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Family Ebenaceae

Diospyros blancoi  A.DC.
Mao shi

Scientific names  Common names
Cavanillea mabolo Poir. Kamagong (Tag.)
Cavanillea philippinensis Desr. Mabolo (Tag.)
Diospyros blancoi A. DC. Butter fruit (Engl.)
Diospyros discolor Willd. English butter fruit (Engl.)
Diospyros durionoides Bakh. Iron wood (Engl.)
Diospyros mabolo (Poir.) Roxb. ex Lindl. Mabola tree (Engl.)
Diospyros mabolo Roxb. ex J.V,Thomps.. Mabolo persimmon (Engl.)
Diospyros malacapai A.DC. Velvet apple (Engl.)
Diospyros merrilii Elmer Velvet persimmon (Engl.)
Diospyros philippinensis (Desr.) Gürke  
Diospyros utilis Hemsl.  
Embryopteris discolor (Willd.) G.Don.               
Mabola edulis Raf.  
Diospyros blancoi A.DC. is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
BANGLADESH: Gab. Bilati gab, Gab gach.
CHINESE: Mao shi, Tai wan shi, Yi se shi
FRENCH: Pommier velours.
MALAY: Buah lemah, Buan mentega, Buah sagalat, Kamagong, Kayu mentega.
PORTUGUESE: Pecego-de-India.
SPANISH: Camagon.

Gen info
- Diospyros is a genus of over 700 species of deciduous and evergreen trees and shrubs. The majority are native to the tropics. Individual species valued for hard, heavy, and bark timber are commonly called ebony trees, while species valued for their fruit as called persimmon trees. (36)
- Etymology: The generic name Diospyros derives from Greek words dios, meaning "divine," and pyros, meaning "wheat", literally meaning "Zeus wheat", or more generally, "divine food" or "divine fruit". (36) The species epithet blancoi honors Francisco Manuel Blanco, a Spanish friar and botanist who contributed greatly to the knowledge of and illustration of Philippine flora. (37)
- Diospyros discolor is a tree of the genus Diospyros of ebony trees and persimmons. It is indigenous to the Philippines, where kamagong refers to the tree and mabolo or talang refers to the fruit.

- It is an endangered tree species and protected by Philippine law—It is illegal to export kamagong timber from the country without special permission from the Bureau of Forestry / Department of Environment and Natural Resources. (28)

• Mabolo is a medium-sized tree growing to a height of 20 meters. Leaves are leathery, oblong, up to 20 centimeters long, with a round base and acute tip. The blade is glossy green, smooth above and softly hairy below. Female flowers are axillary and solitary, larger than the male. Fruits are fleshy, globose, up to 8-10 centimeters in diameter, densely covered with short brown hairs. The pulp is edible. The fruit hairs have to be rubbed off before eating as it can cause peri-oral itching and irritation.

An evergreen tree, 7-15 m tall, with a conical crown. Crown: Conical in shape. Trunk: Trunk diameter about 50 to 80 cm wide.
Foliage: Stalked, leathery, alternate leaves are oblong in shape, 8-30cm long by 2.5-12 cm wide, with rounded base and pointed tip. The upper surface is dark-green and shiny, while the lower surface is silvery and hairy. The young leaves are pinkish in color. Flowers: A dioecious plant, with separate plants bearing male or female flowers. The urn-shaped male flowers are borne on axillary cymes, in small clusters of 3-7 flowers. The corolla is four-lobed and creamy white in color. The urn-shaped female flowers are similar in appearance to the male flowers, except that they are solitary, and slightly larger than the male flowers. Fruit: Fleshy berries that are round or slightly flattened on one side. 5-12 cm by 8-10 cm, with a reddish brown velvet skin and creamy white to yellow flesh that is sweet and aromatic. The fruits are said to emit a strong odor that resembles cheese. (37)


- Native to the Philippines.
- In forests, at low and medium altitudes.
- A shade tree, it is planted along roads and parks.

- Also native to Borneo and Taiwan.

• Ethyl acetate extract of air-dried leaves yielded (1) isoarborinol methyl ether, (2) a mixture of α-amyrin palmitate, α-amyrin palmitoleate, ß-amyrin palmitate and ß-amyrin palmitoleate and squalene. (2)
• Yields triterpenes.
• Leaf extract yielded alkaloids, reducing sugar, gum, flavonoids, and tannins.
• Fruit is high in tannin .
• Analysis for phenolic compounds yielded predominant amounts of rosmarinic acid followed by luteolin and hispidulin.

