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Family Crassulaceae
Katakataka
Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken
MIRACLE PLANT

Lao di sheng gen

Scientific name Common names
Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken Abisrana (Ilk.)
Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Kurz. Aritana (Bik.)  
Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. Balangbang (If.)  
Cotyledon pinnata Lam. Inginga (Ig.) 
  Kapal-kapal (Sul.)
  Karitana (Bis)  
  Kokoeng (Bon.)  
  Lapak-lapak (Sul.)
  Putputok (Bon.)  
  Siempre viva, Angelica (Sp.) 
  Air plant (Engl.)
  Cathedral bells (Engl.)
  Miracle plant (Engl.)
  Mother of thousands (Engl.)
  Live-leaf-of-resurrection plant (Engl.)
  Lao di sheng gen (Chin.)

Other vernacular names
BRUNEI: Bendingin, Serigen.
BURMA: Yoekiyapinba.
INDONESIA: Daun sejk, Buntiris, Sosor bebek.
LAOS: Pount tay, Poun po.
MALAYSIA: Sedingin, Seringing, Setawar padang.
THAILAND: Benchachat, Ton tai bai pen, Khwum taai ngaai pen.
VIETNAM: C[aa]y thu[oos]c b[or]ng, C[aa]y tr[uw] [owf]ng sinh, l[aj]c c[ij]a sinh c[aw]n.

Botany
Katakataka is an erect, more or less branched, smooth, succulent herb, 0.4 to 1.4 meters in height. Leaves are simple or pinnately compound, with the leaflets elliptic, usually about 10 centimeters long, thick, succulent, and scalloped margins. Plantlets grow along the notches of the leaf margins which can develop while still attached to the plant or when detached, a fascinating characteristic that earns its name. Flowers are cylindric, and pendulous in a large, terminal panicle. Calyx is tubular, cylindric, inflated, brownish or purplish, 3.5 to 4 centimeters long. Corolla is tubular, about 5 centimeters long, inflated at the base, and then constricted, the exserted parts being reddish or purplish and the lobes tapering to a point. Fruit is a follicle with many seeds.

Distribution
- In open settled areas, thickets, dry second-growth forests, sometimes planted, and locally abundant.
- Prehistoric introduction from tropical Asia or Malaya.
- Also cultivated, flowering from December to March.
- Pantropic.

Constituents
Phytochemical screenings have yielded alkaloids, triterpenes, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, butadienolides, lipids, and organic acids.
• Yields arachidic acid, astragalin, behenic acid, beta amyrin, benzenoids, bersaldegenin, beta-sitosterol, bryophollenone, bryophollone, bryophyllin,
caffeic acid, ferulic acid, quercetin, steroids, and taraxerol.
• Phytochemical
evaluation of leaf extract yielded bryophyllum A, B and C, a potent cytotoxic bufadienolide orthoacetate.
• Bufadienolide has been reported to be poisonous with digitalis-toxicity type cardiac effects (slowing of heart rate, heart blocks and potentially fatal ventricular
arrhythmias.

• Bryophillin A, a bufadienolide compound, has shown anti-tumor promoting activity.

• Leaves yield malic acid.

Fractionation of an EtOAc extract yielded seven kaempferol rhamnosides: kaempferol 3-O-α-L-(2-acetyl)rhamnopyranoside-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-α-L-(3-acetyl)rhamnopyranoside-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-α-L-(4-acetyl)rhamnopyranoside-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-α-D- glucopyranoside-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, afzelin, and α-rhamnoisorobin. (19)


Properties
• Leaves considered astringent, antiseptic, hemostatic, refrigerant, emollient, counterirritant, mucilaginous, vulnerary, depurative, anti-inflammatory, disinfectant, and tonic.
• Pharmacologic studies have showed pharmacologic properties: immunomodulatory, CNS depressant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, antianaphylactic, antileishmanial, antitumorous, antiulcer, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, febrifuge, gastroprotective, immunosuppressive, insecticidal, sedative, muscle relaxant.

Parts utilized
Entire plant. May be collected year round; preferably used fresh.

