhibition against fungal strains Penicillum chrysogenum and minimum inhibition against Candida albicans. (
Biogenic Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles / Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study reports on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Syzygium cumini leaf extract. The synthesized nanoparticles showed effective antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacterial species. (
Cuminoside / Cardioprotective / Antidiabetic / Seeds: Study evaluated the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of S. cumini seeds in normal and NIDDM in rats. Study isolated an active principle, Cuminoside, which caused significant reduction in FBS in diabetic rats, significant reduction in total cholesterol, LDL, ALT, AST, and LDH, together with improvement in HDL levels. Results suggest cuminoside has cardioprotective potential and antidiabetic activity. (
Protection Against Diabetes Induced Ulcerogenic Stimuli / Seeds: Study evaluated the protective effect of E. jambolana alone and in combination with Acarbose in T2D rats exposed to models which caused ulcerogenic stimuli. Results suggest the concurrent administration of S. cumini and Acarbose at low doses may have prevented the development of diabetes induced ulcerogenic stimuli by decreasing gastric oxidative stress and providing a direct gastroprotective action. The low dose combination may have provided a synergistic ulcer protective effect. (
Effect of Prolonged Treatment with S. cumini on Salivary Glands: Study evaluated the effects of prolonged treatment with S. cumini sheet aqueous extract on the structure of cells responsible for secretory process in parotid and submandibular salivary glands of spontaneously diabetic mice. Results showed structural alterations in the salivary glands of mice with nuclear and cytoplasmic atrophy and occurrence of inflammatory cells and elevated blood sugar levels. (
Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study of methanol extract of leaves showed the SC leaf had remarkable acute (carrageenan, histamine, and serotonin induced rat paw edema) and chronic (cotton pellet induced rat granuloma) anti-inflammatory actions in the tested rodent models. (
37) Study evaluated ethanol extract of leaves for anti-inflammatory activity and bioactive compounds. Bioactive compound tannins at concentration of 100 µg/ml showed 99.50% inhibition of heat-induced protein denaturation compared with standard aspirin at 89.26%. In HRBC membrane stabilization activity, tannins at 1 mg/ml showed 82.94% protection of HRBC membrane, compared to standard diclofenac at 70.41%. (71)
Antihypertensive / Leaves: Study evaluated the in vivo potential antihypertensive effect of hydroalcoholic extract of SC leaves in normotensive Wistar rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), and in vitro effect on vascular reactivity of resistance arteries. Results showed reduction of blood pressure and heart rate of SHR probably due to the inhibition of arterial tone and extracellular calcium influx. (
Platelet Effect / Protection from Oxidative Damage / Leaves: Study evaluated the in vitro effects of S. cumini incubation on platelets from patients with diabetes, to test its efficacy as potential adjuvant therapy. Results showed in Sc activity counteracts oxidative damage by improving platelet function through augmented membrane fluidity and Na+/K+ ATPase activity, as well as functionally enhancing the antioxidant system by increasing NO levels, SOD, and TAC. SC supplementation may have a preventive and protective effect in oxidative damage progression associated with diabetes mellitus and its complications. (
Protective Against Mitochondrial Dysfunction: Study evaluated various extracts of S. cumini and Bauhinia forficata on oxidative and mitochondrial parameters in vitro, as well as protective activities against toxic agents. The major chemical constituent of SC was rutin. S. cumini reduced DPPH radical more than B. forficata, and showed iron chelating activity. Both partially prevented lipid peroxidation. S. cumini was effective against mitochondrial swelling induced by Ca2+. Results suggest S. cumini might represent a therapeutic option for treatment of diseases associated with mitchondrial dysfunction. (
Chemopreventive / Anticarcinogenic / DMBA-Induced Skin Papillomagenesis: Study evaluated the protective effect of S. cumini seed extract against peroxidative damage contributing to skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice. Results suggests an anticarcinogenic effect during DMBA-induced skin papillomagenesis that is mediated through alteration of antioxidant status. (
Radioprotection / Seeds: Study the effect of a seed extract of S. cumini in normal as well as in tumor bearing mice against gamma radiation-induced cellular damage in biological tissues. Results suggest the seed extract has protective effects against radiation induced cellular damage and biological alterations which may be attributed to the scavenging of free radicals and antioxidant properties. Author suggests the seed extract may be used in combination with radiation to protect against oxidative stress and mitigate the side effects of radiation to normal tissues. (
