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Family Piperaceae
o / Sinaw-sinaw
Peperomia pellucida
(L.) Kunth


Cao hu jiao

Scientific names Common names 
Micropiper pellucidum (L.) Miq. Clavo-clavo (Chavacano)
Peperomia pellucida (L.) Kunth Ikmo-ikmohan (Tag.) 
Piper pellucidum L. Lin-linaaw (Ilk.)
Accepted infraspecifics (2) Olasiman-ihalas (C. Bis.)
Peperomia pellucida var. argentian Yunck. Pansit-pansitan (Tag.)
Peperomia pellucida var. pellucida Sahica-puti (Tag.) 
  Sida-sida (Bis.) 
  Sinaw-sinaw (Zamboanga) 
  Tangon-tangon (Bikol)
  Ulasiman bato (Tag.)
  Ulasimang bato  (Tag.)
  Clear weed (Engl.)
  Man-to-man (Engl.)
  Pepper-elder (Engl.)
  Rat-ear (Engl.)
  Shiny bush (Engl.)
  Silver bush (Engl.)
Peperomia pellucida (L.) Kunth is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
AMAZON: Erva-de-jabuti.
BRAZIL: Coracãozinho.
CAMBODIA: Krasang teap.
CHAMORRO: Podpod-lahe, potpopot
CHINESE: Cao hu jiao
JAPAN: Suna kosho.
MALAYALAM: Mashithandu.
MALAY: Rangu-rangu, Ketumpangan, Tumpang angin.
MON: Sagar bantaing.
MYANMAR: Nathamee koon.
NIGERIA: Rinrin.
PALAUAN: Rtetill
PUERTO RICO: Prenetaria.
THAILAND: Phak krasang
SAMOA: Vao vai
SINHALESE: Diya thippili.
SPANISH: Alumbre, Erva de vidro
SUNDANESE: Sasaladahan.
THAI: Pak krasang.
OTHERS: Luchi pata (W. Bengal); Soldier's parsley (Guyana); Zeb kouwes (Commonw. of Dominica).

Gen info
- Peperomia is one of the two large genera of the family Piperaceae, estimated to have over 1,000 species occurring in all tropical and subtropical regions of the world. They have adapted to different environments. Some are epiphytes (growing on other plants) or lithophytes (growing on rock or in rock crevices), many are xerophytes (drought-tolerant, with thick succulent structures to save water), or geophytes (possessing underground tubers). Most species are compact perennial shrubs or vines. (49)
- The genus name was coined by Spanish botanists Ruiz Lopez and Pavon Jimenez in 1794.
- In the Philippines, there are 18 species, of which three are endemic: Peperomia copelandii, P. elmeri, and P. recurvata. (49)

Pansit-pansitan is an erect, branched, annual herb, shallow rooted, reaching up to 40 centimeters high, with very succulent stems. Stems are round, often about 5 millimeters thick. Leaves are alternate, heart-shaped and turgid, as transparent and smooth as candle wax. Spikes are green, erect, very slender, 1 to 6 centimeters long. Tiny dot-like flowers scattered along solitary and leaf-opposed stalk (spike); naked; maturing gradually from the base to the tip; turning brown when ripe.

- Native to the Philippines. (48)
- An annual herb, favoring shady, damp and loose soil.
- Often grows in groups in nooks in the garden and yard.
- Conspicuous in rocky parts of canals.
- Propagation by seeds: Numerous tiny seeds drop off when mature and grow easily in clumps and groups in damp areas.

• Preliminary phytochemical screening of methanol extracts of stems yielded carbohydrates, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, triterpenoids, with the absence of saponins and proteins.
• Study yielded 5 new bioactive compounds: two secolignans, two tetrahydrofuran lignans, and one highly methoxylated dihydronaphthalenone.

