Mondo grass, dwarf lily turf, ophiopogon japonicus : Philippine Medicinal Herbs / StuartXchange
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Family Asparagaceae
Mondo grass
Ophiopogon japonicus (Thunb.) Ker-Gawl.

Mai men dong

Scientific names Common names
Anemarrhena cavalerieri graminifolia H.Lév. Dwarf lily turf (Engl.)
Convallaria graminifolia Salisb. Fountain plant (Engll.)
Convallaria japonica Thunb. Mondo grass (Engl.)
Convallaria japonica var. minor Thunb. Monkey grass (Engl.)
Flueggea anceps Raf. Snake's beard (Engl.)
Flueggea angulata Raf.  
Flueggea japonica (Thunb.) Rich.  
Flueggea japonica var. minor (Thunb.) Schult. & Schult.f.  
Liriope gracilis (Kunth) Nakai  
Mondo gracile (Kunth) Koidz.  
Mondo gracile var. brevipedicellatum Koidz.  
Mondo japonicum (Thunb.) Farw.  
Mondo stolonifer (H.Lév. & Vaniot) Farw.  
Ophiopogon argyi H.Lév.  
Ophiopogon chekiangensis Koiti Kumura & Migo  
Ophiopogon gracilis Kunth  
Ophiopogon gracilis var. brevipedicellatus (Koidz.) Nemoto  
Ophiopogon japonicus (Thunb.) Ker Gawl.  
Ophiopogon merrillii Masam.  
Ophiopogon ohwii Okuyama  
Ophiopogon stolonifer H.Lév. & Vaniot  
Polygonastrum compressum Moench  
Slateria coerulea Siebold ex Miq.  
Tricoryne acaulis D.Dietr.  
Tricoryne caulescens D.Dietr.  
Ophiopogon japonicus (Thunb.) Ker Gawl. is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Mai men dong.
FINNISH: Mukulakäärmeenparta.
JAPANESE: Ja-no-hige (snake's beard), Rui-no-hige (dragon's beard).
KOREAN: jobnipmaekmundongajaebi.
RUSSIAN: ofiopogon japonskij.

Gen info
- Ophiopogon is a genus of evergreen perennial plants native to warm temperate to tropical East, Southeast, and South Asia. Despite their grass-like appearance, they are not related to true grasses, the Poaceae. Formerly classified in Liliaceae, the APG III classification system placed it in the family Asparagaceae. (47)
- Etymology: The genus name Ophiopogon derives from Greek ophis, meaning "snake" and pogon, meaning
"beard", likely referring to the leaves and its tufted growth. (47)

• Mondo grass is a low, stemless, glamorous, grass-like, perennial herb with large stolons with tuberous roots. Leaves are leathery, narrow-linear, 20 to 30 centimeters long, gracefully arching and dark green. Flowers are small, drooping, violet-purple to lilac or white, borne on erect racemes up to 8 centimeters long. Fruit is a blue berry, 5 millimeters in diameter.

• Ophiopogon japonicus is an evergreen, sod-forming perennial plant; an underground species with large stolons with tuberous roots. Leaves are linear, 20–40 cm long. Flowers are white through pale lilac, borne in a short raceme on a 5- to 1-cm stem. Fruit is a blue berry, 5 mm in diameter. (48)

- Recently introduced in the Philippines.
- Cultivated, not naturalized. (36)
- According to Plants of the World Online: native. (15)
- Used as ground cover.

- Native to China , Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Vietnam. (15)

Study yielded five new homoisoflavonoids from the extract of tuber of O. japonicus - ophiopogonanone C, ophiopogonanone D, ophiopogonone C, ophiopogonanone E, and ophiopogonanone F, plus six other compounds.
Study isolated a new phenolic glycoside, ophiopojaponin D, with two other known compounds, from the tuber.

