About 40 species of genus Pogostemon are found in the China and Indonesia regions. Of these 40 species, two are sources of the pungent, dark amber-colored Patchouli oil - P. cablin and P. heyneanus. However, oil from P. heyneanus is considered inferior to P. cablin.
Kadlum is an erect or ascending, branched, hairy herb 30 to 60 centimeters in height. Leaves are very aromatic, like those of kablin, somewhat smooth, ovate, 5 to 11 centimeters long, toothed in the margins. Flowers are white, and borne in whorls on terminal and axillary spikes which are 6 to 25 centimeters long. Bracts are ovate or lanceolate, and equal to the calyx or a little shorter.
- Found in Palawan, Panay, and Mindanao, in thickets, coconut groves, old clearings, and among small streams in forests at low altitudes.
- Probably introduced.
- Also occurs in India, Indonesia, the Malay Peninsula, Thailand, Vietnam.
- Analysis of volatile oil of leaves yielded twenty-six components representing 96.0% of the oil, with major components identified as: acetophenone (51.0%), beta-pinene (5.3%), (E)-nerolidol (5.4%), and patchouli alcohol (14.0%).
- In a study of essential oil components of leaves and twigs, the main component was patchouli alcohol 21.9%.
Considered by some as anti-depressant and aphrodisiac.
Leaves and roots.
- Malays used a root decoction for dropsy.
Decoction also drunk for coughs and asthma.
- Poultice of leaves used for boils, headache, jaundice, bilious fevers.
- In Ayurveda, used for pyorrhea, halitosis, anorexia, dyspepsia, flatulence, diarrhea, vomiting, abscesses and heart disease.
- In Malaya, lotion made from roots used for rheumatism.
- In Ceylon, powdered leaves used like snuff as sternutatory.
- Ornamental: Sakai make garlands worn by women around the waste; also stick bits in earrings.
- Repellent: In India, dried leaves used as insect repellent for stored clothing.
- Perfume: In Malaysia, used as source of perfume.
• Volatile Oil / Leaves: Study of the volatile oil of leaves yielded 26 components representing 96% of the oil. The major components were acetophenone (51.0%), beta-pinene (5.3%), (E)-nerolidol (5.4%), and patchouli alcohol (14.0%). Although 13 sesquiterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes were detected in both P heyneanus and P. cablin, acetophenone, benzoyl acetone and (E)-nerolidol were not detected in patchouli oil. (3)
• Synergistic Mosquito Repellent Activity: Study evaluated the synergistic mosquito-repellent activity of Curcuma longa, P. heyneaus and Zanthoxylum limonella essential oils. Results showed a synergistic repellent activity which presents a potential alternative to synthetic repellents for personal protection against mosquitoes. (4)
• Anti-Candidal Activity: An ethanolic extract of P. heyneanus leaves showed significant activity against Candida glabrata. (6)
Oil and lotions in the cybermarket.