Family • Moraceae
Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.
Mu bo luo
|Scientific names||Common names|
|Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.||Lanka (Ilk.)|
|Artocarpus jaca Lam.||Langka (Ilk., Tag., Bis.)|
|Artocarpus philippensis Lam.||Nangka (Bis. Tag., Ibn.)|
|Polyphema jaca Lour.||Nanka (Bis., Sul.)|
|Artocarpus maxima Blanco||Jack fruit (Engl.)|
|Saccus elasticus OK.||Mu bo luo (Chin.)|
|Saccus integer OK.|
|Saccus heterophyllus OK.|
|Radermachia integer Thunb.|
|Artocarpus integer Merr.|
|Bo luo mi (Chin.)|
|Other vernacular names|
|ASSAMESE: Konthal, Konto phol, Kontok phol, Kontoki.|
|CHINESE: Shu bo luo, Niu du zi guo|
|GERMAN: Indischer Brotfruchtbaum, Jackfrucht, Jackfruchtbaum.|
|HINDI: Cakki, Katahal, Kathal, Kanthal.|
|ITALIAN: Falso albero del pane.|
|JAPANESE: Nagami pannoki, Paramitsu.|
|KANNADA: Halasina hannu, Halasu, Panasero.|
|LAOTIAN: Mai mi, Mak mi, Mi.|
|MALAY: Nangka (Indonesia, Bali), Nangka bubor, Keledang (Timor).|
|NEPALESE: Rukh kutaherr.|
|PERSIAN: Derakhte nan.|
|SANSKRIT: Panasah, Panasam.|
|SINHALESE: Jak, Kos.|
|SPANISH: Arbol del pan, Fruta del pobre, Jaca, Jaka, Jaqueiro.|
|TAMIL: Palaa, Palavu.|
|THAI: Khanun, Makmee, Maak laang.|
Nutrition / Edibility
- The young fruit is also a vegetable.
- Fruit has a high carbohydrate content.
- Seeds are very rich in starch, but a poor source of calcium and iron.
- The pulp or flesh (lamukot) surrounding the seeds is rich, yellow, sweet and aromatic, rich in vitamin C, eaten fresh or cooked or preserved.
- The seeds are boiled or roasted.
- The unripe fruit can be pickled.
- In India, the unripe fruit used in the preparation of pickles.
· Skin diseases, ulcers and wounds: Ash of burnt leaves applied on wounds and ulcers as cicatrizant.
· Burnt ashes of leaves (preferably fresh) with coconut oil, and as ointment, also used for ulcers and wounds.
· Diarrhea, fever and asthma: A decoction of the root (preferably chopped into small pieces before boiling) of the tree, three to four cups daily.
· Glandular swelling and snake bites: Apply the milky juice of the tree.
· When mixed with vinegar, it is especially beneficial for glandular swelling and abscesses, promoting absorption and suppuration.
· The ripe fruit is laxative; in large quantities, it produces diarrhea.
· The roasted seeds believed to have aphrodisiac properties.
· Pulp envelopes or arils of seeds considered cooling, tonic and nutritious China.
· In India, the leaves and bark of Artocarpus heterophyllus and Mangifera indica, boiled in water, are used as postpartum bath, to rejuvenate the mothers after delivery.
· Starch of seeds given in bilious colic.
· In China, roasted seeds used as aphrodisiac.
· Root extract used for asthma , fever and diarrhea.
· Bark is considered sedative.
· In Sri Lanka and India, extracts of mature leaves used for treatment of diabetes.
· In China, pulp of fruit also considered useful in suppressing alcohol in the body.
· In Indian medicine, bark used in fever, boils, wounds, skin diseases.
· In Mauritius, used for diabetes.
· In Ayurvedic medicine, hot water extract of mature leaves used for treatment of diabetes.
· Fruit used to flavor and age lambanog; locals believe it increases alcohol potency.
· Tree latex is used as bird lime; and when heated makes a good cement for china.
· Bark sometimes used for making rope and cloth.
· Wood has limited use as source of yellow dye.
• Antiinflammatory: Study isolated flavonoids including: 1-cycloartomunin, 2-cyclomorusin, 3- dihydrocycloartomunin, 4- dihydroisocycloartomunin, 5- cudraflavone A, 6- cyclocommunin, 7-artomunoxanthone, 8- cycloheterohyllin, 9- artonin A, 10- artonin-B, 11- artocarpanone, 12- artocarpanone A, 13, 14, 15 -heteroflavanones A, B and C. Many of the compounds exhibited varying degrees of antiinflammatory activities–inhibitory effects on chemical mediator release from mast cells, neutrophils and macrophages.