• Proximate analysis of leaves yielded a high ash content, a higher crude fiber content, and a still higher carbohydrate content. Mineral analysis showed low manganese, iron, zinc and copper, with high sodium content. Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, cardenolides, saponins and tannins, with an absence of anthraquinones. (10)
• An ether soluble fraction of the whole plant yielded 4,7-dimethoxy-5-(2-propenyl)-1, 3-benzodioxole or apiol, in a liquid state, 2,4,5,-trimethoxy styrene, mp 138°, and three phytosterols, campesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol. (14)
• Study of essential oil showed the main components to be dillapiole (39.7%) and trans-caryophyllene (10.7%). (20)
• An ethanol extract of leaves yielded fifteen compounds: bicyclo[7.2.0]undec-4-ene, 4,11,11-trimethyl-8-methylene, 10,12-octadecadiynoic acid, 3,7,11,11-tetramethylbicyclo [8.1.0] undeca-2,6-diene, 2,6-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methyl phenol, 1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-methoxyethenyl) benzene, 1,3-benzodioxole, 4,7-dimethoxy-5-(2-propenyl), oxalic acid, cyclohexylmethyl tridecyl ester, ethyl alpha-d-glucopyranoside, hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester, 10-octadecenoic acid methyl ester, 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol, (Z)6,(Z)9-pentadecadien-1-ol, 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid ethyl ester and N,N-dimethyldodecanamide. (see study below) (25)
• Proximate analysis showed P. pellucida to be rich in crude protein, carbohydrate and total ash contents. The high ash content (31.22%) suggests a high-value mineral composition of potassium, calcium, and iron. (27)
• GC-MS study of whole plant for bioactive components yielded 32 compounds. Major components was apiol (22.64%) followed by (3-Methoxy-nitrophenyl) acetic acid, methyl ester (8.14%), phytol (7.47%), n-hexadeconoic acid (7.29%), E-2-tetradecen-1-ol (6.92%), 5H-cyclopropa (3,4) benz (1,2-e) azulen-5-one, 4,9,9a- tris(acetyloxy)-3-[(acetyloxy)methyl]- (5.89%), stigmasterol (4.60%), 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol (4.00%), campesterol (3.19%), a- sitosterol (2.92%), 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, (Z,Z,Z)- (2.79%), Z,Z- 2,5-pentadecadien-1-ol (2.53%) and 3-hydroxy-4-methoxycinnamic acid (2.01%). (33)
• Study of leaves and stems for essential oil by GC and GC-MS analysis. yielded sesquiterpenes as the most abundant class of compounds, followed by phenylpropanoids. Main constituents of the leaf oil were were γ-gurjunene (11.34%±0.01), 1,10-di-epi- cubenol (11.27%±0.02), (E)-caryophyllene (8.71%±0.02) and dillapiole (8.50%±0.03). The major constituents of the stem oil were carotol (9.77%±0.01), dillapiole (9.18%±0.01), trans-β-guaiene (9.05%±0.02) and (E)-caryophyllene (8.53%±0.02). (see study below) (47)
• Study of leaf extracts isolated 2,4,5-trimethoxycinnamic acid, 5,6,7-trimethoxyflavone, 2,4,5-trimethoxystyrene, 2,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde, dillapiol, and sesamin in addition to pellucidin A. (see study below) (51)
• P. pellucida extract showed total phenolic and flavonoid contents of 359.91 mg GAE/g and 200.28 mg QE/g extract. (see study below) (53)

• Considered anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, refrigerant, analgesic, antifungal, anticancer.

• Studies have shown analgesic, anti-inflammatory, CNS depressant, antioxidant, antihyperuricemic, hypoglycemic, antihypertensive, antibacterial, antiarthritic, anticancer, antiedematogenic, anti-amoebic, gastroprotective, hemostatic, anti-acne, hair-growth promoting properties.

Parts utilized
Leaves and stems.

- Leaves and stems may be eaten as vegetable.
- In salads, the fresh plant has the crispness of carrot sticks and celery.
- Infusion and decoction of leaves and stems are used for gout and arthritis.
- Decoction of leaves used for urinary tract infections.
- Used for treatment of asthma, ulcers, cough, and conjunctivitis.
- Externally, as a facial rinse for complexion problems.
- In Ayurveda, used to pacify vitiated cough, pitta, constipation, kidney diseases, urinary retention, dysuria, urinary tract infection, emaciation, edema and general weakness. (1
- Pounded whole plant used as warm poultice for boils, pustules and pimples.
- In Jamaica and the Caribbean used for colds and as a diuretic for kidney problems.
- In South America, solution of fresh juice of stem and leaves used for eye inflammation. Infusion and decoction of leaves and stems used for gout and arthritis. (1
- In Brazil, used for abscesses and conjunctivitis.
- In Bolivia, decoction of roots used for fever; aerial parts for wounds.
- In Nigeria used for hypertension.
- In Bangladesh, leaves used in the treatment of excited mental disorders.
- In Africa, used for convulsions and tumors.
- Used for headaches, rheumatic pains, impotence.
- In Cameroon used for fracture healing.
- In Brazil, used to lower cholesterol; for treatment of abscesses, furuncles and conjunctivitis
New uses
- Belongs to the "preferred list" of Philippine medicinal plants, being studied for its use in the treatment of arthritis and gout.
- For arthritis: Leaves and stems of the fresh plant may be eaten as salad. Or, as an infusion, put a 20-cm plant in 2 glasses of boiling water; and 1/2 cup of this infusion is taken morning and evening.

Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory / Aerial Parts: Extract study of aerial parts of PP tested in rats and mice exhibited anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. The anti-inflammatory activity was attributed to interference with prostaglandin synthesis. Results also showed low toxicity. (1) Study of methanol extract of P. pellucida aerial parts showed significant analgesic activity on acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. (43)
CNS Depressant Activity: Study of peperomia leaf extract showed dose-dependent depressant effects probably due to psychoactive substances that are CNS depressant. (2)
Antipyretic: Study of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate soluble fractions of an ethanol leaf extract of Peperomia pellucida on rabbits showed antipyretic effects comparable to a standard aspirin. (3) In a study that eval
uated the effect of Peperomia pellucida crude leaf extract on boiled milk-induced fever in male white mice, results showed no antipyretic effect.
Antibacterial: Study of methanolic extract of PP exhibited a very good level of broad spectrum antibacterial activity.
(4) A methanol crude extract showed growth inhibition for E. coli at 1% and 10% concentration, but no inhibition of growth of S. aureus. (24)
Phenological Antiedematogenic: P pellucida has a phenological cycle of about 100 days. The aqueous extract is used as antiedematogenic during pheophases 1 and 2 of winter and spring.(5)
Anti-Cancer: Study isolated five new compounds, including two secolignans, two tetrahydrofuran lignans, one highly methoxylated dihydronaphthalenone with known peperomins A, B, C and E. Compound 1 and peperomin E showed growth inhibitory effects on three cancer cell lines.(6)
Toxicity Study / Freeze-Dried Extract: Study evaluated the potential systemic toxicity of acute oral use of P. pellucida freeze-dried aqueous extract powder in mice. In excessive amounts, P. pellucida showed a dose-dependent increase in adverse effects in the major systems of the body. The moderate slope of the dose-response line was suggestive of a moderately wide margin of safety of the plant.(7)
Analgesic / Anti-Arthritic Study: Study showed both twice daily P. pellucida decoction and ibuprofen treatment significantly lowered the mean scores on pain, stiffness and disability on the WOMAC arthritis index on patients with knee joint rheumatism. (8)
Xanthone Glycoside / Antibacterial: Study isolated patuloside A, a xanthone glycoside from P. pellucida. The compound showed significant antibacterial activity against four Gram-positive bacteria (B subtilis, B megaterium, S aureus, Strep ß-hemolyticus) and six Gram-negative bacteria (E coli, S dysenteriae, S sonnei, S flexneri, P aeruginosa and S typhi.) (9)
Antihyperuricemic: A randomized controlled study of the effect of freeze-dried aqueous extract powder of P. pellucida in male adult Sprague Dawley rats showed a mean % decrease from hyperuricemic level of 44.1% compared to allopurinol at 64.0%. Results indicate P. pellucida may be used as an alternative medication for hyperuricemia. (11)
Anti-Inflammatory / Antioxidant: A petroleum ether extract significantly reduced carrageenan-induced hind paw edema. The methanol extract showed the strongest free radical scavenging activity. Results suggest the plant is a good natural source for anti-inflammatory and antioxidant therapy. (12)
Phytochemical / Antimicrobial / Toxicological Evaluation: Photochemical studies yielded alkaloids, tannins and flavonoids. Extracts inhibited growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, K. pneumonia, and B. subtilis, while only the methanol extract inhibited Staphylococcus aureus. Oral doses as high as 5g/kg did not cause death or toxicological symptoms in mice. Histopathological effects of an aqueous methanol extract on the liver, spleen kidney and heart of rats showed mild to moderate congestions and infiltrations of chronic inflammatory cells.(16)
Mineral Composition / Nutritional Attributes: Study evaluated the proximate and mineral composition and nutritional attributes of P. pellucida. Results showed it to be rich in crude protein, carbohydrate, and total ash contents. The ash content suggest a high-value for potassium, calcium, and iron as main elements. Results suggest P. pellucida can serve as a good source of protein, energy, and micronutrients.(17)
Hypotensive Effect / Cytochrome P450 Effect: Study evaluated P. pellucida for its use as an antihypertensive remedy and its impact on cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activity. Results showed a dose-dependent hypotensive, bradycardic, and vasorelaxant effects probably mediated through nitric oxide-dependent mechanisms. An aqueous extract showed poor in vitro inhibition on CYP3A4 enzyme making it unlikely to cause clinically significant pharmacokinetic drug interactions via the enzyme inhibition.(19)
Anticancer / Antimicrobial / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study showed P. pellucida leaf extract possessed anticancer activities. The plant extract was found to inhibit growth of various bacterial pathogens and inhibit 30% of DPPH, free radical. Phytol was the major compound in the plant extract, followed by 2-naphthalenol, hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester and 9,12-octadecadienoic acid, and (Z,Z)-methyl ester. Results indicate the leaf possessed vast potential as a medicinal drug especially in breast cancer treatment. (21)