• Study of flowers yielded eleven compounds viz., beta-sitosterol (1), diosgenin (2), daucosterol (3), ophiopogonin C' (4), dioscin (5), 7-dihy-droxy-6-methyl-3-(4'-hydroxybenzyl) chroman-4-one(6), luteolin (7), kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosides (8), kaempferol-3-O-(6"-tigloyl) -beta-D-glucopyranosides (9), kaempferol-3-O-(6"-acetyl) -beta-D-glucopyranosides (10), glucose (11). (16)
• Study isolated two new and six known steroidal glucosides from the tuber of Ophiopogon japonicus viz. (20R,25R)-26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-3β,26-dihydroxycholest-5-en-16,22-dioxo-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-glucopyranoside (1) and 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-5-en-3β,14α,17α,22α,26-pentaol-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-glucopyranoside (3). (17)
- Nutritional analysis showed tubers are rich in carbohydrates, proteins, minerals, and amino acids. (see study below) (19)
- Study of tubers for liposoluble components isolated 16 compounds consisting of 7 homoisoflavones, 2 anthraquinones, 3 phenolic acids, 2 terpenes and 2 fatty acids. Structures were identified as methyl-ophiogonanone A (1), methylophiopogonanone B (2), methylophiopogonone A (3),
methylophiopogonone B (4), 2'hydroxy methylophiopogonone A (5), 6-aldehydoisophiopogonanone A (6), 5, 7 dihydroxy 8 methoxy 6 methyl 3 (2′ hydroxy 4′ methoxybenzyl)chroman 4 one (7), chrysophenol (8), emodin (9), vanillic acid (10), P hydroxy benzaldenhyde (11), P trans coumarinic acid (12), l borneol β D glucopyranoside (13), oleanolia acid (14), azelaic acid (15) and n tricosanoic acid (16). (25)
- Study isolated a new steroidal glycoside, named ophiopojaponin C (1), along with two known ones. Spectroscopic and chemical evidence showed the structures to be ophiopogenin 3‐O‐[α‐L‐rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)]‐β‐D‐xylopyranosyl(1→4)‐β‐D‐glucopyranoside (1), diosgenin 3‐O‐[2‐O‐acetyl‐α‐L‐rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)]‐β‐D‐xylopyranosyl(1->3)‐β‐D‐glucopyranoside (2), and ruscogenin 1‐O‐[2‐O‐acetyl‐α‐L‐rhamnopyranosyl (1->2)]‐β‐D‐xylopyranosyl (1->3)‐β‐D‐fucopyranoside (3). (28)
- GC-MS analysis for essential oil yielded 0.085%, containing monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes as main constituents. Major constituents were Longi-folene (18.5%), ß-patchoulene (9.6%), guaia (5.2%), cyperene (2.6%), α-patchoulene (1.8%), humulene (1.8%) among others. (35)
- Study of active fractions of roots isolated one novel spirostan, ophiogenin (1), together with six known spirostans (4-8, 10),  one new sesquiterpene glycoside, ophioside A (2), and one known monoterpene glycoside (9). Ophiogoponol (3), a new natural compound, an aglycone of compound 2, was isolated from the acid hydrolysis of 2. (see study below) (41)


- Considered tonic and tranquilizing.
- According to Chinese herbal materia medica, the herb is sweet, slightly bitter, and slightly cold; enters the heart, lung, and stomach channels; nourishes the yin of stomach, spleen, heart and lungs. (48)
- Main components which include steroidal saponins, homoisoflavonoids and polysaccharides have exhibited pharmacological activities viz., cardiovascular protection, anti-inflammation, anticancer, anti-oxidation, immunomodulation, cough relief, antimicrobial and antidiabetes. (
- Studies have suggested anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antiangiogenesis, radical scavenging, hypolipidemic, anti-senescence, hepato-nephroprotective, age-delaying, immunoregulatory, anti-pancreatic cancer properties.

Parts utilized
Rhizomes, leaves and roots.

- Mucilaginous roots report to be edible. While some report it as sweet and aromatic, it has been reported as bitter. (23)
- Herbal tea formulation for age-delaying effect. (27)
- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- In China, traditionally used as anti-inflammatory. Also, as tonic and tranquilizer, treatment of cough, insomnia, diabetes, constipation, and diphtheria.
- Also, used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat sicca-associated disorders and cardiovascular disease. Used to nourish yin, promote production of body fluids, moisten the lungs, ease the mind, and clear away heart fire. (
22) Essential oil used for treatment of sore throat, cough, and heart disease. (35)
- Used as antiseptic for healing of mouth sores.
- Used for cough suppression.
- Used to stimulate milk in nursing mothers.
Six Juice Drinks: A Chinese concoction called "six juice drinks" for diabetes, has O. japonicus as a herbal constituent.
• Agroforestry:
Considered a good ground cover or carpeting plant, and for preventing soil erosion.  (

