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Family Zingiberaceae
Luya
Zingiber officinale Roscoe
GINGER
Lao jiang

Scientific names  Common names 
Amomum angustifolium Salisb. [Illegitimate] Agat (Pamp., Pang.) 
Amomum zingiber Linn.  Baseng (Ilk.) 
Amomum zinzibaa Hill . [Spelling variant] Gengibre (Span.) 
Curcuma longifolia Wall.  Laial (Sbl.) 
Zingiber cholmondeleyi (F.M.Bailey) K.Schum.  Laiya (If.) 
Zingiber majus Rumph.  Laya (Ilk., Bon., Ibn., It.) 
Zingiber missionis Wall.  Luy-a (Bis.) 
Zingiber officinale Roscoe Luya (Tag.) 
Zingiber sichuanense Z. Y. Zhu, S.L.Zhang & S.X.Chen Common ginger (Engl.)
Zingiber zingiber (L.) H.Karst. [Invalid] Ginger (Engl.)  
Zingiber officinale Roscoe is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names (35)
ARABIC: Skînzhbîr (Morocco), Zanjabil.
ASSAMESE: Aadaa.
BENGALI: Aadaa (plant), Ada, Adrak.
BOSNIAN: Crni ingver, Đumbir, Gingibar, Isiot, Isnot, Mrki ingver, Pravi ingver, Vruća trava, Zinđefil.
BULGARIAN: Dzhindzhifil.
BURMESE: Gyin.
CHINESE: Qiang jiang, Zi jiang, Lao jiang.
CROATIAN: Cencer, Crni ingver, Đumber, Gingibar, Ingver, Isjet, Mrki ingver, Pravi ingver, Zenzer.
CZECH: Dumbír, Zázvor, Zázvor kořen.
DANISH: Ingefaer.
DUTCH: Gember.
ESTONIAN: Harilik ingwer.
FINNISH: Inkivääri.
FRENCH: Gingembre, Gingembre commun, Gingembre officinal, Gingembre traditionnel.
GERMAN: Inbwer, Ingwer.
GREEK: Tzintzer, Piperoriza, Ziggiveris.
HEBREW: Zangvil.
HINDI: Adaraka, Sonth.
HUNGARIAN: Gyömbér.
ITALIAN: Zenzero, Zenzevero, Pepe zenzero.
JAPANESE: Jinjaa, Shouga.
KANNADA: Alla.
KHMER: Khnehey, Khnhei phlung .
KOREAN: Saeng gang.
LAOTIAN: Khing.
MALAY: Halia, Haliya, Haliya merah, Kunyit terus, Aliah, Jae, Jahe, Jahya, Lahya..
MALAYALAM: Inchi, Chuku.
NEPALESE: Aduvaa, Sutho.
NORWEGIAN: Ingefær.
POLISH: Jembier.
PORTUGUESE: Gengibre, Ingever.
PUNJABI: Adrak, Sund.
RUSSIAN: Imbir', Imbir' lekarstvennyi.
SINHALESE: Inguru.
SPANISH: Anchoas, Jengibre.
SWEDISH: Ingefära, Ingefoera.
THAI: Khing, Khing daeng, Khing klaeng, Khing phueak, Sa e.
TURKISH: Zentzephil, Zencefil, Zencebil.
VIETNAMESE: Cây gùng, Gừng, Sinh khương.

Botany
Luya is an erect, smooth plant arising from thickened, very aromatic rootstocks. Leafy stems are 0.4 to 1 meter high. Leaves are distichous, lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 15 to 25 centimeters long, and 2 centimeters wide or less. Scape arising from the rootstocks is erect, 15 to 25 centimeters high, and covered with distant, imbricate bracts. Spike is ovoid to ellipsoid, about 5 centimeters long. Bracts are ovate, cuspidate, about 2.5 centimeters long, and pale green. Calyx is 1 centimeter long or somewhat less. Corolla is greenish yellow, and its tube is less than 2 centimeters long, while the lip is oblong-obovate and slightly purplish.

Distribution
- Widely cultivated in the Philippines.
- Nowhere naturalized.
- Native of tropical Asia.
- Now pantropic.

Constituents
• A methanol extract yielded the presence of terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, and tannins. (See study below) (40)
* Pungent principles, mainly zingerone and shogaol, provides the characteristic taste.
• The most biologically active phenolic compounds, gingerols and shogaols, are found in the root.
• Volatile oil, 1.23 to 3% - gingerol, zingerone, zingiberene, cineol, borneol, phellandrene, citral, zingiberene, linalool, geraniol, chavicol, vanillyl alcohol, camphene; resin.

• Study on concentrations (%) of essential oil and phenols in fresh (F) and dried (D) gingers yielded: essential oils: 0.267 ± 0.027 (F) and 0.147 ± 0.034 (D); phenols: 0..249 ± 0.027 (F) and 1.605 ± 0.068 (D). Main constituents of essential oils in fresh and dried ginger were: ß-bisabolene 4.140 and 2.755; bornel 2.415 and 3.040; camphene 17.365 and 12.635; 1,8-cineole 5.083 and16.910; α-curcumene 6.210 and 4.427; geranial 6.613 and 4.513; limonene 12.708 and 16.720; v-muurolene 9.476 and 9.025; Neral 4.140 and 0.000; α-pinene 5.405 and 3.534;ß-sesquiphellandrene 5.750 and 4.275; and α- zingiberene 9.476 and 8.930, respectively. (see study below) (54)

Properties
• Extracts and active constituents have shown potent antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antimutagenic, antimicrobial and possible anticancer activities.
Considered adaptogenic, anodyne, anthelmintic, antiallergenic, antibacterial, anticoagulant, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, antifungal, antithrombotic, antitumore, antiulcer, aphrodisiac, carminative, diuretic, rubefacient, anti-platelet aggregation, hypolipidemic, thermoregulatory.
Pungency is attributed to the pungent principle, zingerone and shogaol, while the aroma is imparted by the volatile oil.