Biosorbent / Seed: Study reports on a very low cost biosorbent from S. cumini seeds for treatment of hexavalent chromium from contaminated waters. (
Antibacterial / Dental Caries / Leaves: Study investigated the in vitro antibacterial activity of leaves of S. cumini against Streptococcus viridans, S. mutans, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and B. subtilis. Aqueous, methanolic, hexane and EA extract of leaves exhibited antimicrobial activity against dental caries causing strains. Results suggest a potential phytomedicine source to cure dental caries. (
Hepatoprotection / Seed: Study of an aqueous extract of seed powder on hepatoprotection in STZ-induced diabetic rats showed a dose-dependent protective effect. (
Sustained Release Matrix Tablets / Anti-Diabetic: Study reports on the formulation of Metformin HCl sustained release matrix tablets using S. cumini as a release rate retarding agent which is also antidiabetic in nature by means of wet granulation method. The antidiabetic activity was evaluated with alloxan model of experimental rats. Results suggest that the S. cumini extract acted as a good release rate retarding agent and showed promising additive antidiabetic activity with Metformin. (
Nephroprotective / Seed: Study evaluated the nephroprotective effect of an aqueous extract of S. cumini seed in diabetic Wistar albino rats. High dose seed extract and standard oral hypoglycemic drugs showed significant decrease in creatinine and urea levels. The seed powder extract showed significant nephroprotective effect. (
Staining Capability / Seed: Study evaluated the staining capability of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from S. cumini, C. blumei, S. pallida and B. vulgaris as dyestuffs on different fungal species. Results showed the extracts have capability to be alternative biological stains to Lactophenol cotton blue in staining Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum. (
• Antioxidant / Leaf Gall Extracts: Study evaluated leaf gall extracts for antioxidant activity using DPPH, nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and FRAP methods. In all methods, the methanolic extract showed the higher antioxidant potential than standard ascorbic acid. The antioxidant activity correlated with the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the methanol extract. (52)
• Anti-Leishmanial Activity / α-
Pinene / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the effects of essential oil and its major component α-pinene on Leishmania amazonensis. Study showed α-pinene was effective against L. amazonensis promastigote forms, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 1.7 µg/mL. The anti-leishmanial effects were mediated by immunomodulatory activity as evidenced by increased in phagocytic and lysosomal activities. (Rodriguez et al, 2015) (53)
• Antidiarrheal Activity / Seed: Study evaluated the antidiarrheal activity of aqueous extract of seed in mice in a castor oil induced diarrhea model and charcoal meal test. Results showed the extract exhibited significant and dose-dependent antidiarrheal effect attributed to an antimotility and antisecretory effect. (Shamuwar et al., 2012) (53)
• Anti-Hyperglycemic / Antihyperlipidemic / Seeds: Study of S. cumini seed extract showed anti-hyperlipidemic and hypoglycemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic mice. SC significantly (p<0.05) reduced serum glucose, TC, TG, LDL, VLDL, and increased HDL. LD50 was found to be 1000 mg/kg. No toxic symptoms were observed at 150 and 250 mg/kg doses. (54)
• Homeopathic Tincture in Diabetes: Study evaluated the remedial effects of homeopathic mother tincture of Syzygium jambolanum on metabolic disorders of STZ-induced diabetic male albino rat. The homeopathic tincture of S. jambolanum showed therapeutic effect on metabolic disorders and oxidative injuries in STZ-induced diabetic rats. (55)
• Antifertility / Seeds: Alcohol extract of seed of Syzygium cumini at 100 mg/kg/day for 60 days showed anti-spermatogenic effect in rat. (Shad et al., 2014) (58)
• Comparative Antioxidant Activity: Study evaluated methanolic extracts of seeds, leaves, fruit pulp of S. cumini. Results showed the total phenolic and flavonoid content in leaves is higher than the pulp and seed extracts. A linear correlation was shown between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity.   (59)
• Antidiabetic / Seeds: Various active constituents in the seeds help control glucose homeostasis through its effects of different pathways of the hyperglycemic process viz., insulin mimetic and insulinotropic effect. It acts as an antidiabetic by stimulation of insulin release from beta cells or by lowering glucose absorption in the intestine, hepatic glucose production, and boosting sensitivity of insulin by enhancement of peripheral glucose uptake and utilization, activation of nuclear PPAR-y. (60)
• α-Amylase Inhibitors / Seeds: Aqueous extract of S. cumini seeds and Psidium guajava leavers showed higher inhibition against porcine pancreatic a-amylase among medicinal plants studies. LC=MS study of seed extract of S. cumini yielded betulinic acid and 3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxy flavanone. The inhibition was non-competitive in nature. (61)
