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Family Labiatae / Lamiaceae
Kadlum
Pogostemon heyneanus Benth.
INDIAN PATCHOULI
Huo xiang

Scientific names Common names
Pogostemon heyneanus Benth. Kadlum (P. Bis.)
Pogostemon patchowli Dalz. & Gibs. Lagumtum (Sub.)
Pogostemon suavis Ten. Indian patchouli (Engl.)
  Java patchouli (Engl.)
  Huo xiang (Chin.)
Some compilations list P. cablin and P. heyneanus as synonyms; others list them as separate species.

Gen info
About 40 species of genus Pogostemon are found in the China and Indonesia regions. Of these 40 species, two are sources of the pungent, dark amber-colored Patchouli oil - P. cablin and P. heyneanus. However, oil from P. heyneanus is considered inferior to P. cablin.

Botany
Kadlum is an erect or ascending, branched, hairy herb 30 to 60 centimeters in height. Leaves are very aromatic, like those of kablin, somewhat smooth, ovate, 5 to 11 centimeters long, toothed in the margins. Flowers are white, and borne in whorls on terminal and axillary spikes which are 6 to 25 centimeters long. Bracts are ovate or lanceolate, and equal to the calyx or a little shorter.

Distribution
- Found in Palawan, Panay, and Mindanao, in thickets, coconut groves, old clearings, and among small streams in forests at low altitudes.
- Probably introduced.
- Also occurs in India, Ceylon, and the Malay Peninsula.

Constituents
Leaves yield a volatile oil.

Properties
- Repellent
- Considered by some as anti-depressant and aphrodisiac.

Parts used
Leaves and roots.

Uses

Folkloric
Folkloric
- Malays used a root decoction for dropsy.
- Decoction also drunk for coughs and asthma.
- Poultice of leaves used for boils, headache, jaundice, bilious fevers.
- In Malaya, lotion made from roots used for rheumatism.
- In Ceylon, powdered leaves used like snuff as sternutatory.
Others
- Ornamental: Sakai make garlands worn by women around the waste; also stick bits in earrings.
- Repellent: In India, dried leaves used as insect repellent for stored clothing.
- Perfume: In Malaysia, used as source of perfume.


Studies
Volatile Oil / Leaves:
Study of the volatile oil of leaves yielded 26 components representing 96% of the oil. The major components were acetophenone (51.0%), beta-pinene (5.3%), (E)-nerolidol (5.4%), and patchouli alcohol (14.0%). Oil also yielded 13 sesquiterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes.

Availability
Wild-crafted.
Oil and lotions in the cybermarket.

May 2012

IMAGE SOURCE: Deutsch: Pogostemon heyneanus (Javanisches Patschuli) / File:Pogostemon heyneanus.jpg / March 2004/ Denis Barthel / GNU Free Documentation License / Wikispecies

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Pogostemon heyneanus / Lamiaceae Pogostemon / Plants For Use
(2)
Pogostemon heyneanus Benth / The Plant List
(3)
Volatile oil composition of Pogostemon heyneanus and comparison of its composition with patchouli oil /
Murugan R, Mallavarapu GR, Padmashree KV, Rao RR, Livingstone C. / Nat Prod Commun. 2010 Dec;5(12):1961-4.


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