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Family Hydrocharitaceae
Lamon
Enhalus acoroides (L.f.) Royle
EEL GRASS
Hai chang pu

Scientific names Common names
Enhalus acoroides (L.f.) Royle Iaai (Tag.)
Enhalus koenigii Rich ex. Steud. Lamon (Bik., Tag.)
Enhalus marinus Griff. Lusay (Tag.)
Stratiotes acoroides (L.) Palaipat-baibai (Ilk.)
Vallisneria sphaerocarpa Blanco Eel grass (Engl.)
  Tape seagrass (Engl.)
Enhalus acoroides (L.f.) Royle is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Hai chang pu.
INDIA: Olai pasi.
INDONESIA: Deringu laut, Jelamun, Lamun.
MALAYSIA: Setul, Jerangau laut.

Botany
Lamon is an aquatic weed. Leaves are long and ribbonlike, alternating in two ranks. Roots are cordlike with firm black fibers anchored in the bottom mud. Fruits occur singly, connected by spiral stalks to the base of old leaves. Flowers are water pollinated (hydrophilous). Female stalk lengthens before pollination and fertilization. After fertilization, the stalk shortens and coils in a springlike fashion until maturity, and straightening out when the seed are ready for release.

Distribution
- Found in muddy salt-water gulfs, lagoons, and seagrass areas of the Philippines and other tropical seas.
- in fishponds, waterways, and sea bathing resorts
, sometimes colonizing in abundance to cause obstruction of water flow.
- Widespread in the Indo-Pacific, from southern Japan to Taiwan, Indonesia, and Malaysia, extending to China, Vietnam, and Thailand.

Constituents
- Study for calorific content showed 68.82 K cal g, the highest in the species tested. Leaves and rhizomes also yielded high content of phenols. (3)
- Study yielded eleven pure compounds including four flavonoids and five steroids. (See study below) (3)
- Study of proximate composition os seeds showed protein 8.8%, lipid 0.2%, carbohydrate 72.4%, ash 6.4%, kCal 3.27.
- In a comparative study of seagrasses, E. acoroides had the lowest insoluble fiber content. Its percentage of soluble fiber against total fibers was 62.4%.

Properties
- Studies suggest antimicrobial, antioxidant, antilarval, anticancer properties.

Parts used
Parts used.

Uses

Edibility / Nutrition
- Study showed the seagrass to be high in kilocalorie content, with high content of phenols in the leaves and rhizomes, suggesting a potential for feed/food.
- Flour made from Enhalus used in the preparation of Chocolate Chip Cookies. (See Seagrass recipe I) (
8)
Folkloric
- No recorded folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- In India, skin of fresh rhizome is peeled and taken with a cup of sea-water for heart disease and low blood pressure. (6)
Others
- Biomass: A study in Sabah, Malaysia showed seagrass Enhalus acoroides produced very high biomass especially in the muddy habitat bordering mangroves (e.g. total biomass of 468.5 g AFDWm.2).(
7)

Studies
Antimicrobial / Anticancer:
Study evaluated the leaf extracts of E. acoroides for antimicrobial and anticancer properties. Results showed the ethyl acetate extracts inhibited the growth of all the tested bacteria. On cytotoxicity testing, it killed 50% of HeLa ells.(2)
Nutritional Value: Study evaluated the biochemical and calorific content of different species of seagrasses. Enhalus acoroides yielded 68.82 K cal g, the highest in the species tested. E. acoroides also yielded maximum values in leaf and rhizomes. The calorific contents of the seagrasses were equivalent to Bengal gram, peas, potato, and sweet potatoes. Results suggest seagrasses could be considered feed/food.(3)
Antifeedant / Antibacterial / Antilarval: Study yielded eleven pure compounds including four flavonoids and five steroids. Three flavonoids were antifeedant against second-instar larvae of Spodoptera litura. Two flavonoids have antibacterial activity against several marine bacteria. One flavonoids showed strong antilarval activity against Bugula neritina larvae. (4)
Biomass Reduction from Solar Radiation and Tidal Exposure: Monitoring over eleven years revealed a declining trend in above-ground biomass (54% significant reduction from 2000 to 2010) which negatively correlated with tidal exposure and solar radiation. Enhalus acoroides contributes to the canopy habitat that provides for diverse, endangered, and economically important fauna throughout the Indo-Pacific bio-region. (5)
Antioxidant: Study of leaf sample yielded high levels of phenolic and proanthocyanidins when compared to root and rhizome. The leaf samples exhibited higher total antioxidant activity (11.770±0.026 mg Ascorbic acid equivalents/g), higher percentage of DPPH radical scavenging activity (25.76±0.04) and higher reducing power (18.060±0.73) in terms of mg GAE/g. There was significant correlation between the phenolic and proanthocyanidin content with the antioxidant activity. (9)
Antioxidant / Fiber Content: Study evacuated four tropical seagrasses from Indonesia. An methanol extract of E. acoroides showed high activity on scavenging DPPH radicals. It also showed the highest content of soluble fiber.(10)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Last Update June 2016
April 2013