• Study of methanol extract of twigs yielded four new lanostane-type triterpenes, 24-ethyl-3beta-methoxylanost-9(11)-en-25-ol (1), 3beta-methoxy-24-methylenelanost-9(11)-en-25-ol (2), 3beta-methoxy-25-methyl-24-methylenelanost-9(11)-en-21-ol (3) and 3beta-methoxy-24-methyllanosta-9(11),25-dien-24-ol (4) together with three known triterpenes, betulinaldehyde, betulinic acid methyl ester, and ursaldehyde. (18)
• Nutritional analysis per 100 g of edible fruit yields 113 kcal, 26.6 g carbohydrates, 1.5 g fiber, 0.1 g fat, 58 mg calcium, 2.8 g protein, 18 mg phosphorus, 0.6 mg iron, 35 IU vitamin A, 0.02 mg thiamine, 0.03 mg riboflavin, 0.03 mg niacin, and 18 mg vitamin C. (19)
• GC and GC-MS study of mabolo fruit for volatile compounds identified 96 compounds characterized the the presence of many esters, especially benzyl butyrate (33.9% of total composition), butyl butyrate (12.5%) and (E)-cinnamyl butyrate (6.8%) (3)
Nutrient analysis showed the mabolo fruit to be rich in dietary fiber (3.2%) yielding nutrients malic acid (227.1 mg/100g), vitamin B2 (0.075 mg/100g), vitamin B3 (0.157 mg/100g), folic acid (0.623 mg/100g), pantothenic acid (0.19 mg/100g), and choline chloride (62.52 mg/100g), and rich in mineral, calcium (42.8 mg/100g) and zinc (3.6 mg/100g). (see study below) (21)
• Study of methanol extract of leaves yielded alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, and phenols while an ethyl acetate extract showed similar phytochemicals except for an absence of alkaloid. (see study below) (27)
• Study of leaves and stem bark extracts (n-hexane, diichlormethane, and methanol) isolated a new flavonol, 7,4'-dihydroxy-5,3',5'-trimethoxyflavonol (1), along with five known flavonoids and six known triterpenes (7-13). (see study below) (31)

• The fruits vary greatly in shape, color, hairiness and taste, suggesting significant genetic variation in the plant. There are seedless cultivars, much preferred, because the large seeds in the common varieties occupy a considerable volume of the fruit. (28)
• It has an unpleasant, foul cheesy odor which can be dissipated by skin removal and processing.
• Considered astringent, antidiarrheal, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial.

• Studies have suggested antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-diarrheal, anti-tumor, anti-asthma, vasorelaxant, acetylcholinesterase inhibitory, antidiabetic, analgesic, anti-angiogenic, antiaging properties.

Parts utilized
Bark, roots, fruit and leaves.

- Fruit is edible, the tannin content declining as it ripens. It has a taste and aroma comparable to peach.
- A good source of vitamins A, C, and minerals.
- Studies show the fruit has good nutritive value and suggest use for making cakes and tarts. (14)
- Bark and leaves used for itchy skin ailments.
- Decoction of bark for coughs.
- Bark used for fevers, dysentery and diarrhea.
- In Southeast Asia, juice of unripe fruit used for wounds.
- Oil from seeds used for diarrhea and dysentery.
- Infusion of fruit used as gargle in aphthous stomatitis.
- In Bangladesh, juice of bark and leave used for snakebites.
- The Kavirajes of Balidha village in Jessore, Bangladesh, use seeds as aphrodisiac.
- Bark and leaves used as eyewash.
- In Siddha medicine, gum is used to consolidate watery semen.
- Wood: Wood is extremely dense and hard, sometimes referred to as "iron wood",and famous for its dark color. Wood is used for house construction including flooring, posts, doors, windows, furniture and decorative items. It is a popular wood used for martial arts training implements such as bokkens and eskrima sticks. (28)
- Insect repellent: Fresh wood used as insect repellent. (29)