• Improvement in Metabolic and Ovarian Parameters in Obese Female Rats with Malfunctioning of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis: Study evaluated the effects of a hydroethanolic extract of S. cumini leaves in female reproductive impairments in an obese model of neonatal L-monosodium glutamate injection. Results showed the reversibility of the reproductive dysfunctions seen in MSG female rats through ethnopharmacological treatment. It expands the use of HRESc as a prominent tool to treat metabolic and reproductive disorders. Study also provided novel evidence that without a functioning hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis, metabolic improvement is ineffective for estrous activity, but critical for ovarian follicle health. (62)
• Protective Effects of Polyphenol Rich Extract on Oxidative Stress-Induced Diabetes / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-diabetic effects of a novel polyphenol-rich extract (PESc) from leaves in rats with alloxan induced diabetes. Results showed in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of PESc obtained from leaves. Results suggest myricetin, quercetin, and gallic acid compose a phytocomplex with poorly understood synergistic mechanisms. Results suggest the potential use of the novel polyphenol-enricfhed extract from leaves as a source of antidiabetic products. (63)
• Effect of Season on UZV Absorbing Property / Sunscreen Potential / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of season on UV absorbing property of S. cumini leaves collected in summer, winter, autumn, and rainy seasons. Results showed the acetone extract of leaves of rainy season had maximum UV absorbing property. Polyphenol content of the leaves was also high during the rainy season. Study suggests the acetone extract of S. cumini leaves of rainy season may be used as anti-solar agent in preparation of sun screen lotions. (64)
• Effect of Seed Powder on Pancreatic Islets of Alloxan Diabetic Rats: Study of an ethanolic extract of seed powder of S. cumini increased body weight and decreased blood sugar level in alloxan induced diabetic albino rats. The extract feeding showed definite improvement in the histopathology of islets. Significantly, the drop in blood sugar to normal levels after extract feeding was not elevated when the extract was discontinued for 15 days. Results suggest the effect may be curative rather than palliative. Improvements in islet histopathology and glycogen localization suggest the same. (65)
• Antioxidant / Leaves: Study investigated the antioxidant activity of various Syzygium cumini leaf extracts using DPPH radical scavenging and ferric=reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Results showed the ethyl acetate fraction showed stronger antioxidant activity than others. HPLC data showed the leaf extracts contained phenolic compounds, such as ferulic acid and catechin, which are responsible for their antioxidant activity. There was a significant linear relationship between antioxidant potency, free radical scavenging ability and the content of phenolic compounds in the leaf extracts. (see study 59) (66)
• Antibacterial / Antioxidant / Neuroprotective / Stem: Study evaluated the antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity, and neuroprotective ability of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of stem of S. cumini. Results showed antibacterial activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of stems; the alcoholic extract showed maximum activity against B. amyloliquefaciens and S. aureus. A methanolic extract chowed higher level of antioxidant activity compared to the aqueous extract. Neuroprotective activity were observed on rat pheochromocytoma (PC)-12 cell line by giving neurotoxic shock using 6-hydroxydopamine. The ethanolic extract showed maximum number of viable cells, i.e., 75% compared to aqueous extract at 50%. (67)
• Elimination of Deleterious Effects of DMBA-Induced Skin Carcinogenesis / Seed: Study evaluated the inhibition of tumor incidence by hydroalcoholic extract of S. cumini seed in mice on two-stage process of skin carcinogenesis induced by single application of DMBA. A significant improvement in impairment was seen in measures of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, among others. Results suggest possible chemopreventive property against DMBA induced skin carcinogenesis in mice. (68)
• Antihyperlipidemic / Seeds: High cholesterol diet fed diabetic rats exhibited significant increase in serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, VLDL, and high density lipoprotein. Treatment with seed extract significantly decreased TC, LDL, VLDL, atherogenic index, and significantly increased the HDL, HDL ratio in hyperlipidemic rats. The antihyperlipidemic activity may be due to the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, tannins (gallic acid and ellagic acid) and triterpenoids. (
• Vasorelaxant Effect Mediated by Inhibition of Calcium Channels / Leaves:Study evaluated the ability of hexane extract and chloroform fraction of SC leaves in promoting vasorelaxation on resistance arteries rings. Results suggest S. cumini acts as a vasorelaxant agent and interferes with the responsiveness of vascular smooth muscle cell, probably acting on regulation of intracellular Ca2+ levels through voltage operated calcium channels. (70)