Considered stomachic, carminative, stimulant, diaphoretic, sialagogue, and digestive.

Parts utilized
Tops, leaves and edible roots.

Uses
Nutritional
- One of the most popular flavoring agents.
- Used as flavoring for confectioneries, ginger ale, ginger beer, ginger champagnes, and other beverages.
- Tahu or salabat, a native beverage, is prepared from the rhizomes.
- A prominent condiment in Filipino cuisine.
- Taken with rock salt before meals is cleansing to the tongue and throat and increases the appetite.
- In Malaya fresh ginger is an important ingredient in curry.
Folkloric
- In the Philippines, pounded rhizome, alone or mixed with oil, used as revulsive and antirheumatic.
- As antiseptic, tincture of dried rhizome prepared with 70% alcohol (not rubbing alcohol) and applied on superficial cuts and wounds; or, juice from fresh rhizome used similarly.
- As digestive aid and for flatulence and tympanism, decoction of the rhizome drunk as tea.
- Ginger juice rubbed on and around the navel is said to cure all kinds of diarrhea.
- For rheumatism, roasted rhizome is pounded and mixed with oil and applied locally.
- For sore throat and hoarseness, warm decoction of the rhizome is drunk as ginger tea (salabat); piece of small rhizome chewed for the same.
- Rhizome used as cough remedy, rubefacient, carminative and diuretic.
- Also used for hangovers.
- For chronic rheumatism, ginger infusion ( 2 drams in 6 ounces of boiling water and strained) is taken at bedtime
- Poulticed of pounded and warmed leaves applied to bruises.
- Ginger taken with rock salt before meals is said to clean the tongue and throat and increase the appetite.
- Chewing ginger is said to diminish biliousness and delirium, relieve sore throat, hoarseness and aphonia, and increases the flow of saliva.
- Dried ginger used as corrective adjunct to purgatives to prevent nausea and intestinal pain.
- Juice from fresh ginger in gradually increasing doses is a strong diuretic in cases of general dropsy.
- For headaches: Ginger plaster (bruised ginger in water to the consistency of poultice) is applied to the forehead. Same preparation may be helpful for toothaches and facial pain.
- Hot infusion used for stoppage of menses due to cold.
- In Indo-China, cataplasm used for furuncles; when mixed with oil is antirheumatic. Rhizomes also used for tuberculosis, general fatigue and uterine affections.
- In Perak, rhizomes used as vermifuge.
- In the Antilles powdered rhizome used as revulsive for pleuritis.
- In Ayurvedic medicine, used for inflammation and rheumatism.
- In India, used as carminative adjunct along with black pepper and long pepper.
- In Chinese folk medicine, pulverized fresh ginger used for baldness and vitiligo. Juice from fresh root used for treatment of burns.
New uses
Motion Sickness / Pregnancy-related Nausea: Antiemetic properties. Used for Nausea, motion sickness (1 gm taken 1/2 hour before the voyage). Stimulates digestion. Possibly antiinflammatory.
Preparations
• Ginger tea

Ginger tea preparation, the Chinese way : Bring one cup of water to boil. Add one teaspoon of the roasted (parched and browned) rice and a small piece of ginger root. Boil for one minute. Let stand to cool for drinking. (Preparation of dried rice: Pour enough water to cover 1/2 cup white rice in a flat dish; and let stand overnight. In the morning, drain off the excess water. Roast the rice in a dry pan, stirring constantly until parched and brown. Store in a glass jar for future use, tightly covered to keep moisture out.)
• Ginger lozenges
• Wash and peel the ginger, then mince.
• Spread and air-dry for a day or oven-dry at 250 C.
• Grind and strain the dried ginger.
* In a mortar, mix 1 cup ground ginger and 1 cup confectioner's sugar.
• Pound and mix while gradually adding water until a pulp is formed.
• Level the pulp on a board lined with wax paper.
• Using a mold, make balls from the pulp and wrap each lozenge in aluminum foil.


Studies
Prokinetic:
Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of ginger in gastrointestinal disorders: Study confirmed prokinetic activity of the extract. Spasmolytic constituents may explain its use in hyperactive states as in colic and diarrhea.
Antidiarrheal: Study results indicate that in the absence of antimicrobial action, Z officinale exhibits its antidiarrheal activity by affecting bacterial and host cell metabolism.
Antibacterial: (1) Antibacterial Activity Of Allium cepa (Onions) And Zingiber officinale (Ginger) On Staphylococcus aureus And Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated From High Vaginal Swab: The study showed both plants had antibacterial activity on the test organisms, ginger having more inhibitory effect, and confirming their folkloric use. (2) In a study on the comparative effect of ginger and some antibiotics on two pathogenic bacteria, results showed the ginger extract of both plant and root showed the highest antibacterial activity against S. aureus and Strep pyogenes while three antibiotics showed less extent of activity compared to the ginger extract.
Anti-inflammatory / Anti-thrombotic: The use of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) as a potential anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic agent: Study suggests ginger can be used as a cholesterol-lowering, anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory agent.
Antioxidant / Anticancer: Study showed Zingiber officinale may exert its anticancer effect by replacing the action of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase in removing superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide causing oxidative damage to cells.
Antibacterial (Garlic/Ginger) Synergism: Study investigated the therapeutic effects of ginger and garlic against Klebsiella pneumonia, whether the combined extract could be synergistic or antagonistic in rats. Study showed a synergistic relationship, garlic ameliorating the efficacy of ginger only against Klebsiella infection.

