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Family Meliaceae
Mahogany
Swietenia mahogani (L.) Jacq.

WEST INDIAN MAHOGANY
Tao hua xin mu

Scientific names Common names
Swietenia mahogani Jacq. Mahogany (Engl.)
Cedrela mahogani L. Big leaf mahogany (Engl.)
  West Indian mahogany (Engl.)
  Madeira redwood (Engl.)
  Tao hua xin mu (Chin.)

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Da ye tao hua xin mu.
FRENCH: Acajou d'Amérique, Acajou de Cuba, Acajou de Santo Domingo, Mahogany.
GERMAN: Amerikanisches Mahagoni.
JAPANESE: Ooba Mahoganii.
PORTUGESE: Aguano, Araputanga, Caóba, Caóba, Cedro-í, Mogno, Mogno, Mogno-Brasileiro
SPANISH: Aguano, Caoba de Cuba, Caobilla, Caoba de Santo, Chiculte, Coabillo, Cóbano, Gateado, Mogno, Orura.

Botany
Mahogany is a deciduous, erect tree growing to a height of 10 meters, with a heavy, dark-green, and dense crown. The trunk is more or less buttressed. Bark is dark gray and ridged. Young leaves when in the flush are pink, soon turning green. Leaves are alternate, smooth, compound, about 15 centimeters long, in 3 to 6 pairs, most often 5 pairs, of leaflets. Leaflets are inequilateral, ovate to oblong-ovate, 5 to 8 centimeters long and half as wide, pointed at the tip, broadly obtuse or rounded at the base. Flowers are greenish yellow, about 8 millimeters wide, borne in axillary panicles shorter than the foliage. Calyx is rim-like and the petals are oblong, less than 5 millimeters in length. Staminal tube is slightly reddish, thick, and nearly as long as the corolla. Fruit is large, cylindrical, barrel-shaped, woody, grayish-brown, rough and less than 12 centimeters long. Body of the fruit splits into five thick outer valves and five thinner inside valves. The outer valves fall off when ripe exposing closely packed seeds attached by the tips of their wings. Seeds are brownish, 5 to 7 centimeters long, with a broad and thin wing and a corky, thickened part containing the embryo.

Distribution
- Recently introduction in the Philippines.
- Cultivated for the commerce of its wood.

- Native of the West Indies.

Constituents
• The bark contains tannin; leaves contain seven phragmalin limonoids.
• Two new tetranortriterpenoids, mahonin and secomahoganin were isolated from the cotyledons of SM.
• Study yields 6-Desoxyswietenine, a tetranortriterpenoid from Swietenia mahogani.
• Study on the acidic polysaccharide isolated from the gum exudate yielded residues of D-galactose, L-arabinose, L-rhamnose and D-galacturonic acid.

Properties
• Considered astringent, antipyretic, abortifacient, depurative.


Uses
Folkloric
- Bark is antipyretic, tonic and astringent.
- Decoction of seeds used as abortifacient.
- Used for hypertension, amoebiasis, chest pains, parasitism, cancer.
- Used by Ifugao migrants for malaria, cough and miscarriage. (11)
- In India, bark extracts used as astringent for wounds.
- Used for malaria, anemia, diarrhea, fever and dysentery.
- In Africa, bark decoction used as febrifuge
Others
Wood: This is the true mahogany of commerce, yielding the highly prized reddish-brown wood. Because of its fast growth, it is much desired in Manila as a shade tree. In India, wood is a popular material for making of furniture, musical instruments, boats, caskets.