• Thrombolytic / Seeds: Study evaluated the thrombolytic potential of an ethanol seed extract of Syzygium cumini. The ethanol seed extract exerted 34% clot lysis from clotted blood in thrombolytic activity test compared to standard streptokinase and control at 79% and 3%, respectively. (72)
• Anti-Inflammatory on Chemotaxis of Human Neutrophils: Study evaluated an aqueous seed extract of S. cumini for anti-inflammatory properties using neutrophil chemotaxis as a model system. Results showed significant inhibition of neutrophl chemotaxis towards a bacteria-derived chemoattractant (f-met-leu-phe). Results suggest the seed extract has potential to elicit anti-inflammatory effects. (73)
• Anti-Arthritic / Seeds: Study evaluated the anti-arthritic effect of oral administration of methanolic extract of S. cumini seeds at dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg on Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) induced arthritis in rats. The methanolic extract inhibited FCA induced arthritis in a dose dependent manner, more significantly (p<0.001) with the 500 mg/kg dose. Extract showed significant effect in preventing rat paw edema volume and improved RBC count, Hb level and ESR to hear normal level. Indomethacin was used as standard. Results showed the ME exhibited significant anti-arthritic effect. (75)

• Reduced Radiation-Induced DNA Damage / Leaves: Study evaluated various concentrations of leaf extract of S. cumini on alteration in radiation-induced micronuclei formation in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Treatment resulted in dose-dependent increase in micronuclei-induction, especially after 25-100 µg/mL extract. Exposure of human lymphocytes to various extract concentrations before 3 Gy
γ-irradiation resulted in significant decline in micronuclei-induction at all drug doses. Frequency of MNBNC did not show significant change up to dose of 12.5 µg/ml compared to spontaneous frequency of MNBNC. The 12.5 µg/ml dose was considered an optimum dose for radiation protection. Study suggests S. cumini protects against radiation-induced DNA damage. (76)
• Apoptosis in Human Oral Squamous Carcinoma Cells: MTT assay evaluated different concentrations (10, 20, and 40 µg/ml) of S. cumini for cytotoxicity against oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. Treatment caused cytotoxicity of OSCC cell line and induced intracellular ROS accumulation. Treatment also caused apoptosis-related morphological changes and externalization of phosphatidyl-serine in OSCC cells. Treatment increased protein and gene expression of cadherin-1. Results showed S. cumini extract inhibits the proliferation of OSCC cells and induces apoptosis through ROS accumulation, and can be used for the prevention of OSCC. (77)
• Antidiabetic Molecular Targets: Study focused on a computational approach to reveal the interaction of molecules of jamun tree with antidiabetic targets. Lamarckian genetic algorithm methodology was used for docking of 22 phytoconstituents with α-amylase, a key enzyme involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Analysis of binding energy of ligands with target receptors was remarkably lower especially for friedelin (−9.54 kcal/mol), epifriedelanol (−8.98 kcal/mol), betulinic acid (−8.60 kcal/mol), beta-sitosterol (−8.56 kcal/mol), petunidin-3-gentiobioside (−7.52 kcal/mol), kaempferol (−7.08 kcal/mol), petunidin (−6.21 kcal/mol), quercetin (−6.03 kcal/mol), myricetin (−5.80 kcal/mol), and bergenin (−5.27 kcal/mol) when compared to the synthetic drug acarbose (−2.43 kcal/mol). Molecules identified from the study could potential lead to design/synthesize antidiabetic drug molecules. (78)
• Benefits toward Metabolic Syndrome: Syzygium is an excellent source of bioactive constituents such as flavonoids, polyphenols, antioxidants, vitamin C, and iron. It has been used as medication for various metabolic issues i.e. diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, obesity, etc. Review focused on its beneficial role against metabolic syndrome, clinical trials on its effect on diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. Clinical studies confirmed the ameliorating effects of Jamun against metabolic syndrome via antioxidation, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, andticarcinogenic, and hyperlipidemic effects. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms of actions responsible for the astounding bioactive properties and health benefits. (79)
• Reversal of Hypertriglyceridemia / Leaves: Study reported on the antihypertriglyceridemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of S. cumini leaf (HESc) in monosodium-glutamate (MSG)-induced obese rats. Study evaluated the molecular mechanisms for the antihypertriglyceridemic effect. The HESc inhibited both expression and activity of hepatic MTP by downregulation of the XBP-1s/PDI/MTP axis, reducing the incorporation of TG into VLDL particles, and consequently lowering the circulating triglyceride levels. Results suggest the downregulation of the XBP-1s/PDI/MTP axis in the liver of MSG-obese rats as a novel mechanism for the antihypertriglyceridemic effect. (80)

- Wild-crafted.
- Seasonal fruiting.

- Extracts and tinctures in the cybermarket.