Anti-Inflammatory / Anti-Arthritis / Prostaglandin Inhibition: Study suggests one of the mechanisms by which ginger shows ameliorative effects could be through inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotrine biosynthesis - as a dual inhibitor of eicosanoid biosynthesis.
Gastroprotective: Study results suggest cytoprotective and anti-ulcerogenic effects with significant protection against ethanol-, HCl-, NaOH-induced gastric lesions and prevention of the occurrence of gastric ulcers induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and hypothermic restrain stress.
Decreased Sperm Motility: Study results conclude that ginger can induce toxic effects on sperm parameters, ie, a lower percentage of motility and grading when methanolic ginger is added to semen fluid.
Hepatoprotective: Study of the ethanol extract of Z officinale showed protective effect against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity with better protective effect at higher dose levels.
Anti-Aging: Study in mice showed ginger extract significantly reduced the development of atherosclerotic lesions and lowered LDL-cholesterol.
Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic: Study of rhizome extract in Swiss mice showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties with significant inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema and reduction of writhing induced by acetic acid.
Pregnancy-Related Nausea: Reasonable evidence suggests that ginger roots is effective in reducing pregnancy-related nausea. However, there is conflicting data on its efficacy for preventing motion sickness or post-operative nausea.
Anti-Inflammatory / Antibacterial / Hypoglycemic / Analgesic: Study of ethanol extract showed (1) reduction of carrageenan-induced paw swelling and yeast-induced fever (2) blood glucose lowering (3) inhibition of gram- and gram+ bacteria (4) dose-dependent prostaglandin release inhibition.
Analgesic: Study demonstrated the daily consumption of raw and heat-treated ginger resulted in moderate to large reduction in muscle pain following exercise-induced muscle injury. The findings agree with findings of ginger's hypoalgesic effects in osteoarthritic patients.
Antiarthritic: Study of the alcoholic extract of ZO can ameliorate inflammatory processes in rat collagen-induced arthritis, together with reduction of serum levels of interleukins, TNF, and anti-CII antibodies. It also showed to be superior to indomethacin 2 mg/kg/d at most measured parameters. The extract presents an alternative to NSAID use in RA.
Hypoalgesic Effect on Exercise-Induced Muscle Pain: Study on healthy volunteers showed daily consumption of raw and heat-treated ginger resulted in moderate to large reductions in muscle pain following exercise-induced muscle injury. (18)
Anticancer / Anti-Inflammatory: Ginger extract significantly reduced the expression of NFkB and TNF-a in rats with liver cancer. It may act as an anticancer and anti-inflammatory by inactivating NFkB through suppression of proinflammatory TNF-a.
Delayed Diabetic Cataract Progression: Results showed ginger was effective against the development of diabetic cataracts in rats, mainly through its antiglycating potentiation, and also, through an inhibition of the polyol pathway. As such, dietary sources, such as ginger, can be explored for its potential in preventing or delaying diabetic complications. (23)
Neuroprotective / Memory Benefits: Study showed cognitive function and neurons density in rat hippocampus receiving ginger rhizome extract were improved white the brain infarct volume decreased. The effect may be through antioxidant activity of the extract. Results demonstrate the beneficial effect of ginger rhizome in protecting against focal cerebral ischemia. (24)
Anti-Ulcerogenic Effect / Acetic Acid Induced Colitis: Study in a model of acute colitis showed ginger hydroalcoholic extract was effective in protecting against experimental colitis. (25)
Antidiabetic / Amylase and Glucosidase Enzyme Inhibitory Effect: Studies have targeted digestive enzymes as targets for modulation of glucose concentration through inhibition of enzymatic breakdown of complex carbohydrates. In this study, glucosidase and amylase activities on rice were inhibited by the addition of ginger with consequent significant reduction in glucose percentages. Results were comparable to Acarbose on glucosidase activity. (26)
Antimicrobial / Anticancer: Study has showed many diarylheptanoids and gingerol-related compounds from the rhizome of ZO possess significant antiproliferation activity on HL-60 cells, probably through induction of cell apoptosis. Another study has shown ginger extract and 6-gingerol to both directly interfere with colon cancer proliferation. Results show ginger's phytochemical potential for chemoprevention and therapy. In this study, the ethanol and chloroform extracts were found to possess antibacterial properties against 8 microorganisms.(27)
Antidiabetic / Hypolipidemic: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of raw ginger for hypoglycemic potential of ginger in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Raw ginger was significant effective in lowering serum glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerol levels. Results indicate hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic potential. Raw ginger was also effective in reversing diabetic proteinuria in diabetic rats. (30)
Cytotoxicity / Toxicity / Anticancer Activity / Cholangiocarcinoma: Study evaluated a crude ethanolic extract of ginger against CCA in mice. Results from in vitro and in vivo studies showed promising anticancer activity with an absence of any significant toxicity. However, MDR1 and MRP3 may be involved in CCA resistance to the ginger extract.(31)
Cognitive Enhancer / Middle-Aged Women: Study evaluated the effect of ginger extract on cognitive function of middle-aged, healthy women. Ginger-treated groups have significant decrease in P300 latencies, increased N100 and P300 amplitudes, with enhanced working memory. Results suggest ginger to be a potential cognitive enhancer for middle-aged women. (32)
Anti-Liver Fibrosis: Extracts of ginger, particularly the ethanolic one, showed potential benefits for the treatment of liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Evaluation was done using antioxidant parameters, liver markers and liver function enzymes, and cholestatic markers. (33)
Cardiovascular Toxic Effects: Study evaluated the acute and subacute cardiovascular toxicity of ginger in adult male albino rats. In high doses (500mg/kg) for 28 days, ginger produced both hypotension and bradycardia with degenerative changes in cardiac myocyte fibers. The effects may be partially due to vasodilatation with increased nitric oxide release or synthesis and partly from a calcium channel blocking effect, and perhaps, a cholinomimetic effect.(34)