Antioxidant: Twelve selected indigenous Taiwanese plants, including Diospyros discolor, were studied for their antioxidant activity, superoxide radicals scavenging and reducing power activities. D discolor extracts, among others, showed to contain abundant phenolic constituents suggesting a potential source of natural antioxidants. (1)
Bioactive Triterpenes / Antibacterial / Analgesic / Anti-inflammatory / Dried Leaves: Ethyl acetate extract of air-dried leaves yielded (1) isoarborinol methyl ether, (2) a mixture of α-amyrin palmitate, α-amyrin palmitoleate, ß-amyrin palmitate and ß-amyrin palmitoleate and squalene. Compounds 1 and 2 showed antibacterial activity against E coli, P aeruginosa, C albicans, Staph aureus and T. mentagrophytes. Sample 2 showed analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. (2)
Chemical Composition / Volatile Components: Study yielded 96 compounds of which the fruit characterized by the existence of many esters – benzyl butyrate (33.9%), butyl butyrate (12.5% and (E)-cinnamyl butyrate (6.8%). (3)
Constituents / Antioxidant / Antimicrobial: Leaf extract yielded tannins and alkaloids. It showed statistically significant free radical scavenging activity. It showed antidiarrheal property with an increase in latent period of diarrheal induction. Extract also showed significant antimicrobial activity and significant lethality in brine shrimp assay. (5)
Anti-Asthma: Methanolic extract showed anti-inflammatory activity in an airway inflammation mouse model. Histological exam of lung tissue showed marked attenuation of allergen-induced eosinophilic inflammation and mucus-producing goblet cells in the airway. (6)
Biofuel Potential: Mabolo, a much neglected fruit in the Philippines, was studied as a possible inexpensive source of biofuel. An ethanolic extract proved to be as effective as alcohol fuel. On emission testing, it emitted the least amount of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, compared with commercial regular and unleaded gasoline. (7)
Antidiarrheal: Evaluation of antidiarrheal potential was done on ethanolic extracts of three Bangladesh medicinal plants. Results on ethanolic extracts of leaves of D. blancoi and bark of Acacia nilotica suggest antidiarrheal activities. Results were comparable to standard antidiarrheal drug loperamide. (8)
Antidiarrheal / Antioxidant: Study showed antidiarrheal activity in a castor-oil induced mice model, with significant reductions in faecal output. Extract also showed dose-dependent antioxidant activity in a DPPH-scavenging assay. (9) In a study designed to evaluate the antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic extracts of three Bangladesh medicinal plants, Diospyros blancoi leaves significantly inhibited the mean number of defecation, increased the latent period and significantly decreased the number of stools. (12) Methanol extract of leaves showed significant (p<0.001) dose-dependent antioxidant activity using DPPH assay. In a castor oil-induced diarrhea model in mice, the extract exhibited significant reduction in faecal output compared to standard loperamide. (22)
Antitumor Activity / Apoptosis Induction: Study investigated various extracts of aerial parts of Salvia plebeia for antitumor activity and apoptosis induction. The dichloromethane extract may inhibit cancer cell proliferation by inducing cell apoptosis. (11)
Vasorelaxant / Leaves: Study evaluated various extracts for vasorelaxant activity and total phenolic content. Analysis showed all the extracts and fractions contain polyphenols expressed as gallic acid equivalent. The ethyl acetate fraction of leaf extract exhibited 52% relaxation of isolated rat aortic rings, while the methanol extract produced almost 100% relaxation at the same concentration. Results suggest the extract possess endothelium-dependent and NO-mediated vasorelaxant effects. (15)
Antimicrobial / Fruit Juice: Study evaluated the antimicrobial effect of D. discolor juice on bacteria and fungi (P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and C. albicans). Results showed the juice contains alkaloids, terpenes, reducing sugars and tannins. The mabolo juice showed concentration dependent antimicrobial activity attributed to the alkaloids and tannins. (16)
Comparative Antioxidants Activity of Different Plant Parts: Study evaluated the antioxidant activity of methanol extracts from different parts of the plant including leaf, fruit and bark. The bark showed the highest antioxidant activity, followed by the fruit and leaf. (17)
Aroma Compounds / Nutrient Contents / Peel and Fruit: Study of intact fruit and peel yielded 24 compounds while the pulp yielded 28 compounds. The most important aroma compounds were esters and
α-farnesese. (see constituents above) (21)
• Analgesic / Seeds: In a study of four medicinal plants for analgesic activity, methanol extract of D. blancoi seeds showed moderate analgesic activity using acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion tests. (22)
• Cholinesterase Inhibitory Potential
for Alzheimer's Disease / Antioxidant / Leaf and Bark: Oxidative stress and decreased neurotransmitter (especially acetylcholine) are main characteristics of Alzheimer's disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disease. The CME extracts of both bark and leaf exhibited cholinesterase inhibitory activities and thrombolytic activities that suggested potential in the treatment of AD and clotting disorders. (25)