Updated April 2024 / September 2019 / March 2017 June 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Antioxidant tannins from Syzygium cumini fruit / African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 8 (10), pp. 2301–2309, 18 May 2009
Syzygium cumini and the regeneration of insulin positive cells from the pancreatic duct / Deila Rosely C Schossler et al / Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science, 2004) 41:236-239 / doi: 10.1590/S1413-95962004000400003
∂-Glucosidase inhibitory activity of Syzygium cumini (Linn.) Skeels seed kernel in vitro and in Goto–Kakizaki (GK) rats / doi:10.1016/j.carres.2008.03.003
Phytochemicals Investigation on a Tropical Plant, Syzygium cumini from South India / A Kumar, R Ilavarasan et al / Pakistan Journal of Nutrition . 2009; 8(1): pp 83-8
Anti-inflammatory activity of Syzygium cumini seed / A Kumar et al / African Journal of Biotechnology
. April 2008; 7(8): pp 941-943
Influence of Seed Extract of Syzygium Cumini (Jamun) on Mice Exposed to Different Doses of g-radiation / Journal of Radiation Research, 2005; Vol. 46, N
1: pp 59-65
The gastroprotective effect of tannins extracted from duhat (Syzygium cumini Skeels) bark on HCl/ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in Sprague-Dawley rats
Syzygium - Cumini, (Linn) Skeels
Fermentation of Jamun (Syzgium cumini L.) Fruits to Form Red Wine / ASEAN Food Journal 14 (1): 15-23 (2007)
Central Nervous System Activity of Syzygium cumini Seed / A Kumar et al / Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 6 (6): 698-700, 2007
Identification of a-amylase inhhibitors from Syzgium cumini Linn seeds / K Karthic et al / Indian J Exp Biol, September 2008
In vitro study of antioxidant activity of Syzygium cumini fruit
/ Archana Banerjee et al / Food Chemistry,
Volume 90, Issue 4, May 2005, Pages 727-733 / doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.04.033
Syzygium cumini inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in cervical cancer cell lines: A primary study / D Bar
h and G Viswanathan / eCancerMedicalScience, 2008; 2:83 / DOI: 10.3332/ecancer.2008.83 / PMID: 22275971
Pharmacological study of anti-allergic activity of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels / F A Brito et al /
Braz J Med Biol Res, January 2007; 40(1): pp 105-115/ DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2007000100014
Syzygium jambolanum treatment improves survival in lethal sepsis induced in mice / Marcia CG Maciel, Jardel C Farias et al / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2008, 8:57doi:10.1186/1472-6882-8-57
Sorting Syzygium names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE
PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES OF THE SEED OF SYZYGIUM CUMINI LINN / D C Modi, J K Patel, B N Shah, and B S Nayak / Pharma Science Monitor, Vol-1, Issue-1, 2010
Antibacterial Study and Effect of Ethanolic Extracts of Syzygium cumini Seeds Powder on Glucoamylase invitro / Gangadhar A. Meshram, Sunil S. Yadav et al / J. Pharm. Sci. & Res. Vol.3(2), 2011,1060-1063
Anti-inflammatory activity of Syzygium cumini leaf against experimentally induced acute and chronic inflammations in rodents / Anirban Roy, Sanjib Bhattacharya, Jitendra N. Pandey, Moulisha Biswas / DOAJ, Vol 1, No 1 (2011) / DOI: 10.4081/ams.2011.e6
Inhibition of Radiation-Induced DNA Damage by Jamun, Syzygium cumini, in the Cultured Splenocytes of Mice Exposed to Different Doses of γ-Radiation / Ganesh Chandra Jagetia, Prakash Chandra Shetty, Mamidipudi Srinivasa Vidyasagar / Integrative Cancer Therapies

Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels in the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Results of a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, controlled trial / Claudio Coimbra Teixeira, MD, Letícia Schwerz Weinert, Daniel Cardoso Barbosa, Cristina Ricken, Jorge Freitas Esteves, MD and Flávio Danni Fuchs, MD, PHD / Diabetes Care, Dec 2004; 27(12): pp 3019-3020
/ https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.27.12.3019-a
Leaf Extract of Syzygium cumini Shows Anti-Vibrio Activity Involving DNA Damage / Nazmul Ahsan, Nilanjana Paul, Nazrul Islam and Anwarul A. Akhand / Dhaka Univ. J. Pharm. Sci. 11(1): 25-28, 2012 (June)
/ Khawaja R Ahmad,* Tooba Nauroze, Kausar Raees, Tahir Abbas, Muhammad A Kanwal, Shazia Noor, Shamsa Jabeena / Research report Fluoride 45(3 Pt 2)281–289 July-September 2012
Syzygium cumini / Synonyms / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant studies on Syzygium cumini fruit / Benherlal PS, Arumughan C. / J Sci Food Agric. 2007 Nov;87(14):2560-9. / doi: 10.1002/jsfa.2957.