Ginger Benefits in Acute Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea: In a double-blind, multicenter trial using placebo and various doses of ginger, results showed all doses of ginger significantly reduced acute nausea compared to placebo. Results suggest ginger supplementation at a daily dose of 0.5 g to 1.0 g significantly helps in reducing the severity of acute chemotherapy-induced nausea. (35)
Ginger Essential Oil for Post-Operative Nausea and Vomiting: A 5% solution of essential oil of ginger in grape seed carrier oil, applied naso-cutaneously, can be administered safely for prevention and management of nausea in general anesthesia patients at high risk for post-operative nausea and vomiting.(36)
Synthesis of Nanoparticles: Study synthesized silver nanoparticles using Zingiber officinale extract which acts as reducing agent as well as a stabilizing agent. The nanoparticles were stable at physiologic conditions and were blood compatible. Z. officinale is reported to be a more portent antiplatelet agent than aspirin. Its use as vectors for applications in drug therapy, gene delivery or as biosensors, where there is direct blood contact is justified by the study. (37)
Pro-Fertility Reproductive Functions: Study investigated the effects of an aqueous extract of Z. officinale in male reproductive functions in rats. Treatment cause a significant increase in testes and epididymis weight, with dose and duration dependent increases in sperm count and motility, a significant increase in testosterone level, and significant reduction of malonhydialdehyde levels. Results suggest pro-fertility properties which may be due to its potent antioxidant properties and androgenic activities. (38)
Hepatoprotection / Heavy Metals: Study evaluated the protective activity of Z. officinale against mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the liver. Z. officinale affected bioavailability, elimination and uptake of the metals in a time-dependent manner with highest benefit in reducing Cd, followed by Hg and least protection to Pb in the liver. (39)
Antibacterial: Study evaluated crude aqueous and organic extracts of rhizome of Z. officinale against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The pattern of inhibition varied with solvent used for extraction and organism tested. Extracts from organic solvents showed more consistent antibacterial activity. Staphylococcus aureus was significant inhibited by almost all the extracts. (40)
Chemopreventive Against Aspartame Induced Testicular Toxicity / Roots: Study evaluated the chemopreventive effect of Z. officinale roots against aspartame induced rat testicular toxicity. Pretreatment with ginger extract produced a detectable decrease in lipid peroxidation level. Natural components may have chemopreventive effects against aspartame related testicular toxicity. (41)
Terpenoids Induce Apoptosis in Endometrial Cancer Cells: Study showed terpenoids in steam distilled extract of ginger are potent inhibitors of proliferation of endometrial cancer cells. Terpenoids from SDGE mediate apoptosis by activating p53. (42)
Anti-Inflammatory in Type 2 Diabetes: Study evaluated the effect of ginger on pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-a) and the acute phase protein hs-CRP in type2 diabetic patients. Results showed ginger supplementation significantly reduced the levels of TNF-a, IL-6, and hs-CRP.
It can reduce inflammation in type 2 diabetic patients and may potentially diminish the risk of some chronic complications of diabetes. (43)
Anti-Ulcerogenic / NSAID Induced Gastric Damage: Study evaluated the anti-ulcerogenic activity of an extract of Z. officinale in indomethacin (NSAID) induced gastric damage in an animal model. The ginger root significantly the gastric damage induced by indomethacin with an efficacy comparable to omeprazole. (44)
Gingerol / Anti-Diabetic: Study investigating active constituents of the rhizome of Z. officinale identified pungent phenolic gingerol constituents, of which (S)-[6] Gingerol was the most abundant component. (S)-[8]-gingerol was the most potent on glucose uptake, the activity of which was found associated primarily with an increase in surface distribution of GLUT4 in L6 muscle. The increase glucose uptake in L6 rat skeletal muscle cells by gingerol pungent principles support the potential for the use of ginger and its pungent components in the prevention and management of T2DM. (45)
Antioxidant on Formalin-Induced Testicular Toxicity: Study investigated the possible antioxidant activity of Z. officinale ethanol extract on formalin-induced testicular toxicity in rats. A 10% formalin triggered oxidative stress in testicles with a significant increase of MDA concentration. Rats exposed to formalin and treated with the ginger extract significantly increased catalase (CAT) activity. Z. officinale showed protective neutraceutical capacity to help overcome the oxidative stress induced by the formalin. (46)
Antifungal / Synergism: Study evaluated the effect of an ethanolic extract of ginger on candida albicans in vitro. Results showed pronounced activities against Candida albicans. Although ethanol in itself has antifungal activity, the ethanol extract of ginger has synergistic activity. (47)
• Improvement of Growth and Enhanced Immunity in Aquaculture: Review focuses on the use of ginger as growth promoter, antimicrobial agent, and antioxidant and as immunostimulant in aquaculture. (49)
• Potential Use in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Zingiber officinale has been traditionally used as alternative medicine for rheumatoid arthritis. Review discusses variious phytochemical constituents of ginger with potential therapeutic roles in amelioration of RA symptoms and possibly RA itself. (50)
• Homeopathic Z. officinale in the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris: A prospective, non-randomized open-llabel study evaluated the effectiveness of homeopathic Z. officinale for the treatment of acne vulgaris in 32 participants. Results showed statistically significnt (p<0.001) changes in lesion counts, GAGS scores and Acne-QoL scores were observed. (52)
• Effects of Ginger on Nausea and Vomiting in Early Pregnancy / Meta-Analysis: A meta-analysis of clinical trials was conducted on the use of ginger for NVEP. Criteria selected were: (1) randomized placebo-controlled design; (2 use of ginger or Z. officinale; and (3) extractable data on improvement in NVEP. Meta-analysis concludes that ginger is an effective nonpharmacological option for the treatment of NVEP. (53)