Study of the ethanol extract of Radix Ophiopogon japonicus showed in-vivo inhibitory effects on venous thrombosis probably from its endothelial cell-protective and anti-adhesive activities, supporting the therapeutic use of the plant for thrombotic diseases. (1) Study evaluated the antithrombotic and thrombolytic activity of a fermented extract of O. japonicus in thrombosis-induced rats. Results showed clotting time, bleeding time, PT and APTT were prolonged in the middle-dose group more than the control and thrombosis groups, thereby, suggesting antithrombotic and thrombolytic effects. (30)
Anti-thrombotic / Ruscogenin / Ophiopogonin D: Study showed the aqueous extract of Radix Ophiopogon japonicus exerted significant anti-thrombotic activity and ruscogenin and ophiopogonin D are the two active components.
Study of the Radix O. japonicus extract yielded two active components, ruscogenin and ophiopogonin D, and showed remarkable anti-inflammatory activity supporting its traditional use in inflammatory diseases. (
A Chinese study on the root tubers of O japonicus significantly lowered blood sugar of normal and alloxan-diabetic mice. In combination with Ginseng, there was blood sugar reduction in alloxan-induced diabetes but no significant effect in normal mice. (
Sjogren's Syndrome:
SS is an autoimmune disorder with lymphocytic infiltration of salivary and lacrimal glands, xerostomia, keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Th1/Th2 imbalance has been shown to have a role in its pathogenesis. In an autoallergic mouse model for SS, results provided a basis for the use of Ophiopogon japonicus for Sjogren's syndrome. (
Homoisoflavonoids / Radical Scavenging Effects:
Study yielded 10 homoisoflavonoids from O japonicus extracts with the majority showing radical scavenging effects.(
Anti-Myocardial Ischemia:
O japonicus polysaccharide from Radix ophiogonis has shown antimyocardial activity. This study on a series of sulfated FOJ-5 (FOJ-5-S) showed that when the degree of substitution was in a certain range, the FOJ-5-S had excellent anti-myocardial ischemic activity. (
Cardiovascular Benefit / Anti-Ischemic / Angiogenesis:
Study showed a water soluble b-D-fructan (MDG) from OJ had remarkable anti-ischemic activity and protects cardiomyocyte and HMEC-1 cells from ischemic-induced cell damage through cytoprotective and proangiogenic effects via the S1P/bFGF/Akt/ERK/eNOS signaling pathway. (10)
Shengmai San / Hypolipidemic / Anti-lipid Peroxidation:
SMS is a traditional Chinese medicine composed of Panax ginseng, Schisandra chinensis and Ophiopogon japonicus used for treating coronary heart disease. Study showed that SMS may reduce hepatic lipids and lipid peroxidation in rats.
Anti-Inflammatory Homoflavonoids / Roots:
Tuberous roots yielded two new homoisoflavonoids, named ophiopogonone E and ophiopogonanone H, together with 13 known ones. Compounds 2, 4, 6, 7, 10, 11 showed potent inhibitory effects on NO production. (14)
MDG-1 / Anti-Diabetic Mechanisms:
MDG-1, a water-soluble ß-D-fructan polysaccharide from O. japonicus, has been used in the treatment of experimental T2DM. Fecal metabonomic study investigated the mechanism of MDG-1 in a spontaneous diabetic model. Findings suggest MDG-1 actions against diabetes may be through absorbable monosugars and butanedioic acid via suppression of intestinal glucose absorption, enhancement of liver glycogenesis, inhibition of glycogenolysis and promotion of GLP-1 secretion. It can also alleviate diabetes and diabetic nephropathy by reducing 7H-purine and 2'-deoxyinosine. (18)
MDG-1 / Anti-Diabetic Mechanisms/ α-glucosidase inhibitory:
Study analyzed the nutritional composition of OJ tubers, antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. The n-butanol fraction and chloroform/methanol extract of tubers showed high amounts of total phenolic and flavonoid contents and exhibited good α-glucosidase inhibition (higher than acarbose) and antioxidant activities. (19)
Antioxidant / Antifatigue: Study evaluated the antioxidant and antifatigue potential of Ophiopogon japonicus extracts in exercised Sprague Dawley rats. The extract contained polyphenols, flavonoids, and polysaccharides. OJE was able to significantly scavenge DPPH radicals in a concentration-dependent manner. The extract also significantly extended endurance time of treadmill running to exhaustion, decreased lactate and serum urea nitrogen contents, together with amelioration of biochemical parameters related to fatigue in the exercise rat model. (
MDG-1 / Hypoglycemic / PI3K/Akt Pathway: Study evaluated the effects of a water-soluble-ß-D-fructan (MDG-1) from O. japonicus on T2DM through the PI3K/akt pathway in a diabetic KKAy mouse model. Results showed MDG-1 reduced the hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia in the KKAy mice.
It showed remarkable anti-diabetic activity through the InsR/IRS-1/PI3K/Akt/GSK-3/Glut=4 signaling pathway. (21)
Effect on Chemotherapy Induced Bone Marrow Depression / P. ginseng and O. japonicus: Study evaluated the effects of combination of Panax ginseng and Ophiopogon japonicus (PG-OJ) herbs at different ratios on myelosuppression induced by chemotherapy in mice. Myelosuppression was induced by IP injection of cyclophosphamide (CTX). Measured parameters were numbers of bone marrow nucleated cells and peripheral blood cells, along with thymus and spleen indices. The PG-OJ herb pair with a ration of 2:3 showed excellent synergistic effect on myelosuppression induced by CTX. Study suggests that rare ginsenosides and ophiopogonin D may be the main constituents involved in the treatment of bone marrow suppression after chemotherapy. (24)
Steroidal Saponin / Protective Effect Against Cisplatin-Induced Renal Cell Toxicity / Tubers: Study of tubers isolated a new furostanol saponin, ophiopogonin T. The compound was evaluated for cytotoxic effect on cancer cell lines and protective effect against anticancer drug-induced nephrotoxicity. Results showed treatment with ophiopogonin T significantly reduced cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in porcine kidney. (26)