• Anticancer / Free Radical Scavenging / Stem Bark: Study evaluated the effects of various extracts of leaves, root bark, and stem bark of Diospyros blancoi on free radicals and cancer. Extracts of stem bark showed the highest total antioxidant capacity and reducing capacity on ferrous ion, with significant (p<0.05) radical scavenging activity than standards. The stem bark also showed moderate cytotoxicity using brine shrimp nauplii and moderate anticancer activity testing using Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells. The anticancer activity was attributed, in part, to its phenolic contents and significant free radical scavenging properties. (26)
• Antibacterial / Leaves: Study evaluated methanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of leaves of Diospyros discolor for antibacterial activity against both gram positive (B. cereus and S. aureus) and gram-negative (S. typhi and E. coli) bacteria. The ME showed maximum antibacterial activity compared to the EA extract. (see constituents above) (27)
Anti-Inflammatory / Thrombolytic / Analgesic / Seeds: Study evaluated the in vivo and in vitro bioactivities of methanolic extract of Diospyros blancoi seeds. On formalin induced licking and biting in mice, the extract showed dose-dependent significant analgesic activity, 55.47 and 73.47% at 100 and 200 mg/kg extract, respectively. In thrombolytic testing, it showed 38.17% clot lysis with 10 mg/mL. Anti-inflammatory testing using carrageenan induced paw edema method, the extract produced 24.81 and 27.23% inhibition with 200 and 400 mg/kg dose. (30)
Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity / Leaves and Stem Bark: Diospyros discolor leaves showed high (95.80 ± 1.57%) AChE inhibitory activity at concentration of 100 µg/mL. Study of leaves and stem bark extracts (n-hexane, diichlormethane, and methanol) isolated a new flavonol, 7,4'-dihydroxy-5,3',5'-trimethoxyflavonol (1), along with five known flavonoids and six known triterpenes (7-13). Compound 7, stigmast-4-ene-3-one, showed the lowest inhibition concentration with IC50 of 11.77 ± 2.11 µM. The extracts showed high percent inhibition against AChE enzyme, while isolated compounds showed moderate inhibition. (31)
Effect of Coconut Water on Germination and Initial Seedling Growth: Study evaluated the effect of coconut water on pre-sowing treatments additive on seed germination and initial growth performance of kamagong. Results showed 100% coconut water had highest germination mean value (78.33%), mean seedling height (11.80 cm), and mean number of leaves (2.04). (32)
Comparative Antioxidant Activity / Peel, Flesh and Seeds: Study evaluated the antioxidant activity of peel, flesh and seeds of velvet apple using three solvents: n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol. The highest antioxidant activity as well as total phenolic (20.872 ppm and 80.837 mg/TAE/g extract) was found in the ethyl acetate seed extract. Seed extract also yielded highest total flavonoid with 3.448 mg QE/g extract. (33)
Antidiabetic / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated the antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of leaf extracts of D. blancoi in alloxan-induced white mice. Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, saponins, anthraquinones, steroids, and glycosides in both ethanol and water extracts The ethanol extra ct showed better antioxidant activity using DPPH assay. Both extracts showed significant antidiabetic effects as evidenced by reduction in blood sugar levels. (34)
Antileukemic / Stems: Study evaluated the methanol extract of stems of four medicinal plants (Baccaurea macrocarpa, Syzygium jambos, Bouea macrophylla, and Diospyros discolor) for antileukemic activity. Diospyros discolor showed antileukemic activity (survived HL60 cell percentage) of 37.3% with concentration of 100 µg/mL. (35)
Comparative Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Content / Seeds: Study evaluated the effects of methanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate solvents on phenolic content and antioxidant activity in D. blancoi seed extracts. Total phenolic content was found higher in the acetone extract (603.43 mg GAE/g dry powder) compared to methanol and EA extracts. Highest antioxidant activity was in the methanol solvent (IC50 2.72 µg/mL) compared to positive control ascorbic acid (IC50 3,34 µg/mL). (38)
Anti-Elastase / Antioxidant Activity / Leaf and Stem Bark: Study evaluated the anti-elastase and antioxidant properties of mabolo leaf extract (LE) and stem bark extract (SBE). Results showed LE and SBE have strong anti-elastase and antioxidant activities with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50s) below 50 µg/mL. LE and SBE antielastase IC50s were 41.06 and 26.52 µg/mL, respectively. DPPH and ABTS IC50s were 4.34 and 2.95 µg/mL for LE, and 3.73 and 1.96 µg/mL for SBE. The SBE demonstrated stronger anti-elastase and antioxidant activity than LE. Results suggest potential for development as an anti-aging agent. (39)
Anti-Angiogenic: Study evaluated the antiangiogenic properties of Diospyros blancoi extracts by chick allantoic membrane (CAM) assay. Forty-nine one-day old fertilized eggs were used. Extract doses of 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg were applied on the 19th day of incubation. The average number of branch points were counted on the 12th day. Results showed the greater the dose, the lesser the branch points. Results suggested antiagiogenic potential.  (40)
Analgesic / Antidepressant / Leaves: Study evaluated the neuuropharmacological and analgesic activities of methanolic extract of D. blancoi leaves on Swiss albino mice. Neuropharmacologic testing were conducted using hold cross, forced swimming and tail suspension test. Analgesic activities were evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate tests. Results showed significant (p<0.05) dose dependent antidepressant and analgesic activity. (41)