• Differences in Active Compounds between Fresh and Dried Gingers: Studies have shown differences in the chemical compositions between fresh and dried gingers. There are two groups of active compounds: volatile essential oils and fragrant or harsh phenol compounds. Fresh ginger yielded 38 compounds while dried ginger yielded 43 compounds. Dried ginger yielded seven more compounds: linalool, terpinen-4-ol, a-terpineol, citronellol, ß-neral, o-elemene, and neryl acetate. By contrast, neral and trans-farnesal in fresh ginger are not detected in dried ginger. (see constiituents above) (link to study for details on constituents) (54)
• Antispasmodic: Study evaluated the antispasmodic effect of ginger on rat intestine in vitro. The antispasmogenic effect of ginger was apparent in the in vitro experiment on rat jejunum as eviidenced by reduction in magniture of ACh induced contraction. (55)
• Effect on Salivation: Study evaluated the effect of systemic administration of seven different herbal extracts on the rate of salivation in rats. Of the seven, the salivation induced by ginger was significantly higher (p<0.01). Further studies are suggested to identify the responsible constituent for stimulation of saliva secretion. (56)
• Renoprotective Effects in Glycerol Induced Damage: Study evaluated the protective effects of ginger extract on glycerol-induced acute renal failure in Sprague-Dawley rats. The ginger extract significantly decreased the markedly increased serum creatinine, Na+ and BUN in glycerol-treated rats. All adverse effects were reversed by ginger supplementation. Results suggest ginger can be used as a nephroprotective nutrient. (57)
• Acute and Subacute Cardiotoxicity: Study evaluated the acute and subacute cardiovascular toxicity of ginger in adule male albino rats. In acute toxicity study, a single dose of 2500 mg/kg can be toxic by causing severe hypotension and bradycardia with induction of prenecrotic changes in the cardiac tissue. In subacute toxicity testing, a daily dose of 50 mg/kg for 28 days produced bradycardia with waviness in the cardiac muscle fibers; 500 mg/kg for 28 days produced hypotension and bradycardia with degenerative changes in cardiac myocyte tissue. The hypotensive and bradycardic effects may be partially due to induction of vasodilatation by increasing NO release or synthesis and partially due to calcium channel blocking effect. (58)
• Antimicrobial: Study evaluated various extracts of onions (Allium cepa) and ginger (Z. officinale) against E. coli, S. typhi, and B subtilis, common causes of gastrointestinal infects. The ethanolic extract of ginger gave the widest zone of inhibition against two of the three test organisms. Although both plants had antiimicrobial activities on the two gram negative test organisms but not effective on the gram positive test organism, ginger showed more inhibitory effect. (59)
• Anti-Parasitic on Limnatis nilotica: Study evaluated the anti-parasitc effect of Z. officinale on Limnatis nilotica leech population. Results showed antiparasitic and disinfectant activities causing less toxic effects than chemical drugs. (60)
• Effect on Platelet Aggregation: Review did a systematic review on results of clinical and observational studies on the effect of gnger on platelet aggregation. Review concludes that the evidence that ginger affects platelet aggregation and coagulation is equivocal and further study is need to address the question. (61)
Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of ginger in adult albino rats in acute and chronic inflammatory settings. Results showed decreased signs of both acute and chronic inflammation and was comparable to standard anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium. (62)
• Effect on Fatty Liver Induced by Oxytetracycline: Study evaluated the potential therapeutic and protective effects of Z. officinale against oxytetracycline induced fatty liver in albino rats. Treatment with ginger ameliorated most of the abnormal biochemical parameters and improved the induced degenerative histopathological changes. Pretreatment with ginger prior to induction of fatty liver gave some protection against factors that experimentally induced fatty liver. (63)
• Antiparasitic / Anti-Toxoplasmosis / Roots: Study evaluated the antiparasitic effect of ginger root extract and GE/F1 fraction against Toxoplasma gondii in vitro and in vivo. The GE/F1 strongly inhibited the proliferation of T. gondii-infected C6 cells and T. gondii in a dose-dependent manner compared to sulfadiazine. The GE/F1 not only induces anti-T. gongii effects causing inactivation of apoptotic proteins in infected hos cells through direct inhibition of T. gondii but also has antiparasitic properties which inhbit inflammatory cytokine secretion in vivo. (64)
• Effect on Serum Lipids: Study evaluated the lipid lowering activity of ginger in male rabbits. Results showed highly significant reduction in cholesterol together with highly significant reduction of triglycerides and LDL. The ginger extract was more efficient than atorvastatin in lowering of lipids. (65)
• Anti-Emetic in Cancer Chemotherapy / Review: Review presents the anti-emetic observations and variability in response of the anti-emetic effects of ginger in cancer chemotherapy. Preclinical studies with experimental animals (dogs and rats have shown various extracts and ginger juice possess anti-emetic effects against chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Gingerl, the active principle, has been shown to possess anti-emetic effects in minks. In humans, while most studies have been supportive of preclinical observations, s few have beenn contradictory. While the exact anti-emetic mechanism is unknown, ginger phytochemicals, especially 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogaol, may function as 5-HT3 antagonist, NK1 antagonist, antihistamiic, and possess prokinetic effects. (66)
• Antidepressant: Study evaluated the effect of Z. officinale hydroalcoholic extract as well as its interaction with conventional anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs usiing tail suspension and forced swim tests. Results showed antidepressant activity comparable to standard drug. The antidepressant effect seem to be mainly associated with activation of dopaminergic system. (67)
• Extraction of Z. officinale Oil by Soxhlet Distillation: Zingiberene is the main compound of ginger. Study reports on the extraction of ginger oil by Soxhlet distillation. Of four solvent types, methanol gave the highest yield of ZO oil at 8 hours extraction time which is 27.33% of mass yield. (68)

