Kabling is an aromatic, erect,
branched and hairy herb, growing to a height of 0.5 to 1 meter.
Leaves are oblong-ovate to ovate, 5 to 11 centimeters long, with coarse
and doubly-toothed margins, and with a blunt or pointed tip. Flowers are
pinkish-purple, crowded and borne in hairy, terminal, axillary
spikes 2 to 8 centimeters long, 1 to 1.5 centimeters in diameter. Calyx is about 6 millimeters long. Corolla is 8 millimeters long, with obtuse lobes.
- Found in Cagayan, Bontoc, Rizal, Pampanga and Camarines Provinces in Luzon; and in Leyte, occasionally planted in gardens, and occurring also on steep talus slopes in areas remote from settlements.
- Generally cultivated in tropical Asia and Malaya.
- Leaves yield a volatile
- Patchouli oil contains patchouli alcohol Patchouli camphor), cadinene, coerulein, benzaldehyde and
- Important components of the essential oil are patchoulol and norpatchoulenol.
- Study of essential oil yielded 11 compounds, including α- and ß-patchoulene, patchouli alcohol (patchoulol), ß-caryophyllene, α-guaiene, seychellene and selinene.
- Study on the chemical constituents of an essential oil of PC yielded
22 compounds, 18 sesquiterpenes and three oxygenated sesquiterpenes;
among these, patchouli alcohol was the major component, followed by
- Study of aerial parts yielded 13 compounds: patchouli alcohol (1), pogostone (2), friedelin (3), epifriedelinol (4), oleanolic acid (5), methyl oleanolate (6), 5alpha-stigmast-3,6-dione (7), stigmast-4-ene-3-one (8), beta-sitosterol (9), pachypodol (10), retusin (11), (-)-guaiacylglycerol (12) and dibutyl phthalate (13).
- Antibacterial, antifungal, diuretic, carminative, insecticidal, stimulant, and emmenagogue.
- The oil may have antibactericidal activity and pogostone may have antibacterial
and antifungal activities.
- Components eugenol, cinnamaldehyde and benzaldehyde have insecticidal
- Studies have shown antioxidant, mosquito repellent, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, analgesic, anti-platelet aggregation properties.
- In the Philippines, leaves and tops are used as insecticide - as a repellent of cockroaches, moths, ants, etc.
For arthritis and rheumatism, crushed leaves are applied on affected parts.
- Infusion of fresh leaves for given for dysmenorrhea; also as emmenagogue.
Infusion of leaves, dried tops or roots used for scanty urination.
- Leaves and tops employed in baths; used for antirheumatic action.
- In India, infusion of leaves, flowering spikes or dried tops and root used as diuretic and carminative; used with Ocimum sanctum for scanty urine and biliousness. This infusion is reported to occasionally cause loss of appetite and sleep, and nervous attacks.
- In Malaysia and Japan,
has been used as antidote for venomous snake and insect bites.
- In traditional Chinese
medicine, used for colds, fever, headaches, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and
abdominal pain, to stimulate the appetite.
- In Uruguay, infusion of leaves used for nervous troubles; roots considered stimulant.
- Essential oil of patchouli used in perfumes and cosmetics.
- Also called: Huo xiang, Putcha-Pat.
- Oil also used as ingredient in foods and beverages.
- An ingredient of East Asian incense.
- Had a surge in the commerce of oil and incense during the free love
and hippie decades of the 60s and 70s.
- Repellent: Leaves and tops used
as insecticide repellent for cockroaches, moths, ants, etc. Juice of leaves rubbed on hands and feet for climbing mountains to repel leeches (limatiks).
- Leaves used with gogo for washing hair. Also, used as hair conditioner for dreadlocks.
- In India, used as ingredient in tobacco smoking.
• ROS-scavenger / Effect on ROS-Induced Neuroglial Cell Injury: Pogostemon cablin effectively protected human neuroglioma cell line A172 against both necrotic and apoptotic cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Results suggests
beneficial effects of PC on ROS-induced neuroglial cell injury possibly
as a ROS-scavenger. (1)
• Antimutagenic: Study
of methanol extract of P cablin showed suppressive effects against
the mutagen furylfuramide, Trp-P-1, and activated Trp-P-1. Test isolated suppressive
compounds (7,4'-di-O-methyleriodictyol among others) plus three flavonoids,
mobuine, pachypodol and kumatekenin. (2)
• Mosquito Repellent
Activity: Study of the mosquito repellent
activity of 38 essential oils from plants against Aedes aegypti on human
subjects showed the undiluted oil of patchouli, together with citronella,
clove and makaen, to be effected in providing 2 hr of complete repellency. (3)
H Influenza Adhesion Inhibition: Study
has shown inhibition of H Influenza on oropharyngeal cells to be inhibited
by aqueous extracts of P cablin and A rugosa; a mixture also effective
in preventing otitis media and sore throat. (4)
Anti-Platelet Aggregation / A-bulnesene: Study
isolated a-bulnesene, a sesquiterpened from the water extract of P cablin.
It showed a potent and concentration-dependent effect on platelet-activating
factor (PAF) and arachidonic acid (AA) induced rabbit platelet aggregation;
a first study demonstrating a-bulnesene as a PAF-receptor antagonist
and anti-platelet aggregation agent. (6)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic: Study
of methanol extract of Pogostemon cablin demonstrated analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, supporting its use in traditional medicine. (8)
• Insecticidal and Repellency Activity Against Urban Ants / Patchouli Essential Oil : Study
of analyzed the bioinsecticidal activity and repellence of patchouli essential against three urban ant species. Results showed strong repellency to the three species in all tested concentrations. (10)
• Immunomodulatory / Patchouli Alcohol: Patchouli alcohol (PA), a tricyclic sesquiterpene constituent, isolated from P. cablin was investigated for immunomodulatory potential in Kunming mice. Results showed PA has significant immunomodulatory properties probably acting by activation of the mononuclear phagocytic system, augmenting humoral immune response while suppressing cellular immune response.
• Pupicidal and Repellent / Human Vector Mosquitoes: Study evaluated the repellent and pupicidal activities of P. cablin for toxicity against selected important vector mosquitoes, viz., Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Study yielded 15 chemical constituents in the essential oil with major components of α-patchoulene, α-guaiene, α-patchoulene, á-bulnesene and patchouli alcohol. Results showed repellent and pupicidal activities with potential as an eco-friendly alternative for mosquito control. (13)
• Suppression of Inflammation in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Study evaluated a water extract of PC for effects in bowel inflammation. Results showed effective inhibition of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- α induced adhesion of monocytes to HT-29 human colonic epithelial cells. It suppressed clinical signs of colitis in a trinitrobenze sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced rat model of IBD. Results suggest, PCW suppressed colon inflammation via suppression of NF-kB-dependent expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. (14)
• Comparative Antibacterial Activity: Study evaluated the potential antibacterial activity of various solvent extracts of Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin) and Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens). Aqueous and organis (hexane, ethanol, and methanol) extracts from Patchouli and Geranium showed significant growth inhibition for E. coli, B. subtilis, S. aureus, and E. aerogenes. (17)
- Safe in amounts in
- Maximum allowed for food use: 0.0002%.
- Animal data shows no toxic effect on short-term use.
Patchouli oil in the cybermarket.