- Cultivated.
- Wild-crafted.

Updated April 2024 /September 2021 / May 2018 / July 2017 / June 2016

Photo © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Illustration / Diospyros blancoi Blanco1.109-cropped.jpg / Plate from book / Flora de Filipinas / Francisco Manuel Blanco (OSA) / Public Domain / Modifications by Carol Spears / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Diospyros discolor fruit / Shahidul Hasan Roman / CC BY-SA 4.0 / Image modified / Click on image or link to go to source page / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Butter fruit / Diospyros discolor / 葉子 / CC0 - No Rights Reserved / Image modified / Click on image or link to go to source page / iNaturalist
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Diospyros discolor seeds / © BlogNasionaTropikalne.pl / Non-commercial use / Image modified / Click on image or link to go to source page / NasionaTropikalne

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Antioxidant and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)-induced effects of selected Taiwanese plants
/ Mei-Hsien Lee, Cheun-Bin Jiang, Shu-Hui Juan, Rong-Dih Lin, Wen-Chi Hou / Fitoterapia, 2006, 77(2), 109-115 / DOI 10.1016/j.fitote.2005.11.012
Bioactive triterpenes from Diospyros blancoi / C Ragasa et al / Natural Product Research, 2009; 23(13): pp 1252 - 1258 / DOI: 10.1080/14786410902951054