• Inhibition of Melanin Biosynthesis: (1) Inhibitory Effect of Artocarpanone from Artocarpus heterophyllus on Melanin Biosynthesis: Study showed the extract of AH to be one of the strongest inhibitor of tyrosinase activity. Study isolated Artocarpanone, which inhibited both mushroom tyrosinase activity and melanin production in B16 melanoma cells and presents as a potential as a remedy for hyperpigmentation in human skin. (2) Structure-Activity Relationship of Prenyl-Substituted Polyphenols from Artocarpus heterophyllus as Inhibitors of Melanin Biosynthesis in Cultured Melanoma Cells: Study isolated flavone-based polyphenols which were found to be active inhibitors of the in vivo melanin biosynthesis in B16 melanoma cells.
• Antibacterial: Multibeneficial natural material: Dye from heartwood of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamk: Material isolated could be used as a direct dye for wool and silk; with antibacterial activity against B. subtilis, B. cereus, S. aureus, E coli, K pneumonia.
• Source of Provitamin A carotenoids: Analysis of carotenoids in ripe jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) kernel and study of their bioconversion in rats: Study showed jackfruit to be a good source of provitamin A carotenoids (not as good as papaya).
• Antioxidant activity / Scavenging Activity: (1) Study showed prenylated flavonoid with more antioxidant than non-prenylated flavonoid. (2) Study isolated prenylflavones cycloheterophyllin and artonins A and B which inhibited iron-induced lipid peroxidation and also show radical scavenging activity.
• Hypoglycemic / Anti-Diabetic: (1) Screening of traditional antidiabetic medicinal plants of mauritius for possible -amylase inhibitory effects in vitro: Of several medicinal plants studied in Mauritius, only Artocarpus heterophyllus significantly inhibited a-amylase activity in vitro indicating that AH could act as a starch blocker to decrease post-prandial glucose peaks. (2) Study in male Wistar rats showed the flavonoid fraction of the leaf of AH to have a higher hypoglycemic effect than the sulfonylurea drug tolbutamide with no significant effects on the liver, kidney and heart.
• Sexual Competence Inhibition: Study sought to resolve the conflicting beliefs on the roasted seeds of AH - its aphrodisiac activity vs the claim that use of the seeds prior to coitus disrupts sexual function. Study in rats utilizing a seed suspension markedly inhibited libido, sexual arousal, sexual vigor and performance while also causing mild erectile dysfunction. The results suggest that AH seeds do not have aphrodisiac activity, at least, in rats.
• Cytotoxicity / Anti-Tumor: Study showed the methanol extract to have maximum cytotoxicity on HEp2 cells with cell aggregation, cell rounding and cell death. Results suggest a potential use of the crude extract from the tegmen of AH as an antitumor agent.
• Anti-Inflammatory / Bark: Study of a methanolic extract of A. heterophyllus on a carrageenan-induced model in albino rats showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity.
• Hypoglycemic / Hypolipidemic: Study of ethyl acetate fraction of A. heterophyllus leaves in STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant lowering of serum glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Study concludes the EA fraction contains one or more hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic principles with a potential for further development for diabetes treatment.
• Improved Glucose Tolerance / Type-2 Diabetes: Study showed the extracts of both Artocarpus heterophyllus and Asteracanthus longifolia significantly improved glucose tolerance in both normal subjects and diabetic patients.
• Hypoglycemic / Hypolipidemic / Antioxidant Pathway: Ethanol and butanol extracts showed hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in STZ-diabetic rats through an oxidative pathway that may be attributed to flavonoid contents.
• Jacalin / Seed-Derived Lectin / Immunobiologic Applications: Jacalin, a major lectin protein from the jackfruit seed has been found strongly mitogenic for human CD4+ T lymphocytes. It has been found to have diverse applications: as a tool for evaluation of immune status in HIV-1, isolation of hum plasma glycoproteins, investigation of IgA -nephropathy, and detection of tumors.
• Seed Starch Binding Property: Study showed the starch obtained from A. heterophyllus fruit seeds showed comparable binding properties.
• Latex / Protease / Antimicrobial: A protease isolated and purified from crude latex of a jackfruit tree, designated as antimicrobial protease-48 kDa or AMP48 inhibited the growths of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853 and clinical isolated Candida albicans.
• Nutritional Assessment of Jackfruit Meal/ Protease / Antimicrobial: In Sri Lanka, the jackfruit is consumed either as main meal or supplement. A nutritional assessment of a meal composed of flesh (80% available carbohydrate) and seeds (20% available carbohydrate) showed it to be a good source of starch (22%) and dietary fiber, and categorized as a low GI meal.
Last Update November 2012
|Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange|
|OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: /Langka Leaves / Metallic-winged Sunbird Female 1/320 sec., f/5.6, ISO 800 / ©- Ely Teehankee / Click on Image to go to source page / BirdPhotoPh|
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