IMAGE SOURCE: PHOTO: ape seagrass (Enhalus acoroides) /Ria Tan /Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercialNoDerivs 3.0 Unported / Click on image to go to source page / Vessel
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: PHOTO:Flower of Tape seagrass (Enhalus acoroides / The female flower in full bloom. The white petals fall off the day after blooming. ) /Ria Tan / 7 Feb. 2009 / Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic license. / Click on image to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Enhalus acoroides (L. f.) Royle / Chinese name / Catalogue of Life, China
(2)
Antimicrobial and anticancer properties of leaf extracts of seagrass enhalus acoroides / Mohd Saufee Al Firdaus Mohd Ismail et al / International Journal of Undergraduate Studies, 1 (1). pp. 32-36.
(3)
Evaluation of seagrasses for their nutritional value / M. Pradheeba, E. Dilipan, E.P. Nobi, T. Thangaradjou and K. Sivakumar* / Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences Vol. 40(1), February 2011, pp. 105-111
(4)
Antifeedant, antibacterial, and antilarval compounds from the South China Sea seagrass Enhalus acoroides /
Shu-Hua Qi*, Si Zhang, Pei-Yuan Qian and Bin-Gui Wang / Botanica Marina 51 (2008)
(5)
Solar Radiation and Tidal Exposure as Environmental Drivers of Enhalus acoroides Dominated Seagrass Meadows / Richard K. F. Unsworth mail, Michael A. Rasheed, Kathryn M. Chartrand,, Anthony J. Roelofs / PLOS ONE
(6)
Local Knowledge and Conservation of Seagrasses in the Tamil Nadu State of India / Newmaster AF, Berg KJ, Ragupathy S, Palanisamy M, Sambandan K, Newmaster SG / J Ethnobiol Ethnomed (2011)
(7)
Preliminary Study of the Seagrass Flora of Sabah, Malaysia / Ismail, Norhadi (1993) / Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science, 16 (2). pp. 111-118
(8)
Potential Seagrass Products for Domestic and Industrial Uses / Marco Nemesio E. Montaño, Ph.D. / The Marine Science Institute, C.S., University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City
(9)
In vitro antioxidant activities of ethanol extract from Enhalus acoroides (L.F.) Royle / Rengasamy Ragupathi Raja Kannan; Rajasekaran Arumugam; Perumal Anantharaman / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine (November 2010), 3 (11), pg. 898-901 / 10.1016/S1995-7645(10)60216-7
(10)
Enhalus acoroides / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
(11)
PHENOL CONTENT, ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND FIBERS PROFILE OF FOUR TROPICAL SEAGRASSES FROM INDONESIA / Joko Santoso, Siti Anwariyah, Ria Octavia Rumiantin, Aristi Pramadita Putri, Nabila Ukhty, and Yumiko Yoshie-Stark / Journal of Coastal Develpopment, Volume 15, Number 2 ,February 2012 : 189-196.
(12)
Enhalus acoroides / Synonyms / The Plant List

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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