Amelioration of Oxidative Stress / Age-Delaying Effect / Herbal Tea: Study evaluated the antioxidant activity and longevity-promoting potential of O. japonicus herbal tea using Caenorhabditis elegans model. By DPPH scavenging assay, OJT showed scavenging of free radicals. OJT increased the survival rate of nematodes and reduced the endogenous levels of ROS under oxidative stress induced by paraquat. Results showed antioxidant activity and age-delaying effect of OJT, which may provide insights into the potential of O. japonicus for health promotion. (27)
Oligofructans / Reduction of Atopic Dermatitis Flare-Ups / Clinical Trial: Atopic dermatitis is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease affecting 15-2-% of children and 2-10% of adults worldwide. This randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial was conducted in a cohort of 90 Caucasian children and 144 adults with mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis. A natural ingredients from O. japonicus improved patient's quality of life and significantly reduced the number of relapses in patients compared to placebo. Results suggest the treatment could be effective in controlling mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis between flare-ups. (29)
Homoisoflavonoids / Antioxidant / Roots: Study of root extract identified 17 different homoisoflavonoid compounds with two major compounds identified as methylophiopogonanone A and methylophiopogonanone B.  methylophiopogonanone B exhibited highest antioxidant ability by various in-vitro assays. Among the extracts, the chloroform/methanol extract which contained high amounts of homoisoflavonoids showed strongest antioxidant activity. Results suggest O. japonicus can be a potential source of homoisoflavonoids and natural antioxidant. (31)
Release-Controlling Enteral Absorption Enhancement / Sodium Caprate: Study evaluated how to improve the intestinal absorption of O. japonicus polysaccharide by incorporating it together with sodium caprate into erodible matrices, designed to release OJP and SC at various rates over different periods of time. (32)
Steroidal Saponin / Cardioprotective / Amelioration of Doxorubicin-Induced Heart Failure: Study evaluated the cardioprotective effects of steroidal saponins extract from OJ roots against doxorubicin-induced chronic heart failure in Sprague-Dawley rat model of CHF. Results showed a cardioprotective effect against DOX-induced CHF through suppression of inflammation and oxidative stress. (33)
Exopolysaccharides / Inhibition of Proliferation and Migration in MC-4 Human Gastric Cancer Cells: Study investigated the antitumor activity of exopolysacchardies (EPSs) extracted from endophytes in O. japonicus. The endophyte bacterium MD4 was isolated from O. japonicus. MD4 was identified as a Staphylococcus sp. with 99% similarity. The MD4 endophyte acted as natural antitumor agents to inhibit the migration of gastric cancer cells. (34)
Roots for Age-Related Disease: Ophiopogonis Radix, which nourishes the yin, has been used to promote fluid secretion and to moisturize the lungs and skin in traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine. Study investigated the anti-chronic-inflammatory effect of Ophiopogonis Radix (OR) on senescent cells. Permanent low-grade inflammation in the elderly population and long-term accumulation of cellular senescence can be responsible for age-related diseases. Thus, cellular senescence may be a therapeutic target or age-related inflammatory diseases. The Chinese and Japanese OR was prepared from the enlarged part of the root. Methanol extracts and main constituents (methylophiopogonanone A, methylophiopogonanone B, ophiopogonanone A, and ophiopogonin B) significantly downregulated expression of IL-6 and IL-8 and decreased IL-6 production in a strong and concentration dependent manner. Results suggest OR can be effective for chronic inflammation associated with aging. (37)
Antidiabetic / Hypoglycemic / Root Polysaccharide: Study of roots extracted and purified a water-soluble polysaccharide (OJP1). Pharmaceutical experiments showed the OJP1 can significantly reduce blood glucose level, increase insulin level and remediate destruction of pancreatic islets in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Results showed OJP1 has potential use as an anti-diabetic agent. (38)
Anticancer / Mechanisms / Review: In vitro and in vivo studies have shown OJ and its compounds exhibit potential anticancer effects in a variety of cancer cells in vitro and suppress tumor growth and metastasis without serious invivo toxicity. O. japonicus extracts and compounds, such as ruscogenin-1-O-[ß-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->2)][ß-D-xylopyranosyl(1-->30]-ß-D-fucopyranoside(DT-13), ophiopogonin B, and ophiopogonin D, exert potential anticancer effects, including induction of cell cycle arrest, activation of apoptosis and autophagy, and inhibition of metastasis and angiogenesis. Review also highlights application of the compounds in immunotherapy and combination chemotherapy (39)
Antioxidant / Immunoregulatory / Polysaccharide Liposome / Roots: Study evaluated the antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities of ophiopogon polysaccharide liposome (OPL) from roots of O. japonicus. The radical scavenging activity increased along with increasing OPL concentrations. The scavenging activity of OPL was slightly stronger than OP in vitro. In vivo, the OPL at medium and high doses could significantly improve the levels of SOD and GSH-Px, and decrease the levels of MPO, XOD, and MDA compared with OP. Results indicate the antioxidant and immunoregulatory effects of OP were significantly enhanced after encapsulation with liposome. Results suggest potential for OPL as a new-type functional food as both medicine and food. (40)