Studies
• Anti-Ulcer / Anti-H. Pylori:
The Effect of Swietenia Mahogani (Mahogany) Seed Extract On Unidimensionalities Gastric Ulcers in Female Sprague-Dawley Rats: Study found a potential effect on the healing of gastric ulcers, attributed to the phospholipid and long chain unsaturated fatty acid content of mahogany seeds, with a healing effect similar to that of misoprostol. Results provide an attractive possibility for H. pylori therapy. (1)
Hypoglycemic / Hypolipidemic: Study on streptozotocin and nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetes in rats concludes that the ME of seeds of Swietenia macrophylla has hypoglycemic as well as hypolipidemic effect. (3)
• Antioxidant / Xanthine Oxidase Inhibition: Study of the methanol extract of Swietania mahogani exhibited both high free radical scavenging and xanthine oxidase inhibition activities. (4)
Cytotoxic: Study on the cytotoxic activities of the crude ethanolic extracts of seed, bark and leaf of Sm and their various fractions showed promising results with the seed extract and some fractions showing the most significant cytotoxic properties. (5)
Hepatoprotective: Study of an aqueous leaf extract of S. mahogani in chronic alcohol-induced liver injury in rats exhibited hepatoprotective activity. (8)
Anti-Protozoal: In a study of 10 lectins screened for cytotoxic activity against Acanthamoeba sp. (a keratitis-causing amoeba) and Tetrahymena pyriformis, lectins from Schefflera odorata and Swietenia macrophylla were found to possess high cytotoxic activity against the test organisms. (9)
Anti-Diabetic / Seeds: An ethanolic extract of sees produced significant reduction of blood glucose level. Histological examination of the pancreas showed retaining of islets and few degranulations of beta cells. (12)
Hypoglycemic / Bark Extracts: Bark extract of mahogany was evaluated for invivo hypoglycemic activity against alloxan-induced diabetic rats. A hot water extract showed significant dose-dependent hypoglycemic effect compared to standard drug. Histopath study showed significant ß-cell count. (1
3)
Antiulcer Activity / Ethanol-Induced Injury / Leaf Extract / Acute Toxicity Study: Study of an ethanol extract of leaves showed antiulcer activity against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Pretreatment resulted in significant protection of gastric mucosa and increase in mucus production. Acute toxicity study did not show any toxicological signs in rats. (1
4)
Gastroprotective / Seed Extract / Ethanol-Induced Injury: An ethanol extract of seed showed anti-ulcerogenic activity against ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in rats, ascertained grossly and histologically. (15)

Availability
Wildcrafted.
Extracts and capsules in the cybermarket.

Last Update Auguwt 2013

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
SOURCES

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
The Effect of Swietenia Mahogani( Mahogany) Seed Extract On Indomethacin-Inducd Gastric UlcersI in Female Sprague-Dawley Rats / Bascal K, Chavez L et al / Acta Medica Philippina
(2)
Indian Mahogany
(3)
Hypoglycemic effect of Swietenia macrophylla seeds against type II diabetes / Anup Malti et al / International Journal of Green Pharmacy • Volume 2, Issue : 4, Page : 224-227, 2008
(4)
In Vitro Antioxidant and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activitiesof Methanolic Swietenia mahagoni Seed Extracts / Geethan Sahgal et al / Molecules 2009, 14, 4476-4485; doi:10.3390/molecules14114476
(5)
In Vitro Cytotoxic Properties of Ethanolic Extracts of VariousParts of Swietenia Mahagoni / Mohammad Ahsanul Akbar et al / European Journal of Scientific ResearchISSN 1450-216X Vol.32 No.4 (2009), pp.541-544
(6)
Structural studies on the polysaccharide of Swietenia mahogany gum / Pradyot K Ghosal and Swapnadip Thakur / Carbohydrate Research Volume 112, Issue 2, 1 February 1983, Pages 253-259 / doi:10.1016/0008-6215(83)88290-1
(7)
Sorting Swietenia names / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE
(8)
Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Activity of Aqeous Leaf Extract of Swietenia Mahogani (Maliaceae) in Chronic Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in Rats / Samuel Udem, Innocent Nwaogu, Obinna Onyejekwe / Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2011 Mar 15; 4(1):31-36. doi:10.3889/MJMS.1857-5773.2011.0154
(9)
Evaluation of Some Lectins as Anti-protozoal Agents / Marla A. Endriga, Elmer-Rico E. Mojica, Florinia E. Merca, Marivic S. Lacsamana and Custer C. Deocaris / Journal of Medical Sciences, 5: 31-34.

(10)
Swietenia macrophylla (Big-leaf Mahogany) / Common names / ZipcodeZoo
(11)
The use of medicinal plants by Ifugao-migrants in the foothills of the Sierra Madre mountain range / Jasper Wester
(12)
Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Swietenia mahagoni Seeds on Experimentally Induced Diabetes Mellitus in Rats
/ SMM Mahid-Al-Hasan, MI Khan, BU Umar / Faridpur Med. Coll. J. 2011;6(2):70-73
(13)
Hypoglycemic Effect of Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) Bark Extracts in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats / Syamsul Falah, Mega Safithri, Takeshi Katayama, and Toshisada Suzuki / www.mapeki.org
(14)
Anti-ulcer activity of Swietenia mahagoni leaf extract in ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage in rats /
Salmah Al-Radahe, Khaled Abdul-Aziz Ahmed*, Suzy Salama, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla, Zahra A. Amin, Saad Al-Jassabi and Harita Hashim / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 6(12), pp. 2266-2275, 30 March, 2012 / DOI: 10.5897/JMPR10.409
(15)
Gastroprotective Activity of Swietenia Mahagoni Seed Extract on Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats / Salma Saleh Alrdahe, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla, Shaharudin Abul Razak, Farkaad Abdul Kadir, Pouya Hassandarvish / World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 43 2010

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