Diuretic Activity of Different Extracts of Bark of Syzygium cumini Skeels / Chandavarkar Sachin, Mamie Desai S. N. / Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 5 (1), Jan-Feb 2014
Anti-diabetic activity of Syzygium cumini and its isolated compound against streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats / A. Kumar*, R. Ilavarasan, T. Jayachandran, M. Deecaraman, P. Aravindan, N. Padmanabhan and M. R. V.Krishan / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 2(9), pp. 246-249, September, 2008
Nutritive, therapeutic and processing aspects of Jamun, Syzygium cuminii (L.)Skeels- An overview
/ Sneha Sehwag and Madhusweta Das* / Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources Vol. 5(4), December 2014 pp. 295-307
Efficient removal of crystal violet and eosin B from aqueous solution using Syzygium cumini leaves: A comparative study of acidic and basic dyes on a single adsorbent / Arshad Mehmood, Sheher Bano, Aisha Fahim, Riffat Parveen, Shazia Khurshid / Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering, May 2015, Volume 32, Issue 5, pp 882-895
In-Vitro Anti Breast Cancer Activity of Syzygium Cumini Against MCF-7 Cell Line / Gitanjali Tripathy*, Debasish Pradhan / JIPBS, Vol 2 (2), 119-124, 2015
Antimicrobial activity of Syzygium cumini / Aparna Pareek, Rishi Kesh Meena, Babita Yadav / INDIAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH, vol 5, Issue 9, Sept 2015
Modulatory Effect of Syzygium cumini Seeds and its Isolated Compound on biochemical parameters in Diabetic Rats / Mamta Farswan, Papiya Mitra Mazumder, V Parcha, Aman Upaganlawar / Pharmacognosy Magazine, 2009, Vol 5, Issue 18, p 127-133.
Combined Effect of Syzygium cumini Seed Kernel Extract with Oral Hypoglycemics in Diabetes Induced Increase in Susceptability to Ulcerogenic Stimuli / Anoosha Jonnalagadda*, Karthik K Maharaja and Prem Kumar N / J Diabetes Metab 4:236. / doi:10.4172/2155-6156.1000236
Effects of prolonged treatment with Syzygium cumini on the salivary glands of spontaneously diabetic mice / Silva, A., Amaro, EC., Zorzi, SR., Cunha, MR.2, Carvalho, CAF. and Caldeira, EJ.* / Braz. J. Morphol. Sci., 2009, vol. 26, no. 2, p. 62-67
Anti-inflammatory activity of Syzygium cumini leaf against experimentally induced acute and chronic inflammations in rodents / Anirban Roy, Sanjib Bhattacharya, Jitendra N. Pandey, Moulisha Biswas / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/ams.2011.e6
Proximate Composition of Jamun (Syzygium cumini) Fruit and Seed / Ahmad Raza, Muhammad Usman Ali, Tanzeela Nisar, Saeed Ahmad Qasrani, Riaz Hussain and Muhammad Nawaz Sharif / American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 15 (7): 1221-1223 / DOI: 10.5829/idosi.aejaes.2015.15.7.12700
Antihypertensive Effect of Syzygium cumini in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats / Rachel Melo Ribeiro, Vicente Férrer Pinheiro Neto, Kllysmann Santos Ribeiro, Denilson Amorim Vieira, Iracelle Carvalho Abreu, Selma do Nascimento Silva, Maria do Socorro de Sousa Cartágenes, Sônia Maria de Farias Freire, Antonio Carlos Romão Borges, and Marilene Oliveira da Rocha Borges / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2014 (2014) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/605452
Effects of in vitro supplementation with Syzygium cumini (L.) on platelets from subjects affected by diabetes mellitus / Francesca Raffaelli, Francesca Borroni, Alessandro Alidori, Giacomo Tirabassi, Emanuela Faloia, Rosa Anna Rabini, Alessia Giulietti, Laura Mazzanti, Laura Nanetti & Arianna Vignini / Platelets, Early Online: 1–6 / DOI: 10.3109/09537104.2014.980797
Secondary Metabolites from Seed Extracts of Syzygium Cumini (L.) / Md. Al Amin Sikder, Mohammad A. Kaisar, Mohammad S. Rahman, Choudhury M., Hasan, Adnan J. Al-Rehaily and Mohammad A. Rashid* /
Journal of Physical Science, V ol. 23(1), 83–87, 2012
Chemopreventive Action of Syzygium cumini on DMBA - induced Skin Papillomagenesis in Mice / Jyoti Parmar, Priyanka Sharma, Preeti Verma, Priyanka Sharma, PK Goyal* / Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, Vol 11, 2010
Radioprotection by seed extract of Syzygium cumini in normal tissues of fibrosarcoma bearing mice
/ Sharma, Abhilasha; SoyaI, Dhanraj; Goyal, P.K. / Indian Society for Radiation Biology, Delhi (India); K.S. Hegde Medical Academy, Mangalore (India); 90 p; Oct 2013; p. 61; ICRB-2013: international conference on radiation biology and clinical applications; Mangalore (India); 25-27 Oct 2013
