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Family Moraceae
Ficus septica Blanco

Leng guo rong

Scientific names Common names 
Ficus hauili Blanco Abnug (C. Bis.,P. Bis.)
Ficus septica Burm. f. Auili (Tag.)  
Ficus laccifera Blanco Diudiu (Ig.)
Ficus leucopleura F. Vill. Hauili (Tag.) 
Ficus radiata F. Vill. Kauili (Tag.) 
Ficus leucantatoma Merr. Labnog (P. Bis.) 
Ficus philippinensis Bonard Labnong (Tag.) 
Ficus altimeraloo F. Vill. Lagmut (P. Bis.) 
Ficus didymophylla Warb. Lapting (Ilk.)
Ficus rapiformis Rolfe Latayi (Bon.) 
  Liliau (Ibn.) 
  Lio-lio (Pamp.) 
  Liu-liu (Ting., If., Bon., Ilk,) 
  Raya-raya (Ilk.)
  Reya-reya (Ilk.) 
  Ria-ria (Ilk.) 
  Sio (Bik.)
  Tabung (Sul.) 
  Tuliao (Ibn.) 
  Yabnoi (Iv.)
  Septic fig (Engl.)
  Hauili fig tree (Engl.)

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Leng guo rong.
HINDI: Doomar.
TELUGU: Kondaravi.

Hauili is an erect, small tree, growing 3 to 8 meters high, smooth, with more or less hairy young shoots. Leaves are smooth and shining, not all roughened, oblong-ovate to elliptic-ovate, 10 to 20 centimeters long, with tip tapering to a rather sharp point, and the base pointed. Receptacles are axillary, solitary, depressed-globose or turbinate, obscurely ridged or angled, 1.5 to 2 centimeters in diameter, and shortly peduncled.

- In thickets at low and medium altitudes throughout the Philippines.

- Also occurs in China, from Northeast India to Australia and throughout Malesia.

• Phytochemical study isolated isoflavones: ficusin A and ficusin B from the root bark.
• Study isolated two indolizidine alkaloids: a novel ficuseptine and antofine.

• Phytochemical screening of an ethanol extract yielded alkaloids, quarternary base, tannins, 2-deoxysugars and benzopyrone nucleus. (see study below) (5)
• Methanol extract of stems yielded eight new alkaloids, namely, ficuseptines B−D (1−3), 10R,13aR-tylophorine N-oxide (4), 10R,13aR-tylocrebrine N-oxide (5), 10S,13aR-tylocrebrine N-oxide (6), 10S,13aR-isotylocrebrine N-oxide (7), and 10S,13aS-isotylocrebrine N-oxide (8), together with six known phenanthroindolizidine alkaloids. (see study below) (1)

• Diuretic, sudorific, antiherpetic, antirheumatic.

Part utilized
Root, leaves, latex.

· In the Philippines, decoction of roots used as diuretic.
· Poultice of roots used for boils.
· Fresh leaves are sudorific; bruised with oil, used for headaches.
· Leaves applied externally as antirheumatic.
· Roots used for neutralizing toxins; also, for prevention of asthma.
· Fruits used as laxative.
· Latex used for herpes.
· Used by the Ifugaos for diarrhea, cough, malaria and stomach problems.

• Phytochemicals / Phenanthroindolizidine Alkaloids / Stems / Cytotoxicity:
Study yielded six known phenanthroindolizidine alkaloids, eight new alkaloids – ficuseptines B-D, 10R,13aR-tylophorine N-oxide, 10R,13aR-tylocrebrine N-oxide among others – from the methanol extract of stems of Ficus septica. Cytotoxicity of the new alkaloids were assessed in vitro using HONE-1 and NUGC cell lines. (1)
• Phenanthroindolizidine Alkaloids / Leaves / Cytotoxicity: Study yielded phenanthroindolizidine N-oxide, ficuseptine-A together with 18 known compounds from the leaves of FS. Some of the compounds exhibited strong cytotoxic activity against two human cancer cell lines. (
• Mucarinic Receptor Activity: Malaysian study of 224 plant extracts from 50 plant families for muscarinic receptor binding activity showed the greatest inhibition, and with other extracts that exhibited significant muscarinic properties were suggested to be worthy of further investigation. (
• Anti-inflammatory / Phenanthroindolizidine Alkaloids:
Study examined the molecular mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory activity of phenanthroindolizidine alkaloids isolated from the leaves of Ficus septica. Study suggests that it exerts its anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting expression of the proinflammatory factors and related signaling pathways. (
• Antimicrobial / Antifungal / Antiprotozoal:
Study of ethanol extracts of F septica and S foetida showed antibacterial activities, inhibiting the growth of S aureus and E coli. Antifungal assay showed inhibition of Candia albicans. Antiprotozoal assay showed activity against T vaginalis and Entamoeba histolytica. Results suggest the extracts can be used to produce alternative forms of antimicrobials. (see constituents above) (
• Antimicrobial Alkaloids:
Study of methanolic extract displayed intense antimicrobial and antifungal activities. Study isolated two indolizidine alkaloids: a novel ficuseptine and antofine.
• Immunomodulatory / Anticancer:
Previous study has shown anticancer effects singly or in combination with doxorubicin on T47D breast cancer lines. Study in thirty male Sprague Dawley rats showed HIF (hexane insoluble fraction) of leaves has a potential as protective agent combined with doxorubicin. (8)
• Apoptosis / Chemopreventive: Study of ethanolic extract of leaves showed potential as chemopreventive agent with its activity on inducing apoptosis in liver cancer with p53-independent pathway. (9)
• Co-Chemotherapeutic Agent / Leaves / Breast Cancer: Study evaluated the effects of n-hexane insoluble fraction (HIF) of Ficus septica leaves in combination with doxorubicin on cytotoxicity, cell cycle, and apoptosis induction of breast cancer T47D cell lines. Results show the HIF has potential to be developed as co-chemotherapy for breast cancer by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. (
• Toxicity Study / Mutagenicity / Antifungal: Study of dried leaf extract showed no toxicity at upper limit dose of 5000 mg/kg. The AMES test showed the leaf extract to be mutagenic against Salmonella typhimurium TA98. Antifungal activity was done using Kirby-Bauer Method with an active zone of 16.67 mm (C. albicans). (
• In Vitro Immunomodulatory Effect / Flavonoid and Phenolic Content: Study of various fractions of ethanolic extract exhibited increase in lymphocyte proliferation and macrophage phagocytosis activity. The ethyl acetate soluble fraction, with its phenolics and flavonoids, showed the highest immunomodulatory effect. (
• Antioxidant / Hepatoprotective: Study evaluated the antioxidant properties of leaf extract of F. septica and vine bark extract from U. perrottetti by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, as by-products of lipid peroxidation, in the liver of ICR mice. Extract treated mice had lower MDA levels with various signs of histological cellular repair. Results suggested hepatoprotection. (
• Antiangiogenic Activity::
Study evaluating the potential of leaves of various plants, including Ficus septica Burm. f., for angiosuppressive activity. All the extracts tested except for P. laevigata can reduce CAM (chorio-allantoic membrane) vascular density pointing to an antiangiogenic activity. (