Volatile Components of Mabolo (Diospyros blancoi A. DC.) Grown in Cuba / George Pino et al
/ JEOR - Journal of Essential Oil Research, Vol 20, Issue 6 (2008)
Diospyros blancoi / Common names / ZipcodeZoo
Characterization of Chemical Groups and Study of Antioxidant, Antidiarrhoeal, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic activities of ethanolic extract of Diospyros blancoi (Family: Ebenaceae) Leaves / Md. Sariful Islam Howlader, Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed, Maizbha Uddin Ahmed, Abdul Kader Mohiuddin, Zubair Khalid Labu, Sm Faysal Bellah, Mohammad Safiqul / Journal of Pharmacy Research, Vol 5, No 6 (2012)
Diospyros blancoi attenuates asthmatic effects in a mouse model of airway inflammation.
/ Lee KY, Jung JY, Lee MY, Jung D, Cho ES, Son HY. / Inflammation. 2012 Apr;35(2):623-32.
Air Pollution-Fighting Potential of Ethanolic Extract of Diospyros Blancoi as Alcohol Fuel for Gasoline-Engined Automobiles / Source: Jose Marie G. Agustin / Department of Science and Technology.
Evaluation of Antidiarrhoeal Potential of the Ethanolic Extract of Three Bangladeshi Medicinal Plants / Hemayet Hossain, Shubhra Kanti Dey, Arpona Hira, Md. Sariful Islam Howlader, Arif Ahmed, Saima Sultana /Int.J.Pharm.Phytopharmacol.Res. 2012, 1(6): 371-374
Antioxidant and Antidiarrheal Potential of Diospyros blancoi / Sariful Islam Howlader, Mofizur Rahman, Abdul Bashar Ripon Khalipha, Mostafizur Rahman and Firoj Ahmed / Int Jour of Pharmacology 8(5):403-409, 2012
SOME PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS OF SALVIA PLEBEIA R. BR. / Rupali Shirsat, Subhash Suradkar and Deepak Koche / Bioscience Discovery, 3(1):61-63, Jan. 2012
Antitumor Activity of Dichloromethane Extract from Salvia plebeia and Induction of Apoptosis on K562 Cells / REN Jie, PAN Sha-sha, LU Xu-zhang, ZHOU Min, HU Kun* /
Evaluation of Antidiarrhoeal Potential of the Ethanolic Extract of Three Bangladeshi Medicinal Plants
Hemayet Hossain*, Shubhra Kanti Dey, Arpona Hira, Md. Sariful Islam Howlader, Arif Ahmed, Saima Sultana / International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Phytopharmacological Research, 2012, 1(6): 371-374
Diospyros discolor Willd. / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Enhancing the Use of Value-Added Products from Underutilized Fruit of the Endangered Mabolo (Diospyros blancoi) Tree / REGUCIVILLA A. POBAR* / IJERD – International Journal of Environmental and Rural Development (2013) 4-1
In vitro screening of the vasorelaxant activity of Diospyros discolor Willd. (ebenaceae) leaf extracts
/ RKG Cadiang, MO Osi, JG Apostol, MC Ysrael / Planta Med 2012; 78 - PL31 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0032-1325173
Antimicrobial activity of the mature fruit of Diospyros discolor willd. (Mabolo) / Mary Grace M. Manila and Madeleine Clare V. Tajanlangit / Thesis/Dissertations / March 2011
In Vitro Antioxidant Activity Of Different Parts Of The Plant Diospyros Discolor / Shapna Sultana and Md. Saiful Islam, Israt Jahan Bulbul, Kaiser Hamid, Sreedam Chandra Das / Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 2010
Lanostane-type triterpenoids from Diospyros discolor. / Chiy-Rong Chen, Chao-Wen Cheng, Min-Hsiung Pan, Yun-Wen Liao, Chih-Ying Tzeng, Chi-I Chang / Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2007 Jun;55(6):908-11
Mabolo / Nutritional analysis / The Earth of India
Diospyros discolor / Medicinal Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana / Botany.SI.edu
Analysis of aroma compounds and nutrient contents of mabolo (Diospyros blancoi A. DC.), an ethnobotanical fruit of Austronesian Taiwan / Sheng-Feng Hung, Su-Feng Roan, Tsu-Liang Chang, Hen-Bia King, Iou-Zen Chen / Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, 2016; 24(1): pp 83–89 /
DOI: 10.1016/j.jfda.2015.08.004
Analgesic activities of Geodorum densiflorum, Diospyros blancoi, Baccaurea ramiflora and Trichosanthes dioica / Saleha Akter, Tomal Majumder, Rezaul Karim, Zannatul Ferdous, Mohasin Sikder / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2015; 4(3): 209-214
Antioxidant and Antidiarrhoeal Potentiality of Diospyros blancoi / Md. Sariful Islam Howlader, Md Mofizur Rahman, Abdul Basher Ripon Khai, Firoj Ahmed / International Journal of Pharmacology / DOI: 10.3923/ijp.2012.403.409
A Survey of Medicinal Plants used by Folk Medicinal Practitioners in Balidha village of Jessore District, Bangladesh / Mohammed Rahmatullah, Md. Majedul Hasan / American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 4(2): 111-116, 2010