REMOVAL OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM FROM CONTAMINATED WATERS USING SYZYGIUM CUMINI SEED BIOSORBENT / Supriya Singh, Alka Tripathi & S K Srivastava / International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science Volume 3, Issue 3, May-June, 2015
Hepatoprotective activity of Aqueous Extract of Syzygium cumini Seed on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetes in Rats / Swadhin Ranjan Behera, Sekkizhar M, Sarath Babu. K / International Journal of Ayurvedic and Herbal Medicine 4:2 (2014) 1470-1477
Formulation And Evaluation Of Sustained Release Matrix Tablets Containing Metformin Hcl And Syzygium cumini / N.Aruna*, M.Kishore Babu / International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archives 2011; 2(3):900-905
Nephro-protective Effect of Aqueous Extract of Syzygium cumini Seed on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetes in Rats / Swadhin Ranjan Behera*, Sekkizhar M and Sarath Babu K / Int. J. Chem. & LifeSci., 2014, 3 (02), 1285-1288
The staining capability of Syzygium cumini (duhat), Coleus blumei Benth (mayana), Setcreasea pallida (purple heart) and Beta vulgaris Linn. (red beets) on Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum and Rhizopus oryzae / Mark Kevin T. Banaag, Michael Darelle E. Corpuz, Karla I. Medalla, Cristina E. Milla,
Mayriel A. Narag, Ma. Katrin A. Nual, Charlene G. Sacedon / College of Medical Laboratory Science - Our Lady of Fatima University
Phytochemical Screening of Syzygium Cumini (Myrtaceae) Leaf Extracts Using Different Solvents of Extraction / Imelda L. Ramos and Teresa May B. Bandiola* / Scholars Research Library: Der Pharmacia Lettre, 2017, 9 (2):74-78
Antioxidant activity of Syzygium cumini leaf gall extracts / Ravi Shankara Birur Eshwarappa*, Raman Shanthi Iyer, Sundara Rajan Subbaramaiah, Richard S Austin, Bhadrapura Lakkappa Dhananjaya* / BioImpacts, 2014, 4(2), 101-107 / doi: 10.5681/bi.2014.018
Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Novel Delivery Applications of Syzygium cumini (L.)
/ Madhulika Pradhan et al. / Ijppr.Human, 2016; Vol. 7 (1): 659-675.
Anti-hyperglycemic and Anti-hyperlipemia Effects of Syzygium Cumini Seed in Alloxan Induced Diabetes mellitus in Swiss Albino Mice (Mus musculus) / Mohd. Sufiyan Siddiqui, Bhaskar Sharma* and Gurudayal Ram / Med Aromat Plants 3:166. / doi:10.4172/2167-0412.1000166
A study of the effect of mother tincture of Syzygium jambolanum on metabolic disorders of Streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino rat / Soumyajit Maiti, Tushar Kanti Bera, Kausik Chatterjee, Debidas Ghosh / Indian J Res Homoeopathy, 2014; 8:129-35, 2014 / DOI: 10.4103/0974-7168.141730
Review Article: Nigerian Folklore Medicinal Plants with Potential Antifertility Activity in Males: A Scientific Appraisal / Linus Chia Saalu / Research Journal of Medicinal Plants, 10: 201-227. / DOI: 10.3923/rjmp.2016.201.227
Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity in Different Parts of Syzygium cumini (Linn.) / Elizabeth Margaret*, A.M. Shailaja and V.Venugopal Rao / Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2015) 4(9): pp 372-379
The therapeutic potential of Syzygium cumini seeds in diabetes mellitus / Kumari Binita, Veena Sharma and Savita Yadav / Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies, 2017; 5(1): pp 212-218
Identification of a-amylase inhibitors from Syzygium cumini Linn. seeds / K Karthie et al / Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, Sept 2008; Vol 46: pp 677-680
Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels improves metabolic and ovarian parameters in female obese rats with malfunctioning hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis / R. O. A. Benevides, C. C. Vale, J. L. L. Fontelles, L. M. França, T. S. Teófilo, S. N. Silva, A. M. A. Paes and R. S. Gaspar / Journal of Ovarian Research, 2019; 12(13) / https://doi.org/10.1186/s13048-019-0490-8
Protective Effects of a Polyphenol-Rich Extract from Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels Leaf on Oxidative Stress-Induced Diabetic Rats / Vinicyus Teles Chagas, Rafaella Moraes Rego de Sousa Coelho et al / Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, Volume 2018, Article ID 5386079 / https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/5386079
Effect of Season on UV Absorbing Property of Syzygium cumini L. Leaves / Prasenjit Mitra, Prasantaa Kumar Mitra, and Tanaya Ghosh / Global Journal of Pharmacyt & Pharmaceutical Sciednces, 2018; 6(3): 555687 / DOI: 10.19080/GJPPS.2018.06.555687.