Effect on Tube Formation in Human Myocardial Microvascular Endothelial Cells / Roots: Study evaluated the macroporous resin adsorption of extracts from the fibrous roots of O. japonicus in human myocardial microvascular endothelial cell line (HMMEC) bared assay. Study of active fractions of roots isolated one novel spirostan, ophiogenin (1), together with six known spirostans (4-8, 10),  one new sesquiterpene glycoside, ophioside A (2), and on(42)e known monoterpene glycoside (9). Ophiogoponol (3), a new natural compound, an aglycone of compound 2, was isolated from the acid hydrolysis of 2. Results showed compounds 4 and 8 could significantly improved tube formation, and compound 2 showed moderate increasing effect, while compound 5 exhibited potent inhibitory effect. (41)
Regulation of Autophagy on Tube Formation in Human Myocardial Microvascular Endothelial Cells / Roots: Ophiopogon japonicus possesses remarkable anti-cancer activity. Studies have indicated flavonoids (FOJ) and steroidal saponins (SSOJ) as the main active constituents. Study evaluated the effects of FOJ and SSOJ on autophagy of A59 cells. Results showed expressions of autophagy-related mediators (LC3-II/LC3-I ration, Atg-3, Atg-7 and Beclin-1) were increased in A549 cells by treatment with FOJ and SSOJ. Results suggest FOJ and SSOJ could activated autophagy of A549 cells, wherein the mechanism may be via inhibition of P13K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Results suggest FOJ and SSOJ could be a potential autophagy inducer to prevent the process of lung cancer. (42)
Induced Autophagy in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer / Inhibition of P13K/Akt Signaling Pathway: Study showed non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines NCI-H157 and NCI-H460 treated with OP-B grow more slowly and accumulates vacuoles in their cytoplasm. Flow cytometric analysis showed arrest of cells in G0/G1 phase. Results suggest OP-B treatment induced autophagy in both cell lines. The OP-B inhibited phosphorylation of Akt [Ser473, Thr308] in NCI-H157 cells and inhibited several key components of the pathway in NCI-H460 cells. Study suggests OP-B is a potential inhibitor of P13K/Akt and may be an alternative compound to treat NSCLC. (43)
Effect in Sjogren's Syndrome: Sjogren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized  by lymphocytic infiltration of salivary and lacrimal glands leading to xerostomia and keratoconjunctivitis sicca. It is the second most common autoimmune rheumatic disease. In an SS model of immunized C57BL/6 mice of inbred strains with submandibular gland (SMG) autoantigen, study evaluated salivary flow, histological changes in SMG, serum levels of IFN-γ and IL-4, and simple measures of body weight, food intake, and water intake for the effect of OHP on the SS model. Results showed immunization with SMG autoantigen induced decreased salivary flow and  body weight, increased water intake SMG index, spleen index, IFN-γ and IFN-γ/IL-4 rations. Study provided basis for use of OJ in SS. (44)
Hepato- and Nephro-Protective Effect against Diabetic Injury / Root Polysaccharide: Study evaluated the effect of OJP1, a polysaccharide isolated from the roots of OJ on blood lipid metabolism, antioxidant activity, and protective effect on the liver and kidneys of diabetic rats. Results showed OJP1 significantly reduced the MDA concentration and increased the activity of both GPx and SOD in serum, liver, and kidneys of diabetic rats. Values of TG, TC, LDL-C, and HDL-C in diabetic rats were significantly reversed. The OJP1 can alleviate liver and kidney injuries in diabetic rats. The mRNA expression of transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) decreased significantly after OJP1. Results suggest antioxidant and hepato- and nephro-protection from diabetic injuries. (46)
Cardioprotective on Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Ischemia / Polysaccharide: Study evaluated the cardioprotective effect of OJP1 (polysaccharide) from root of O. japonicus on isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial ischemia in rats. Pretreatment with OJP1 (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg) significantly reduced ISO-induced ST-segment elevation and heart index, attenuated the lever of marker enzymes (AST, LDH, CK, AND CK-MB), along with significant enhanced activities of ATPases. Pretreatment enhanced activities of SOD, GPx and CAT in serum and myocardium, and decreased the level of MDA. Biochemical and histopathological studies showed alleviation of myocardial injury by ISO. Results suggest significant cardioprotective effect probably via enhancement of endogenous antioxidants. (49)
Anticancer / Human Lung Cancer Cells: Study evaluated the effects of OJ against NCI-H1299 human lung cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS)-based cell metabolics. Results showed OH inhibited the proliferation, induced the apoptosis and suppressed the migration of NCI-H1299 cells. Metabolites were involved in three metabolic pathways, including glycerophospholipid metabolism, ether lipid metabolism, and glutathione metabolism. Study suggests cell-metabolomics-based strategies are promising tools to explore the mechanisms of OJ against lung cancer cells. (50)
Regulation of Gut Microbiota and SCFA Metabolic Disorder / OJP-W1 / Root Polysaccharide: Study isolated a homogenous polysaccharide fraction, OJP-W1.  Study evaluated the therapeutic effects of OJP-W1 in diabetes symptoms, gut microbiota and metabolism of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type-2 diabetic mice. OJP-W1 significantly ameliorated HFD-induced insulin resistance and glucose tolerance. It regulated the gut microbiota dysbiosis in HFD-fed mice and improved the metabolic disorder of short-chain fatty acid in high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Study suggests OJP-W1 has potential as a novel functional food in preventing diabetes-associated gut microbiota dysbiosis and SCFA metabolic disorder. (51)
Anti-Pancreatic Cancer / Galactan / Roots: Study of roots isolated a galactan ROH05 from the roots of O. japonicus. An acetylated galactan, ROH05A was prepared by acetic anhydride-pyridine method. Bioactivity testing showed the ROH05A might inhibit both BxPC-3 and PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells growth in a dose-dependent manner without significant toxicity to LO2 cells. Cells apoptosis was triggered while p53, p21, Bax expression were upregulated by ROH05A as well. (52)