Uses
Folkloric
- Leaves used as astringent, antiseptic, and counterirritant against poisonous insect bites.
- Pounded fresh material is applied as a poultice for a variety of conditions: Sprains, eczema, infections, burns, carbuncle and erysipelas.
- Leaves, made pliable by hold over fire, are applied to wounds, bruises, boils; also, used as poultice or power in bad ulcers.
- Juice is mixed with lard and used for diarrhea, dysentery, cholera, and phthisis.
- Pounded leaves are applied as poultices to the soles of the feet to stop hemorrhages.
- Leaves are used as topicals in dislocation, ecchymoses, callosities.
- Leaves, pounded and mixed with salt, used as plaster and applied to stomach to relieve enuresis
- For boils, the whole leaf is pressed by hand, to and fro, until it becomes moist with the leaf extract. A small opening is made in the middle of the leaf which is then placed on the boil with hole over the pointing of the abscess.
- For asthma, leaves of leaves places in hot water for 15 minutes, then juice squeezed out of the leaves, and drunk.
- Juice of leaves used in bilious diarrhea and lithiasis.
- In Ayurveda, useful in vitiated conditions of vata and pitta, cuts, wounds, hemorrhoids, menorrhagia, boils, sloughing ulcers, burns and scalds, diarrhea, dysentery, headaches, vomiting, bronchitis.
- In Puerto Rico, leaf juice used as diuretic.
- Leaves are rubbed or tied on the head for headaches.
- Leaf decoction usually taken to lower blood pressure.
- Leaf juice used for earache and ophthalmia.
- In Sierre Leon, cough medicine is made from the roots.
- In Brazil leaves, heated over fire and mixed with oil, are used as emollient and refrigerant for facial swelling associated with neuralgia or tooth trouble. Also, used for asthma and bronchitis.
- In Jamaica, leaves used for coughs and colds. Sometimes, it is mixed with salt or honey, for headaches, colds, bronchial affections, and hypertension. Heated leaves used for swellings and abscesses.
- In Africa, used for earaches, eye problems, and as diuretic.
- In China used for rheumatoid arthritis, bruises, burns and ulcers.
- In Nigeria, plant is considered sedative, wound-healing, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, and cough suppressant. Leaf juice used to treat boils and skin ulcers.
Plant used for intestinal parasites, bronchitis, pneumonia. (21)

Toxicity
Cattle Poisoning:
A report of 2 adult cattle deaths attributed the fatalities to a large of amount of feeding of B pinnatum plants. The main autopsy findings were acute rumenitis, reduction of bronchiolar lumens and emphysema.