Concerns / Drug Interactions
• The German Commission E recommends that it be avoided during pregnancy due to possible inhibition of testosterone binding in the fetus.
• The use in pregnancy for hyperemesis gravidarum is controversial. Some suggest it should not be recommended for nausea during pregnancy. Caution is given to use by pregnant women with a history of bleeding disorders and miscarriages. (see meta-analysis study above 53)
• Anticoagulant concerns:
Ginger can have moderate Interactions with medications that slow blood clotting (anticoagulants) and drugs that can decrease platelet adhesiveness (antiplatelet drugs) with increased potential for bruising and bleeding. Other medications that may slow blood clotting are clopidogrel, diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen, dalteparin, enoxaparin, heparin, warfarin, and others. (51)
• Minor interactions: Medications for diabetes may interact with ginger and cause lowering of blood sugar (glimepiride, glyburine, insuln, pioglitazone, glipizide, etc.). Ginger can also interact with medicines that lower blood pressure such as calcium channel blockers (nifedipine, diltiazen, felodipine, amlodipine, and others.) (51)


Availability
Wild-crafted.
Popular condiment and perennial market produce.
Candied ginger and lozenges.
Dried powdered gingeroot.
Tinctures, tablets, capsules, syrups and teas in the cybermarket.


Updated June 2017 / April 2014


Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Plate fromm book / File:Zingiber officinale Blanco1.131-cropped.jpg / Francisco Manuel Blanco (O.S.A.) / 1880-1883 / Flora de Filipinas / Public Domain / Modifications by Carol Spears / Wikimedia Commons
SOURCES

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of ginger in gastrointestinal disorders
(2)
Antibacterial Activity Of Allium cepa (Onions) And Zingiber officinale (Ginger) On Staphylococcus aureus And Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated From High Vaginal Swab
(3)
The use of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) as a potential anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic agent
(4)
Bioactive compounds from Punica granatum, Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale and their therapeutic potential
(5)
Ginger tea preparation
(Healing the Filipino Body and Spirit by Marie Castillo Pruden. Filipinas Magazine)
(6)

Ginger lozenges
(Herbs and Spices. Ernesta Quintana. Negosiyete Plus, July 1993)
(7)
Effects of Zingiber officinale on Superoxide Dismutase, Glutathione Peroxidase, Catalase, Glutathione and Malondialdehyde Content in HepG2 Cell Line / Harliansyah Abdul Hanif et al / Malaysian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 11 (5). pp. 36-41
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Effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) on rats infected with Kleibsiella pneumoniae / Adeoti Olatunde Micheal M.Sc.et al / The Internet Journal of Alternative Medicine. 2009 Volume 7 Number 1
(9)
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) in rheumatism and musculoskeletal disorders / K Srivastava and T Mustafa / Medical Hypotheses, Volume 39, Issue 4, Pages 342-348

(10)
Antidiarrhoeal activity of Zingiber officinale / Poonam G Daswani et al / CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 98, NO. 2, 25 JANUARY 2010
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Gastroprotective Activity of Ginger ZingiberOfficinale Rose, in Albino Rats / M A Ai-Yahya et al / American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Vol. XVII, Nos 1-2, pp. 51-56, 1988
(12)
The Effects of Methanolic Extracts of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Human Sperm Parameters; An in vitro Study / S G A Jorsarael et al / Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 11: 1723-1727. / DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2008.1723.1727
(13)
Protective Effect of the Ethanol Extract of Zingiber officinale Roscoe on Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats / Norina Abdullah et al / Jurnal Sains Kesihatan Malaysia 2(2) 2004: 85-95
(14)
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) / WorldHealth.net
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ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC PROPERTIES OF THE RHIZOME EXTRACT OF ZINGIBER OFFICINALE / Rajiy Udoh U S et al / Afr. J. Biomed. Res. Vol. 5 (2002) ; 121 – 124
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Ginger (Zingiber officinale)

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Ethnopharmacologic investigation of ginger (Zingiber officinale)
/ N Mascilo, R Jain et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol 27, Issues 1-2, November 1989, Pages 129-140 / doi:10.1016/0378-8741(89)90085-8 |
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Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Reduces Muscle Pain Caused by Eccentric Exercise / Christopher D Black et al / doi:10.1016/j.jpain.2009.12.013
(19)
Evaluation of the Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Zingiber officinale Rhizomes in Rat Collagen-induced Arthritis / AM Fouda and M Y Berika / Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol (2009)
(20)
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Reduces Muscle Pain Caused by Eccentric Exercise / Christopher Black, Matthew Herring et al / The Journal of Pain, Volume 11, Issue 9 , Pages 894-903, September 2010
(21)
Comparative studies of antibacterial effect of some antibiotics and ginger (Zingiber officinale) on two
pathogenic bacteria
/ A Sebiomo, A D Awofodu, A O Awosanya et al / Journal of Microbiology and Antimicrobials Vol. 3(1), pp. 18-22, January 2011
(22)
Ginger Extract (Zingiber Officinale) has Anti-Cancer and Anti-Inflammatory Effects on Ethionine-Induced Hepatoma Rats / Shafina Hanin Mohd Habib, Suzana Makpoi et al / Clinics. 2008 December; 63(6): 807–813. / doi: 10.1590/S1807-59322008000600017.
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Antiglycating potential of Zingiber officinalis and delay of diabetic cataract in rats / Megha Saraswat, Palla Suryanarayana, Paduru Yadagiri Reddy et al / Molecular Vision 2010; 16:1525-1537
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Zingiber officinale Mitigates Brain Damage and Improves Memory Impairment in Focal Cerebral Ischemic Rat / Jintanaporn Wattanathorn, Jinatta Jittiwat, Terdhai Tongun et al / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 429505 / doi:10.1155/2011/429505
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Anti-ulcerogenic effect of ginger (rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe) hydroalcoholic extract on acetic acid-induced acute colitis in rats / M. Minaiyan, A Ghannadi et al / Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, October 2008; 3(2): 15-22
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Amylase and glucosidase enzyme inhibitory activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) an in vitro study / Abeysekara W K, Chandrasekara A, Liyanage P K / Tropical agricultural research, Vol 19, 2007
(27)
Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Zingiber officinalis Extracts
/ Fabad J / Pharm Sci, 33, 77-86, 2008
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Zingiber officinale Roscoe (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
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Sorting Zingiber names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
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Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. / Al-Amin ZM, Thomson M, Al-Qattan KK, Peltonen-Shalaby R, Ali M. / Br J Nutr. 2006 Oct;96(4):660-6.
(31)
A Study on Cytotoxicity, Toxicity and Anticancer Activity of Zingiber officinale Roscoe Against Cholangiocarcinoma / Tullayakorn Plengsuriyakarn , Vithoon Viyanant , Veerachai Eursitthichai , Smarn Tesana , Wanna Chaijaroenkul , Arunporn Itharat and Kesara Na-Bangchang / Research Journal of Pharmacology, 2012 , Vol 6, No 3, Pp 35-47 / DOI: 10.3923/rjpharm.2012.35.47
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Zingiber officinale Improves Cognitive Function of the Middle-Aged Healthy Women / Naritsara Saenghong, Jintanaporn Wattanathorn, Supaporn Muchimapura, Terdthai Tongun, Nawanant Piyavhatkul, Chuleratana Banchonglikitkul, and Tanwarat Kajsongkram / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2012 / doi:10.1155/2012/383062