Last Update August 2015

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Phenanthroindolizidine Alkaloids from the Stems of Ficus septica / Amooru G. Damu, Ping-Chung Kuo et al / J. Nat. Prod., 2005, 68 (7), pp 1071–1075 DOI: 10.1021/np050095o
Muscarinic Receptor Activity of Some Malaysian Plant Species / L.Y. Chung, K.F. Yap, M.R. Mustafa, S.H. Goh and Z. Imiyabir / Summary Pharmaceutical Biology / 2005, Vol. 43, No. 8, Pages 672-682
Phenanthroindolizidine Alkaloids and Their Cytotoxicity from the Leaves of Ficus septica / Heterocycles / VOL.57;NO.12;PAGE.2401-2408(2002)
Anti-Inflammatory Mechanisms of Phenanthroindolizidine Alkaloids / Cheng-Wei Yang, Wei-Liang Chen, Pei-Lin Wu, Huan-Yi Tseng, and Shiow-Ju Lee / Mol Pharmacol 69:749-758, 2006 / DOI: 10.1124/mol.105.017764
Antimicrobial activity, cytotoxicity and phytochemical screening of Ficus septica Burm and Sterculia foetida
L. leaf extracts
/ Pierangeli G Vita et al / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 4(1), pp. 058-063, 4 January, 2010
An antimicrobial alkaloid from Ficus septica / Beat Baumgartner et al / Phytochemistry, Vol 29, Issue 10, 1990, Pages 3327-3330 / doi:10.1016/0031-9422(90)80209-Y
Scrutinising special qualities of phytochemicals / Anthony C. Dweck FLS FRSC FRSH – Technical Editor
Immunomodulatory effects of hexane insoluble fraction of Ficus septica Burm. F. in doxorubicin-treated rats
Nugroho AE, Hermawan A, Nastiti K, Suven, Elisa P, Hadibarata T, Meiyanto E. / Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012;13(11):5785-90.
Ficus septica burm. F. Leaves Ethanolic Extract Induces Apoptosis in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]nthracene-induced Rat Liver Cancer Quatitavely / Dita Brenna Septhea, . Anindyajati, Andita Pra Darma, Ika Nurzijah, Agung Endro Nugroho / Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention, Vol 2, No 2, 2011.
Combinational effects of hexane insoluble fraction of Ficus septica Burm. F. and doxorubicin chemotherapy on T47D breast cancer cells / Agung Endro Nugroho, * Adam Hermawan, Dyaningtyas Dewi Pamungkas Putri, Anindya Novika, and Edy Meiyanto / Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2013 Apr; 3(4): 297–302. / doi: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60066-0
Pre Clinical Evaluation of Lagnub (Ficus septica, Moraceae) Leaf Crude Extract / Judee N. Nogodula, Preziel F. Gran, Lyn Venice I. Salamanca, Ellaine Ann S. Yeo / UIC Research Journal, Vol 18, No 1 (2012) / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17158/235
Evaluation of in vitro immunomodulatory effect of fractions of Ficus septica Burm. f. and their total flavonoid and phenolic contents / Kunti Nastiti, Sudarsono and *Agung Endro Nugroho / International Food Research Journal 21(5): 1981-1987 (2014)
In vivo evaluation of the potent angiosuppressive activity of some indigenous plants from Bataan, Philippines /
ANNABELLE A. HERRERA / The Asian International Journal of Life Sciences, Vol 19, No 1, 2010.
Antioxidant property and histological effects of the ethanolic plant extracts of Ficus septica Burm, F. and Uncaria perrottetii (A. Rich) Merr in mice / Catap, Elena S., Canonizado, Excelle Grace M. / Transactions of the National Academy of Science and Technology, 33(1) 2011

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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