Studies
Neuropharmacological Effects / CNS Depressant:
Study evaluated aqueous leaf extracts for neuropharmacological activities in mice. Results revealed CNS depressant activity attributed to the presence of bufadienolide and other water soluble constituents. (1)
Antinociceptive / Anti-inflammatory / Antidiabetic: Leaf extract study of BP on animals showed it to possess antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and hypoglycemic properties probably due to the flavonoid, polyphenol and triterpenoid contents. (2)
Antiulcer: Results of methanolic extract study in rats showed that BP possessed potent antiulcer properties. Leaf extract showed significant reduction in incidence of ulceration in indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in a dose-dependent manner.
(3)
Antiulcer: (1) Results of methanolic extract study in rats showed that BP possessed potent antiulcer properties. Leaf extract showed significant reduction in incidence of ulceration in indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in a dose-dependent manner. (2) Study of methanolic
fraction
of extract of BP showed significant anti-ulcer activity in nine different experimental animal models.
Tocolytic / Pre-term labor: Study characterized the tocolytic activity of BP in vitro vs the betamimetic, fenoterol. Results confirmed its tocolytic activity and justifies further clinical studies.
(4)
Tocolytic / Better Tolerated than Beta-Agonist: Intravenous tocolysis with Bryophyllum pinnatum is better tolerated than beta-agonist application.
Analgesic: The study concludes that the aqueous extract of BP has strong analgesic potency comparable in a times- and dose-dependent manner to a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. (5)
Antileishmanial: The antileishmanial activity assessment of unusual flavonoids from Kalanchoe pinnata: Quercetin from K pinnata has demonstrated to be a potent antileshmanial flavonoid. Another study yielded unusual flavonoids with antileishmanial effect.
(6)
Cytotoxic: A study isolated a potent cytotoxic bufadienolide orthoacetate and identified as bersaldegenin 1,3, 5-orthoacetate. (8)
Antimicrobial: Extract of leaves showed activity against all test organisms except for Candida albicans. Of all the extracts of Bp,
the methanol extract was the most active with marked antibacterial activities against control strain of S aureus, E faecalis, B subtilis and P aeruginosa. (9)
Antihypertensive: Study showed a blood pressure lowering effect. However, since the reduction in blood pressure was only slight, and because of potential hepatotoxic nephrotoxic effects, and cardiotoxicity at high doses, it is not suggested as a blood pressure lowering agent.
Hepatoprotective / Nephroprotectiv
e: In India, juice of fresh leaves used for jaundice. Study showed the juice of leaves to be more effective than an ethanolic extract as evidenced by in vivo and in vitro hepatoprotective studies. Study showed nephroprotective effect on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats, possibly through antioxidant and oxidative radical scavenging mechanisms.
Neurosedative / Muscle Relaxant: Study in mice investigating the neuropharmacological activities of a saline leaf extract of B. pinnatum showed a dose-dependent prolongation of onset and duration of pentobarbitone-induced hypnosis. It also delayed onset to convulsion in strychnine- and picrotoxin-induced seizures with minimal protection against picrotoxicin seizures.
(13)
Tocolysis / Effect on Oxytocin Signalling Pathway / Juice: In vitro results showed B. pinnatum juice inhibits the oxytocin-induced increase of Ca in human myometrial cells in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition was attributed to a specific effect on the oxytocin signalling pathway.
(15)
Inhibition of Detrusor Contractility / Potential Treatment for Overactive Bladder: Study evaluated the inhibitory effects of leaf press juice on porcine detrussor bladder strips. Results showed BP juice inhibits contractions induced by electrical field stimulation and relaxes carbachol-induced contractions. However, the effect was less than the reference drug oxybutinin. (18)
Antimicrobial / Antioxidant / Kaempferol Rhamnoside Derivatives: Fractionation of an EtOAc yielded seven kaempferol rhamnosides. (See constituents above) Study showed B. pinnatum and some of its isolated compounds have antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. (19)
Wound Healing: Study evaluated various leaf extracts on excision resutured incision and dead-space wound models in albino rats. Results showed all three tested extracts promote healing of resutured incision and dead space wounds, with increased breaking strength and hydroxyproline content of the granulation tissue. Topical application of water extract also hastened the healing in the excision wound model. (20)
Two Novel Flavonoids / Antimicrobial: Study of leaf yielded two novel flavonoids: 5I Methyl 4I, 5, 7 trihydroxyl flavone 1 and 4I, 3, 5, 7 tetrahydroxy 5-methyl 5I-propenamine anthocyanidines. The isolated compounds inhibited P. aeruginosa, K pneumonia, E coli, S aureus, C albicans and A niger. (21)
Hematological Effects / Platelet Concern: Study evaluated the effect of a crude methanolic leaf extract on hematological parameters in Wistar rats. Results suggest the extract may have properties that increase the Hb, PCV, and TWBC while decreasing platelets. (22)
Anti-Inflammatory / Antinociceptive: Study of an ethanol extract showed antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects using acetic acid-induced abdominal contractions in mice and formalin-induced hind paw edema in rats. (23)
Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticle Using B. pinnatum: Study reports an ecofriendly cost effective, and green approach for the synthesis of ImM AgNO3 solution using aqueous leaf extracts of B. pinnatum as reducing and capping agent. Nanotechnology provides the ability to engineer the properties of materials by controlling their size. For medicines, silver and silver nanoparticles have wide application in skin ointments and creams containing silver to prevent infection of burns and open wounds. In this study, the silver nanoparticles formed showed promising antibacterial activity against E coli and S aureus. (24)
Hypotensive / Inhibitory Cardiovascular Effects: Study showed both aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts produced dose-related and significant reductions in arterial blood pressures and heart rates of anesthetized normotensive and hypertensive rats. The leaf extract also produced dose-dependent, significant decreases in rate and force of contractions of guinea-pig isolated atria. (25)
Antidiarrheal: Study evaluated the antidiarrheal potential of Bryophyllum pinnatum against several experimental models of diarrhea in albino Wistar rats. The aqueous extract of leaves showed significant antidiarrheal activity against castor oil-induced diarrhea and castor oil-induced enteropooling, together with reduction in gastrointestinal motility. (26)

Availability
Wild-crafted. 

Last Update July 2013

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
IMAGE SOURCE / Public Domain / File:Kalanchoe pinnata Blanco1.147.png / Flora de Filipinas / Franciso Manuel Blanco (OSA), 1880-1883 / Modifications by Carol Spears / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Neuropharmacological Effects of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Bryophyllum Pinnatum in Mice / Salahdeen* H.M and Yemitan O.K / African Journal of Biomedical Research, Vol. 9 (2006); 101 - 107
(2)
Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic effects of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Crassulaceae) leaf aqueous extract / John A O Ojewole / Journal of Ethnopharmacology • Volume 99, Issue 1, 13 May 2005, Pages 13-19 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2005.01.025
(3)
Antiulcer Activity of Methanolic Extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum in Rats / J K Adesanwo et al / Journal of Biological Sciences 7 (2): 409-412, 2007
(4)
Intravenous tocolysis with Bryophyllum pinnatum is better tolerated than beta-agonist application / N Plangger et al / European Journal of Obs and Gyn and Reproductive Biology • Vol 124. Issue 2, pp 168-172
(5)

Analgesic effects of aqueous extracts of the leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum / S A Igwe and D N Akunyill / Summary Pharmaceutical Biology • 2005, Vol. 43, No. 8, Pages 658-661
(6)
The antileishmanial activity assessment of unusual flavonoids from Kalanchoe pinnata.