- Cultivated.
- Teas and root powder extracts in the cybermarket.

Updated February 2024 / November 2019 / July 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Mondo grass / © Globe Plants / Non-commercial use / Image modified / Click on image or link to go to source page / Globe Plants
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Ophiopogon japonicus / Alpsdake / CC BY-SA 4.0 / Image modified / Click on image or link to go to source page / Globe Plants
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Ophiopogon japonicus / Fruit / Peter Schmitz / CC BY-SA / Image modified / Click on image or link to go to source page / Pl@ntNet

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Inhibitory effects of ethanol extract from Radix Ophiopogon japonicus on venous thrombosis linked with its endothelium-protective and anti-adhesive activities / Vascular Pharmacology / Volume 43, Issue 3, September 2005, Pages 157-163 / doi:10.1016/j.vph.2005.06.004
Anti-inflammatory Activities of Aqueous Extract from Radix Ophiopogon japonicus and Its Two Constituents / Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin / Vol. 28 (2005) , No. 7 1234
Review: Natural medicines used in the traditional Chinese medical system for therapy of diabetes mellitus / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 92 (2004) 1–21
Preventive effect of Ophiopogon japonicus polysaccharides on an autoallergic mouse model for Sjogren's syndrome by regulating the Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalance / Yue Wang et al / Journal of ethnopharmacology / 2007, vol. 114, no2, pp. 246-253
Homoisoflavonoids from Ophiopogon japonicus and Its Oxygen Free Radicals (OFRs) Scavenging Effects / Yi-Feng Zhou et al / Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines, May 2008; Vol 6, Issue 3: pp 201-204 / doi:10.1016/S1875-5364(09)60017-0
Influence of sulfation on anti-myocardial ischemic activity of Ophiopogon japonicus polysaccharide / Qin Zheng et al / Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, Volume 11, Issue 4 April 2009 , pages 306 - 321 / DOI: 10.1080/10286020902727363
Five New Homoisoflavonoids from the Tuber of Ophiopogon japonicus / Jin-Ming Chang, Chien-Chang Shen et al / J. Nat. Prod., 2002, 65 (11): pp 1731–1733 / DOI: 10.1021/np020204o
Ophiopojaponin D, a new phenylpropanoid glycoside from Ophiopogon Japonicus Ker-Gawl / Hao Fu Dai and Wen Li Mei / Archives of Pharmacal Research, Nov 2005; 28(11): pp 1236-1238 / DOI 10.1007/BF02978205
Antithrombotic Activities of Aqueous Extract from Radix Ophiopogon japonicus and Its Two Constituents / Kou Junping, Tian Youqing et al / Biol Pharm Bull, VOL.29;NO.6;PAGE.1267-1270
A polysaccharide, MDG-1, induces S1P1 and bFGF expression and augments survival and angiogenesis in the ischemic heart / Shuo Wang, Zhang Zhang et al / Glycobiology 2010 20(4):473-484; doi:10.1093/glycob/cwp199
Shengmai San reduces hepatic lipids and lipid peroxidation in rats fed on a high-cholesterol diet / Hsien-Tsung Yao, Yi-Wei Chang et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol 116, Issue 1, 28 February 2008, Pages 49-57 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2007.10.043

