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Family Labiatae / Lamiaceae
Pogostemon heyneanus Benth.
Huo xiang

Scientific names Common names
Pogostemon heyneanus Benth. Kadlum (P. Bis.)
Pogostemon suavis Ten. False patchouli (Engl.)
  Lagumtum (Sub.)
  Indian patchouli (Engl.)
  Java patchouli (Engl.)
Some compilations list P. cablin and P. heyneanus as synonyms; others list them as separate species.
Pogostemon heyneanus Benth. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ASSAMESE: Xukloti.
CHINESE: Huo xiang.
GUJARATI: Sugandhi panadi.
TAMIL: Katir paccai.

Gen info
About 40 species of genus Pogostemon are found in the China and Indonesia regions. Of these 40 species, two are sources of the pungent, dark amber-colored Patchouli oil - P. cablin and P. heyneanus. However, oil from P. heyneanus is considered inferior to P. cablin.

Kadlum is an erect or ascending, branched, hairy herb 30 to 60 centimeters in height. Leaves are very aromatic, like those of kablin, somewhat smooth, ovate, 5 to 11 centimeters long, toothed in the margins. Flowers are white, and borne in whorls on terminal and axillary spikes which are 6 to 25 centimeters long. Bracts are ovate or lanceolate, and equal to the calyx or a little shorter.

- Found in Palawan, Panay, and Mindanao, in thickets, coconut groves, old clearings, and among small streams in forests at low altitudes.
- Probably introduced.
- Also occurs in India, Indonesia, the Malay Peninsula, Thailand, Vietnam.

- Analysis of volatile oil of leaves yielded twenty-six components representing 96.0% of the oil, with major components identified as: acetophenone (51.0%), beta-pinene (5.3%), (E)-nerolidol (5.4%), and patchouli alcohol (14.0%).
- In a study of essential oil components of leaves and twigs, the main component was patchouli alcohol 21.9%.

- Repellent
- Considered by some as anti-depressant and aphrodisiac.

Parts used
Leaves and roots.


- Malays used a root decoction for dropsy.
- Decoction also drunk for coughs and asthma.
- Poultice of leaves used for boils, headache, jaundice, bilious fevers.
- In Ayurveda, used for pyorrhea, halitosis, anorexia, dyspepsia, flatulence, diarrhea, vomiting, abscesses and heart disease.
- In Malaya, lotion made from roots used for rheumatism.
- In Ceylon, powdered leaves used like snuff as sternutatory.
- Ornamental: Sakai make garlands worn by women around the waste; also stick bits in earrings.
- Repellent: In India, dried leaves used as insect repellent for stored clothing.
- Perfume: In Malaysia, used as source of perfume.

Volatile Oil / Leaves:
Study of the volatile oil of leaves yielded 26 components representing 96% of the oil. The major components were acetophenone (51.0%), beta-pinene (5.3%), (E)-nerolidol (5.4%), and patchouli alcohol (14.0%). Although 13 sesquiterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes were detected in both P heyneanus and P. cablin, acetophenone, benzoyl acetone and (E)-nerolidol were not detected in patchouli oil. (3)
Synergistic Mosquito Repellent Activity: Study evaluated the synergistic mosquito-repellent activity of Curcuma longa, P. heyneaus and Zanthoxylum limonella essential oils. Results showed a synergistic repellent activity which presents a potential alternative to synthetic repellents for personal protection against mosquitoes. (4)
Anti-Candidal Activity: An ethanolic extract of P. heyneanus leaves showed significant activity against Candida glabrata. (6)

Oil and lotions in the cybermarket.

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

May 2012
Last Update October 2015

IMAGE SOURCE: Illustration / Pogostemon heyneanus Benth. Patchouli / Wight, R., Icones Plantarum Indiae Orientalis, vol. 4(3): t. 1440 (1846) / Illustration contributed by: Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, U.S.A. / PlantIllustrations.org
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Deutsch: Pogostemon heyneanus (Javanisches Patschuli) / File:Pogostemon heyneanus.jpg / March 2004/ Denis Barthel / GNU Free Documentation License / Wikispecies

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Pogostemon heyneanus / Lamiaceae Pogostemon / Plants For Use
Pogostemon heyneanus Benth / The Plant List
Volatile oil composition of Pogostemon heyneanus and comparison of its composition with patchouli oil /
Murugan R, Mallavarapu GR, Padmashree KV, Rao RR, Livingstone C. / Nat Prod Commun. 2010 Dec;5(12):1961-4.
Synergistic mosquito-repellent activity of Curcuma longa, Pogostemon heyneanus and Zanthoxylum limonella essential oils. / Das NG, Dhiman S, Talukdar PK, Rabha B, Goswami D, Veer V / J Infect Public Health. 2015 Jul-Aug;8(4):323-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jiph.2015.02.005. Epub 2015 Mar 26.
Essential Oil Components of Pogostemon heyneanus Benth, Piper hispidinervum C. DC. and Ocimum americanum L. Obtained in the Amazon / Antônio Pedro da Silva Souza Filho, Roberto Lisboa Cunha*, Marcus Arthur Marçal de Vasconcelos & Maria das Graças Bichara Zoghbi / Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, Volume 13, Issue 3, 2010 / DOI:10.1080/0972060X.2010.10643833
ANTI-CANDIDAL ACTIVITY OF Acronychia pedunculata (L.) MIQ, AND Pogostemon heyneanus Benth, EVALUATION OF MINIMUM INHIBITORY CONCENTRATION (MIC) OF A. pedunculata (L.) MIQ AND ITS EFFECT ON RELATIVE CELL SURFACE HYDROPHOBICITY (CSH) / R. M. T. P. K. Rathnayake, G. J. Panagoda / Book of Abstracts of the Peradeniya University Research Sessions, Sri Lanka - 2012 Vol. 17
False Patchouli / Common names / Flowers of India

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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