Cholinesterase Inhibitory Potential and Anti-oxidant Activities of Leaf and Bark Extract of Diospyros blancoi Relevant for the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease / Taposhi Sultana Mou / Thesis: Bachelor of Pharmacy / East West University
Comparative investigation of the free radical scavenging potential and anticancer property of Diospyros blancoi (Ebenaceae) / Muhammad Ali Khan, Md. Mahbubur Rahman, Md. Nazmul Sardar, Md. Saiful Islam Arman, Md. Badrul Islam, Md. Jahangir Alam Khandakar, Mamunur Rashid, Golam Sadik, AHM Khurshid Alam / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Vol 6, Issue 5, May 2016 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.03.004
Effect of methanolic and ethyl acetate leaf extract of Diospyros discolor against gram positive and gram negative bacteria / Gouri S Vijayan and J Helan Chandra / Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, April-June 2015; Vol 8, Issue 2
Diospyros discolor / Wikipedia
Diospyros blancoi / Ken Fern: Tropical Plants Database / Useful Tropical Plants
Therapeutic Potentiality of Diospyros blancoi Linn. Seeds Against Pain, Thrombus, and Inflammation: An In Vivo and In Vitro Study / Md Ibrahim, Md Saddam Hussain, A H M Mazbah Uddin et al / Asiann Journal of Biologic Sciences, 2019; 12: pp 36-41 / DOI: 10.3923/ajbs.2019.36.41
Chemical Constituents from Diospyros discolor Willd. and their Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity / Norhafizoh Abdul Somat, Zaini Yusoff, Che Puteh Osman / Pharmacognosy Journal,, 2020, 12(6s): pp 1547-1551 / DOI: 10.5530/pj.2020.12.212
Effect of Coconut Water on Pre-Spwig Treatments Additive on Seed Germination and Initial Seedlings Growth Performance of Kamagong (Diospyros discolor) / Marne G Origenes, Renato Lapitan / Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, 2020; 6(4): pp 58-71 / ISSN: 2581-7418 /
DOI: 10.9734/AJRAF/2020/v6i430116
Study of antioxidant activity from peel, flesh, and seed of velvet apple (Diospyros bicolor Willd,) / Novita Victorine / Thesis: / Universitas Pelita Harapan
Phytochemical screening, antioxidant and antidiabetic evaluation of leaf extracts from Diospyros blancoi A. DC / M T Demetillo, O M Nuñeza, M M Uy, WTPSK Senarath / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Aug 2019 / DOI: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-7232.10(8).3951-56 / eISSN: 0975-8232 / pISSN: 2320-5148
Antileukemic Activity of Methanol Extract from Stem of Beccaurea macrocarpa, Syzygium jambos, Bouea macrophylla Griff., and Diospyros discolor Willd. / Antoni Pardede, Rr Ariessanty Alicia Kusuma Wardhani, Emilda Frasisca / EduChemia, 2020; 5(2): pp 111-118 / DOI: 10.30870/EDUCHEMIA.V5I2.8320
Diospyros / Wikipedia
Diospyros blancoi / National Parks: FLORA & FAUNA WEB
The Effect of Three Variants of Extracting Solvents on the Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Diospyros Blancoi Seeds / Dian Arrisujaya, Devy Susanty, Lisnawati Tri Hastuti / International Journal of Fruit Science, 2020; 20(S3): pp1192-1200 / DOI: 10.1080/15538362.2020.1782803
In Vitro Study of Anti-Elastase and Antioxidant Activities on Mabolo (Diospyros blancoi) Leaf and Stem Bark Extracts / Edwin Suwandy, Berna Elya, Nina Artanti, Muhammad Hanafi / International Journal of Agriculture & Biology, 2023; 30(2): pp 113-118 / DOI: 10.17957/IJAB/15.2065 / eISSN: 1814-9596 /
pISSN: 1560-8530
Anti-angiogenic property of Diospyros blancoi A. Dc. (mabolo fruit) ethanolic extract. / Frannie Lyn Quiroma, Irish Quitlong, Jerica Mae Pidlaoan / Journal of Research Abstracts, 2014-1016
Evaluation of neuropharmacological and analgesic activities of methanolic extract of Diospyros blancoi A. DC leaves in Swiss albino mice / Md Rashidur Rahman, Trina Mony, Sonia Akter, Koushik Ahamed, Afrina Afrose / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 2020; 9(3): pp 2121-2126 / eISSN: 2278-4136 / pISSN: 2349-8234

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants
                                          New plant names needed
The compilation now numbers over 1,300 medicinal plants. While I believe there are hundreds more that can be added to the collection, they are becoming more difficult to find. If you have a plant to suggest for inclusion, native or introduced, please email the info: scientific name (most helpful), local plant name (if known), any known folkloric medicinal use, and, if possible, a photo. Your help will be greatly appreciated.

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