Ophiopogon japonicus—Dwarf Lilyturf / Common names / EOL Encyclopedia of Life
Analysis of homoisoflavonoids in Ophiopogon japonicus by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS / Min Ye, Dean Guo, Guan Ye, Chenggang Huang / Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry, Volume 16, Issue 2, February 2005, Pages 234–243
Anti-inflammatory homoisoflavonoids from the tuberous roots of Ophiopogon japonicus. / Ning Li, Jia-Yu Zhang, Ke-Wu Zeng, Liang Zhang, Ya-Yun Che, and Peng-Fei Tu / Fitoterapia, 05/2012; 83(6):1042-5. / DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2012.05.011
Ophiopogon japonicus / Synonyms / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Studies on the chemical constituents from the flowers of Ophiopogon japonicus / Zhu YH, Zhao M, Ren L, Tian D, Dou F, Wang JX. /Zhong Yao Cai. 2011 May;34(5):720-3.
Studies on chemical constituents of Ophiopogon japonicus / Yue Liu, Ling-Zhi Meng, Sheng-Xu Xie, Tun-Hai Xu, Lian-kun Sun, Tong-Hua Liu, Ya-Juan Xu* & Dong-Ming Xu / Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, Volume 16, Issue 10, 2014 / DOI:10.1080/10286020.2014.935348
Fecal metabonomic study of a polysaccharide, MDG-1 from Ophiopogon japonicus on diabetic mice based on gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC TOF/MS). / Zhu Y, Cong W, Shen L, Wei H, Wang Y, Wang L, Ruan K, Wu F, Feng Y. / Mol Biosyst. 2014 Feb;10(2):304-12. /
doi: 10.1039/c3mb70392d.
Nutritional Composition, -Glucosidase Inhibitory and Antioxidant Activities of Ophiopogon japonicus Tubers / Yancui Wang, Feng Liu, and Zongsuo Liang / Journal of Chemistry, Volume 2015 (2015) /
Antioxidant and Antifatigue Activities of Ophiopogon japonicus Extracts in Exercised Rats / Chi-Ting Horng, Hui-Yun Wang, Yu-Syuan Huang, Jai-Sing Yang and Fu-An Chen / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND CHEMICAL SCIENCES, Oct-Dec 2014; 3(4): pp 858-870
MDG-1, a polysaccharide from Ophiopogon japonicus exerts hypoglycemic effects through the PI3K/Akt pathway in a diabetic KKAy mouse model / Ling-Yi Wang, Yuan Wang, De-Sheng Xu, Ke-Feng Ruan, Yi Feng, Shuo Wang / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 143, Issue 1, 30 August 2012, pp 347–354 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2012.06.050
Ophiopogon japonicus--A phytochemical, ethnomedicinal and pharmacological review. / Chen MH,Chen XJ, Wang M, Lin LG, and Wang YT / J Ethnopharmacol., April 2016; 181: pp 193-213 /
DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.01.037.
Ophiopogon japonicus / Useful Tropical Plants
Comparative analysis of active ingredients and effects of the combination of Panax ginsengand  Ophiopogon japonicus at different proportions on chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression mouse / Shengbo Zhang, Hengyu Sun, Chunyun Wang, Xiaoman Zheng, Xiaohuan Jia, Enbo Cai, and Yan Zhao / Journal of Food & Function, 2019; 10(3): pp 1563-1570 / DOI 10.1039/C8FO02354A
Studies on the liposoluble components from tuber of Ophiopogon japonicus / CHENG Zhi hong, WU Tao, LI Lin zhou, LIU Nan, YU Bo yang, XU Luo shan / Chinese Pharmaceutical Journal, 2005-05
A New Steroidal Saponin from the Tubers of Ophiopogon japonicus and Its Protective Effect Against Cisplatin-Induced Renal Cell Toxicity / Seoung Rak Lee, Ju-Yeon Han, Hee Rae Kang, Hye Lim Lee, Hyung-Jun Noh, Jae-Soon Cha, Ki Sung Kang, Chan-Jung Lee, Ki Hyun Kim / J. Braz. Chem. Soc. vol.27 no.4 São Paulo Apr. 2016 /
Ophiopogon japonicus herbal tea ameliorates oxidative stress and extends lifespan in caenorhabditis elegans / Xuesong Yu, Dake Gao, Bing QI, Xiaochun Xiao, Xufeng Zhai, Chung Wah Ma, Qianggiang Wang, Zebo Huang / Pharmacognosy Magazine, 2018; 14(58): pp 617-623 / DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_313_18
A New Steroidal Glycoside from Ophiopogon japonicus(Thunb.) Ker‐Gawl. / Hao-Fu Dai, Shi-Ming Deng, Ning-Hua Tan, Jun Zhou / Journal of Integrative Plant Biology, Sept 2005; 47(9): pp 1148-1152 /
Clinical Efficacy of Oligofructans from Ophiopogon japonicus in Reducing Atopic Dermatitis Flare-ups in Caucasian Patients / Carine Mainzer, Maud Le Guillou, Raoul Vyumvuhore, Bernard Chadoutaud, Sylvie Bordes and Brigitte Closs / ActaDV: ActaDermatoVenereologica, 2019; 99(10)
Antithrombotic Effect of Fermented Ophiopogon japonicus in Thrombosis-Induced Rat Models / Yi-Lin Zhang, Mei-Zhu Xi, Young-Bin Choi, and Bog-Hieu Lee / Journal of Medicinal Food, 20(7) /
Homoisoflavonoids and the Antioxidant Activity of Ophiopogon japonicus Root. / Wang Y, Liu F, Liang Z, Peng L, Wang B, Yu J, Su Y, Ma C / Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2017; 16(1): pp 357-365 / PMCID:pmc5423261 / PMCID:PMC5423261
Release-Controlling Absorption Enhancement of Enterally Administered Ophiopogon JaponicusPolysaccharide by Sodium Caprate in Rats / Xiao Lin, De-sheng Xu, Yi Feng, Song-Ming, Zhi-Ling Lu, Lan Shen / Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nov 206; 95(11): pp 2534-2542 / DOI:
Effects of steroidal saponins extract from Ophiopogon japonicus root ameliorates doxorubicin-induced chronic heart failure by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammatory response / Zhongwei Wu, Hong-Tao Wang / Pharmaceutical Biology, Dec 2019 / PMID: 30860934 / DOI: 10.1080/13880209.2019.1577467
Exopolysaccharides from an Ophiopogon japonicus endophyte inhibit proliferation and migration in MC-4 human gastric cancer cells / Wenjun Xu, Yongle Yang, Youguang Yang, Zhongxia Lu, Qunying Lu, Yitao Chen / TCR: Translational Cancer Research, Dec 2018; 7(6) / doi: 10.21037/tcr.2018.11.28