Effects of ethanolic extract of Syzygium cumini (Linn.) seed powder on pancreatic islets of alloxan diabetic rats / N Singh and M Gupta / Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, Oct 2007; Vol 45: pp 861-867
Evaluation of the Antioxidant Actifity of Syzygium cumini Leaves / Zhi Ping Ruan, Liang Liang Zhang and Yi Ming Lin / Molecules 2008, 13(10): pp 2545-2556 / https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules13102545
A study of antibacterial, antioxidant, and neuroprotective effect of stem of Syzygium cumini / Yash Sharma, Akansha Mehrotra et al / International Journal of Green Pharmacy. Pct-Dec 2017; 11)4): pp 236-243
Elimination of Deleterious Effects of DMBA-Induced Skin Carcinogenesis in Mice by Syzygium cumini Seed Extract / Jyoti Parmar, MSc, Priyanka Sharma, MSc, Preeti Verma, MSc, Priyanka Sharma, MSc, and Pradeep K. Goyal, MSc, PhD / Integrative Cancer Therapies, 2011; 10(3): pp289-297 / DOI: 10.1177/15347354103851
Extract and chloroform fraction from Syzygium cumini leaves with vasorelaxant effect mediated by inhibition of calcium channels / Rachel Melo Ribeiro, Matheus Brandao Campos, Ellen Julli da Silfe Passos Maia et al / African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, March 2018; 12(12): pp 151-158 / https://doi.org/10.5897/AJPP2018.4897
Exploring Anti-Inflammatory Potential in Leaves of Jamun (Syzygium Cumini) / Pooja Patil, Kanchan Magar, Twinkle Bansode, Amit Gupta, Sushma Chaphalkar, Ashok Patil, Anant Sherkhane / IJSRST, 2018; 5(2): pp 90-96
Thrombolytic Activity of Syzygium cumini Seed Extract: An In-Vitro Evaluation / A M Barbhuiya and R Godiya / International Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences, 2019; 9(3): pp 204-208
Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Syzygium cumini on Chemotaxis of Human Neutrophils / Uthayashanker Ezekiel, Rita Heuertz / International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research, 2015; 7(4): pp 714-717
Syzygium / Wikipedia
Anti-arthritic property of methanolic extract of Syzygium cumini seeds / K Eswar Kumar, S K Mastan, K Raghunandan Reddy, G Amarender Reddy, N Raghunandan, G Chaitanya / International Journal of Integrative Biology, 2008; 4(1) / ISSN: 0973-8363
Syzygium cumini (Jamun) reduces the radiation-induced DNA damage in the cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes: a preliminary study / Ganesh Chandra Jagetia, Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga / Toxicology Letters, 2002; 132(1): pp 19-25 / DOI: 10.1016/S0378-4274(02)00032-2
Syzygium cumini extract induced reactive oxygen species-mediated apoptosis in human oral squamous carcinoma cells / Devaraj Ezhilarasan, Velluru S Apoorva, Nandhigam Ashok Vardhan / Oral Pathology & Medicine, 2019; 48(2): pp 115-121 / DOI: 10.1111/jop.12806
DOCKING STUDIES ON ANTIDIABETIC MOLECULAR TARGETS OF PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF SYZYGIUM CUMINI (L.) SKEELS / Smruthi , Mahadevan V, Vadivl V, Brindha P / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 2016; 9(S3) / eISSN: 2455-3891 / pISSN: 0974-2441
Astounding Health Benefits of Jamun (Syzygium cumini) toward Metabolic Syndrome / Maryam Khalid Rizvi, Roshina Rabail, Seemal Munir, Rana Muhammad Aadil et al / Molecules, 2022; 27(21): 7184 / PMID: 36364010 / DOI: 10.3390/molecules27217184
Syzygium cumini Leaf Extract Reverts Hypertriglyceridemia via Downregulation of the Hepatic XBP-1s/PDI/MTP Axis in Monosodium L-Glutamate-Induced Obese Rats / Lucas Martins Franca, Caio Fernando Ferreira Coelho, Larissa Nara Costa Freitas, Antonio Marcus de Andrade Paes et al / Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, Volume 2019; Article ID 9417498 / DOI: 10.1155/2019/9417498
Syzygium cumini / National Parks: FLORA & FAUNA WEB

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants
                                          New plant names needed
The compilation now numbers over 1,300 medicinal plants. While I believe there are hundreds more that can be added to the collection, they are becoming more difficult to find. If you have a plant to suggest for inclusion, native or introduced, please email the info: scientific name (most helpful), local plant name (if known), any known folkloric medicinal use, and, if possible, a photo. Your help will be greatly appreciated.

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