(33)
Zingiber officinale acts as a nutraceutical agent against liver fibrosis
/ Tarek K Motawi, Manal A Hamed*, Manal H Shabana, Reem M Hashem and Asmaa F Aboul Naser / Nutrition & Metabolism 2011, 8:40 doi:10.1186/1743-7075-8-40
(34)
A STUDY OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR TOXIC EFFECTS OF ZINGIBER OFFICINALE (GINGER) IN ADULT MALE ALBINO RATS AND ITS POSSIBLE MECHANISMS OF ACTION
/ Iman A. Elkhishin and Ibrahim A. Awwad* / Mansoura J. Forensic Med. Clin. Toxicol. Vol. XVII, No. 2, July 2009
(35)
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) reduces acute chemotherapy-induced nausea: a URCC CCOP study of 576 patients / Ryan JL, Heckler CE, Roscoe JA, Dakhil SR, Kirshner J, Flynn PJ, Hickok JT, Morrow GR. / Support Care Cancer. 2012 Jul;20(7):1479-89. doi: 10.1007/s00520-011-1236-3. Epub 2011 Aug 5.
(36)
The essential oil of ginger, Zingiber officinale, and anaesthesia / James L. Geiger* / The International Journal of Aromatherapy (2005) 15, 7–14 / doi:10.1016/j.ijat.2004.12.002
(37)
Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles with Zingiber officinale Extract and Study of its Blood Compatibility /
K. Praveen Kumar, Willi Paul, Chandra P. Sharma / BioNanoScience, September 2012, Volume 2, Issue 3, pp 144-152
(38)
Effects of Zingiber Officinale on Reproductive Functions in the Male Rat / Morakinyo A. O, Adeniyi O. S and Arikawe A. P / African Journal of Biomedical Research, Vol. 11 (2008); 329 - 334
(39)
Comparative study on the hepatoprotection to heavy metals of Zingiber officinale
. / Chukwuemeka R Nwokocha, Daniel U Owu, Magdalene I Nwokocha, Chibueze S Ufearo, Moses O E Iwuala / Pharmacognosy research 10/2012; 4(4):208-13 / DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.10226
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Evaluation of Various Crude Extracts of Zingiber officinale Rhizome for Potential Antibacterial Activity: A Study in Vitro / Purshotam Kaushik, Pankaj Goyal / Advances in Microbiology, Vol. 1 No. 1, 2011, pp. 7-12. doi: 10.4236/aim.2011.11002.
(41)
Study Of The Chemopreventive Effects Of Zingiber Officinale Roots Against Aspartame Induced Testicular Toxicity In Rat Model / Aalaa G. Hozayen , Hanan A. Soliman and Howida S. Abou Seif / Reviews of Progress, Vol 1, Issue 40, Jan 2014 / DOI : 10.9780/2321-3485/1322013/74
(42)
Terpenoids from Zingiber officinale (Ginger) Induce Apoptosis in Endometrial Cancer Cells through the Activation of p53 / Yang Liu, Rebecca J. Whelan, Bikash R. Pattnaik, Kai Ludwig, Enkateswar Subudhi, Helen Rowland, Nick Claussen, Noah Zucker, Shitanshu Uppal, David M. Kushner, Mildred Felder, Manish S. Patankar mail, Arvinder Kapur / DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053178
(43)
Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Zingiber Officinale in Type 2 Diabetic Patients / Sepide Mahluji, Alireza Ostadrahimi*, Majid Mobasseri, Vahide Ebrahimzade Attari, Laleh Payahoo / Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 2013, 3(2), 273-276 / doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5681/apb.2013.044
(44)
Evaluation of the anti-ulcerogenic effect of Zingiber officinale (Ginger) root in rats / Sameer Uz Zaman, Mrutyunjay M Mirje and S. Ramabhimaiah / International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 2014, 3(1): 347-354.
(45)
Gingerols of Zingiber officinale Enhance Glucose Uptake by Increasing Cell Surface GLUT4 in Cultured L6 Myotubes / Yiming Li, Van H. Tran, Colin C. Duke, Basil D. Roufogalis / Planta Med 2012; 78(14): 1549-1555
DOI: 10.1055/s-0032-1315041
(46)
Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of Zingiber Officinale (Ginger) on Formalin-Induced Testicular Toxicity in Rats / T. I. Rasyidah, S. Suhana, H. Nur-Hidayah, M. A. Kaswandi, and R. M. Noah / Journal of Medical and Bioengineering Vol. 3, No. 3, September 2014 / doi: 10.12720/jomb.3.3.149-153
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Antifungal Activity of Ginger Extract on Candida Albicans: An In-vitro Study / Supreetha.S., Sharadadevi Mannur, Sequeira Peter Simon, Jithesh Jain, Shreyas Tikare, Amit Mahuli / Journal of Dental Sciences and Research, Vol. 2, Issue 2, September 2011
(48)
Zingiber officinale / Synonyms / The Plant List
(49)
Medicinal uses of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) improves growth and enhances immunity in aquaculture / Shubha Ratna Shakya / International Journal of Chemical Studies 2015; 3(2): 83-87
(50)
Zingiber officinale: A Potential Plant against Rheumatoid Arthritis / Abdullah Al-Nahain, Rownak Jahan and Mohammed Rahmatullah / Arthritis, Volume 2014 (2014) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/159089
(51)
Ginger: Interactions / WebMD
(52)