Studies on ChemicaI Constituents of Essential Oil of Ophiopogon japonious / Zhn Yong Xin, Lie Lie-Zhe, Wang Wei, Ling Da-kal, Sun Zeng-pei / Chinese Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Jan 1991; 11(1): pp 21-22
Ophiopogon japonicus / Last edited by Pieter Pelser & John Collantes, 2020 / Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines
Chapter 27 - Antioxidant properties and applications of Ophiopogon japonicus root for age-related disease / Yumi Kitahiro, Makio Shibano / Aging (Second Edition): Oxidative Stress and Dietary Antioxidants, 2020: pp 275-282 / DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-818698-5.00027-4
Extraction, purification, characterization and hypoglycemic activity of a polysaccharide isolated from the root of Ophiopogon japonicus / Xiaoming Chen, Jing Jin, Jia Tang, Zhongfu Wang, Junjun Wang, Liqin Jin, Jianxin Lu  /  Carbohydrate Polymers, 2011; 83(2): pp 749-754 / DOI:10.1016/j.carbpol.2010.08.050
Ophiopogon japonicus and its active compounds: A review of potential anticancer effects and underlying mechanisms / Qiao Liu, Jin-Jian Lu, Hui-Jie Hong, Qi Yang, Yitao Wang, Xiao-Jia Chen / Phytomedicine, 2023; Volume 113: 154718 / DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2023.154718
Antioxidative and immunological activities of ophiopogon polysaccharide liposome from the root of Ophiopogon japonicus / Yunpeng Fan, Xia Ma, Lin Ma, Jing Zhang, Weimin Zhang, Xiaoping Song / Carbohydrate Polymers, 2016; Volume 135: pp 110-120 / DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.08.089
Chemical constituents from the fibrous root of Ophiopogon japonicus, and their effect on tube formation in human myocardial microvascular endothelial cells / Shen Lan, Feng Yi, Lian Shuang, Wang ChenJie, Xiang-Wei Zheng / Fitoterapia, 2013; Volume 85: pp 57-63 / DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2012.12.025
Regulation of different components from Ophiopogon japonicus on autophagy in human lung adenocarcinoma A549Cells through PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway / Juan Chen, Jiarui Yuan, Liqiang Zhou, Maomao Zhu, Liang Feng et al / Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 2017; Volume 87: pp 118-126 /
DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2016.12.093
Ophiopogonin B-induced autophagy in non-small cell lung cancer cells via inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway / Meijuan Chen, Yuhong Du, Jin-Ao Duan, Hai-An Fu, Xu Zhang et al /  Oncology Reports, 2013; 29(2): pp 430-436 / DOI: 10.3982/or.2012.2131 / eISSN: 1791-2431 / pISSN: 1021-335X
Preventive effect of Ophiopogon japonicus polysaccharides on an autoallergic mouse model for Sjogren's syndrome by regulating the Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalance / Yue Wang, Tingting Yan, Jian Shen, Haiying Guo, Xiaoren Xiang / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2007; 114(2): pp 246-253 /
DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2-007.08.014
Additional article: Ophiopogon japonicus strains from different cultivation regions exhibit markedly different properties on cytotoxicity, pregnane X receptor activation and cytochrome P450 3A4 induction / Le-le Ge et al / Biomedical Reports, 2015; 3(3): pp 430-434 / pISSN: 2049-9434 / eISSN: 2049-9442 /
DOI: 10.3892/br/2015.443
Protective effect of the polysaccharide from Ophiopogon japonicus on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats / Xiaoming Chen, Jia Tang, Wenuan Xie, Junjun Wang et al / Carbohydrate Polymers, 2013; 94(1): pp 378-385 / DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.01.037
Ophiopogon / Wikipedia
Ophiopogon japonicus / Wikipedia
Cardioprotective effect of the polysaccharide from Ophiopogon japonicus on isoproterenol-induced myocardial ischemia in rats / Sairong Fan, Junfeng Zhang, Qi Xiao, Xiaoming Chen et al / International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2020; Vol 147: pp 233-240 / DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.01.068
Cell metabolomics study on the anticancer effects of Ophiopogon japonicus against lung cancer cells using UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS analysis / Qiao Liu, Jia-Man Shen, Hui-Jie Hong, Qi Yang, Xiao-Jia Chen et al / Front. Pharmacol: Sec. Ethnopharmacology, 2022; Volume 13 / DOI: 10.33.89/fphar.2022.1017830
Polysaccharide from tuberous roots of Ophiopogon japonicus regulates gut microbiota and its metabolites during alleviation of high-fat diet-induced type-2 diabetes in mice / Huai-You Wang, Lin-Xiu Guo, Tie-Jie Wang, Karl W K Tsim et al / Journal of Functional Foods, 2019; Volume 63: 103593
Structural characterization of a galactan from Ophiopogon japonicus and anti-pancreatic cancer activity of its acetylated derivative / Dam Gu, Lulin Huang, Xia Chen, Qianhu Wu, Kan Ding / International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2018; Volume 113: pp 907-915 / DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.03.019

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants
                                          New plant names needed
The compilation now numbers over 1,300 medicinal plants. While I believe there are hundreds more that can be added to the collection, they are becoming more difficult to find. If you have a plant to suggest for inclusion, native or introduced, please email the info: scientific name (most helpful), local plant name (if known), any known folkloric medicinal use, and, if possible, a photo. Your help will be greatly appreciated.

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