(7)
Effect of Bryophyllum pinnatum versus fenoterol on uterine contractility
/ Birgit Gwehengerger et al / European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology • Volume 113, Issue 2, 15 April 2004, Pages 164-171 / doi:10.1016/S0301-2115(03)00370-1
(8)
Isolation and identification of cytotoxic components from bryophyllum pinnatum / Chinese Journal of Cancer Research
Volume 4, Number 4 / December, 1992 / 10.1007/BF02996394
(9)
IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CRUDE EXTRACTS FROM PLANTS BRYOPHYLLUM PINNATUM AND KALANCHOE CRENATA / Odunayo R Akinsulire et al / Aibinu et al., Afr. J. Trad. CAM (2007) 4 (3): 338 - 344

(10)
Studies on the anti-ulcer activity of a Bryophyllum pinnatum leaf extract in experimental animals / Siddhartha Pai and A K Nag Chaudhuri / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 33, Issues 1-2, May-June 1991, Pages 97-102 / doi:10.1016/0378-8741(91)90168-D
(11)
Leaf of Life / Jaherbs
(12)
Assessment of the medical benefit in the folkloric use of Bryophyllum Pinnatum leaf among the Igbos of
Nigeria for the treatment of hypertension
/ S. Ghasi, C. Egwuibe, P. U. Achukwu, and J. C. Onyeanusi / African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology Vol. 5(1), pp. 83-92, January 2011
(13)
Neurosedative and muscle relaxant activities of aqueous extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum
/ O K Yemitan, H M Salahdeen / Fitoterapia (2005), Volume: 76, Issue: 2, Pages: 187-193
(14)
Bryophyllum pinnatum poisoning of cattle / G P Reppas / Australian Veterinary Journal (1995)
Volume: 72, Issue: 11, Pages: 425-427
(15)
Juice of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) inhibits oxytocin-induced increase of the intracellular calcium concentration in human myometrial cells / Free Library by Farlex
(16)
Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Kurz.: Phytochemical and pharmacological profile : A review / Anjoo Kamboj, Ajay Kumar Saluja / Pharmacognosy Review, 2009, Vol 3 No 6, Pp 364-374
(17)
Bryophyllum pinnatum / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
(18)
Bryophyllum pinnatum inhibits detrusor contractility in porcine bladder strips--a pharmacological study towards a new treatment option of overactive bladder. / Schuler V, Suter K, Fürer K, Eberli D, Horst M, Betschart C, Brenneisen R, Hamburger M, Mennet M, Schnelle M, Simões-Wüst AP, von Mandach U. / Phytomedicine. 2012 Jul 15;19(10):947-51. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2012.05.003. Epub 2012 Jul 21.
(19)
Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of kaempferol rhamnoside derivatives from Bryophyllum pinnatum /
Simplice JN Tatsimo*, Jean D Tamokou, Léopold Havyarimana, Dezső Csupor, Peter Forgo, Judit Hohmann, Jules-Roger Kuiate and Pierre Tane / BMC Research Notes 2012, 5:158 / doi:10.1186/1756-0500-5-158
(20)
Influence of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) leaf extract on wound healing in albino rats / M. Khan et al. / Journal of Natural Remedies, Vol. 4/1 (2004) pp 41 - 46
(21)
Two novel flavonoids from Bryophyllum pinnatum and their antimicrobial Activity / Donatus Ebere Okwu* Fred Uchenna Nnamdi / J. Chem. Pharm. Res., 2011, 3(2):1-10
(22)
The Effect of Crude Methanolic Leaf Extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum on Some Haematological Parameters in Wistar Rats / S.A. Ufelle, E.O. Ukaejiofo, E.E. Neboh, P.U. Achukwu, U.I. Nwagha and S. Ghasi / Research Journal of Pharmacology, 2011, Volume: 5, Issue: 2, Page No.: 14-17 / DOI: 10.3923/rjpharm.2011.14.17
(23)
Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Ethanol Extract of Bryophyllum Pinnatum Laboratory Animals / Tanko Y., Mohammed A., Saleh M.I.A., Mohammed K.A.,Etta E., Bako I.G, Muhammad A, Yerima M / IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences (JDMS) ISSN: 2279-0853, ISBN: 2279-0861. Volume 3, Issue 1 (Nov.- Dec. 2012), PP 46-49
(24)
Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticle using Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) and monitoring their antibacterial activities / Debabrat Baishya*, Nakul Sharma and Rituparna Bora / Archives of Applied Science Research, 2012, 4 (5):2098-2104
(25)
P-2: Antihypertensive properties of Bryophyllum pinnatum {(Lam) Oken} leaf extracts / John A.O. Ojewole / Am J Hypertens (2002) 15 (S3): 34A. / doi: 10.1016/S0895-7061(02)02353-1
(26)
Evaluation of Antidiarrhoeal Potential of Bryophyllum Pinnatum in Experimental Animals
/ Upama Sharma / Asian Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 2, No 15, 2012.


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