Prospective, non-randomised, open-label study of homeopathic Zingiber officinale (ginger) in the treatment of acne vulgaris / Anjali Miglani and Raj K Manchanda / Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies, Vol 19, Issue 4, Sept 2014 / DOI: 10.1111/fct.12140 
(53)
Effects of Ginger for Nausea and Vomiting in Early Pregnancy: A Meta-Analysis / Maggie Thomson, MD; Renee Corbin, MSc; and Lawrence Leung, MBBChir, MFM / Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, Feb 2014, Vol 27, No 1 / doi: 10.3122/jabfm.2014.01.130167J
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Active Compounds in Gingers and Their Therapeutic Use in Complimentary Medication / Fei-fei Qin • Hui-lian Xu* / Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Science and Biotechnology, 2 (2), 72-78 / ©2008 Global Science Books
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The study of the antispasmodic effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) in vitro / Nemat AZ Yassin, El-Sayed M ElRokh, Siham MA El-shenawy, and Bassant MM Ibrahim / Der Pharmacia Lettre, 2012, 4 (1):263-274
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Evaluation of Effects of Zingiber officinale on Salivation in Rats / Goli Chamani, Mohammad Reza Zarei, Mitra Mehrabani, and Yousef Taghiabadi / Acta Medica Iranica 2011; 49(6): 336-340.
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Preventive and Curative Effects of Zingiber officinale Extract against Histopathological and Ki-67 Immunohistochemical Changes of Glycerol-Induced Acute Renal Failure in Rat / Attalia F El-Kott, Kadry A Al-Bakry, and Waleed A Eltantawy / Journal of Medical Sciences, 15: 25-31. / DOI: 10.3923/jms.2015.25.31
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A STUDY OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR TOXIC EFFECTS OF ZINGIBER OFFICINALE (GINGER) IN ADULT MALE ALBINO RATS AND ITS POSSIBLE MECHANISMS OF ACTION / Iman A. Elkhishin and Ibrahim A. Awwad* / Mansoura J. Forensic Med. Clin. Toxicol. Vol. XVII, No. 2, July 2009
(59)
Antimicrobial Properties of Extracts of Allim cepa (Onions) and Zingiber officinale (Ginger) on Escherichia cvoli, Salmonella typhi, and Bacillus subtilis / N Azu, R Onyeagba / The Internet Journal of Tropical Medicine, 2006, Volume 3 Number 2.
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Anti-Parasitic Activites of Zingiber officinale Methanolic Extract on Limnatis nilotica / Shirin Forouzan, Mahmoud Bahmani, Pouya Parsaei, Ava Mohsenzadegan, Majid Gholami-Ahangaran, Ehsanallah Sadeghi, Kourosh Saki and Mohammad Delirrad / Global Veterinaria 9 (2): 144-148, 2012 ISSN 1992-6197 / DOI: 10.5829/idosi.gv.2012.9.2.63134
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The Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Platelet Aggregation: A Systematic Literature Review / Marx  W, McKavanagh D, McCarthy AL, Bird R, Ried K, Alexandre Chan, Liz Isenring /PLOS ONE 10(11): e0143675 / https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143675 
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EVALUATION OF EFFECT OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF ZINGIBER OFFICINALE ROSCOE (GINGER)
ON ACUTE AND CHRONIC INFLAMMATION IN ADULT ALBINO RATS
/ NAGARAJ B MALIPATIL*, MANJUNATH S, SHRUTHI DP / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol 8, Issue 2, 2015
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Effect of Zingiber officinale on fatty liver induced by oxytetracycline in albino rats. / Eman G.E. Helal, Samia M. Abd El-Wahab, Atef M. Moussa Sharaf and Ghada A. Zedan / The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (Jan. 2012) Vol., 46: 26 – 42
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Antiparasitic effects of Zingiber officinale (Ginger) extract against Toxoplasma gondii / WonHyung Choi*, MeiHua Jiang, JongPhil Chu
(65)
Study The Effect Of Zingiber Officinale Extract On The Serum Lipids In Rabbits / Baha'a A. Abdul-Hussein / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH VOLUME 3, ISSUE 10, OCTOBER 2014
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Zingiber officinale (Ginger) as an Anti-Emetic in Cancer Chemotherapy: A Review / Raghavendra Haniadka, Antappa Govindaraju Rajeev, Princy L. Palatty, Rajesh Arora, and Manjeshwar S. Baliga. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. May 2012, 18(5): 440-444. / https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2010.0737
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Antidepressant Activity of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Zingiber officinale / Singh Rudra Pratap,, Jain Ritesh, Mishra Rahul, Tiwari Prashant / International Reserach Journal of Pharmacy (2012(, 3(2)
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A STUDY ON EXTRACTION OF ZINGIBER OFFICINALE OIL BY USING SOXHLET DISTILLATION / Nur Daniati Binti Zulkifli / Thess, November 2010

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