Fracture Healing by Anabolic Effect on Osteoblasts: Study evaluated an ethanol extract of P. pellucida on bone regeneration following bone and marrow injury in rats. Results showed the EE dose-dependently induced bone regeneration at the fracture site, with significantly increased mineral deposition compared to controls. Findings suggest acceleration of fracture repair via stimulatory effect on osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. (22)
Hemostatic Effects: Study of P. pellucida plant crude extract showed coagulation properties that can induce blood clotting and augment thrombocyte production. (23) (see: 55)
Antibacterial / Leaves: An ethanol extract of leaves yielded fifteen compounds and showed marked antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Proteus mirabilis. The synergistic effect of the compounds might have caused the high antibacterial activity. (see constituents above) (25)
Antidiabetic / Antioxidant / Hypolipidemic: Study investigated the antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of Peperomia pellucida in alloxan induced diabetic male albino rats. Diabetic rats on diets supplemented with P. pellucida showed reduction in blood glucose, significant reduced serum cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol, and significantly reduced lipid peroxidation. (26)
Antiamoebic: Study evaluated P. pellucida for antiamoebic activity. A methanol fraction of dried plant caused morphological and structural changes in Acanthamoeba cysts. (28)
Antihypertensive: Study evaluated the anti-hypertensive effects of Peperomia pellucida extract on arterial blood pressure in male, normotensive rats. Intravenous administration of the extract produced marked fall in mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate. (29)
Hypoglycemic / Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory: Study of an ethyl acetate extract in alloxan induced diabetic mice showed significant hypoglycemic effect. Results also showed significant analgesic activity in the acetic acid induced writhing model, which may be attributed to the presence of flavonoid, steroid, alkaloid, tannin and saponin noted on phytochemical screening. (30)
Gastroprotective / Anti-Ulcer: Study evaluated the anti-ulcerogenic activity of aerial parts of P. pellucida in necrotizing agent and indomethacin induced models in rats. Results showed significant protection in various experimental models with significant pretreatment inhibition of gastric mucosal damage. (31)
Anti-Hyperuricemic Effect on Potassium Oxonate-Induced Hyperuricemia: Study showed an anti-hyperuricemic effect of Peperomia pellucida extract in potassium oxonnate induced hyperuricemia in white male rats. (35)
• Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study evaluated leaf extracts for antimicrobial activity and phytochemical properties. Extracts yielded flavonoids and saponins while alkaloids, steroids, and tannins were absent in the methanol and EA extracts. Extracts showed antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa, S. typhii, and S. dysenteriae, comparable to standard antibiotic streptomycin. (36)
• Acceleration of Fracture Healing / Whole Plant: Study evaluated the effects of aqueous whole plant extract of P. pellucida on fracture healing in female Wistar rats. The extract accelerated bone healing partly due to the mineral content. There was a significant increase in amounts of calcium, phosphorus, and AP. There was a dose dependent effect on callus formation. Results suggest osteoblastic effects responsible for enhancement of bone repair process. (37)
• Capacity for Bioaccumulation of Lead: Some plants species absorb large quantities of heavy metals like lead which can accumulate in the body and lead to heavy metal poisoning. A greenhouse study showed showed application of 100-400 ppm Pb had no significant effect on shoot and root growth. Results showed P. pellucida can tolerate Pb levels as high as 400 ppm without affecting its growth. (38)
• Radical Scavenging / Antibacterial / Leaves and Stem Essential Oils: Study evaluated leaves and stem essential oils of P. pellucida for in vitro antibacterial and radical scavenging activities. The EOs showed strong antibacterial activities against bacterial strains viz., E. coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Myobacterium smegmatis, Listeria ivanovii, S. aureus, Streptococcus uberis and Vibro parahaemolyticus with MIC range between 0.95 and 0.20 mg/ml for both EOs. Leaf EO showed more radical scavenging (1.67 mg/mL) than the stem EO (2.83 mg/mL. (39)
• Protective Effects on Pancreas / Potential Antidiabetic Treatment: Study evaluated the crude methanolic extract of P. pellucida for antihyperglycemic property and its effect on pancreatic histology in high fat-diet/STZ-induuced diabetic mice. While a two-week administration showed no significant effect on blood glucose levels, the extract prevented necrosis, apoptosis, and inflammation of the Islets of Langerhans. Results suggest a protective effect on the pancreas and a potential alternative to metformin in the treatment of T2DM. (40)
Dillapiole / Gastroprotective / Ethanol-Induced Lesions: Study of a hexane and dichlormethane extract of P. pellucida yielded dillapiole as the most active compound. The compound was evaluated for gastroprotective effect using an ethanol-induced gastric ulcer rat model. Dillapiole showed gastroprotection unrelated to endogenous NO, prostaglandins or sulfhydryl groups. (41)
• Natural Radioactivity of P. pellucida Used as Medicinal Herb: Study evaluated the concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides U, U, Th, Th, Ra, Ra and Pb in a sample of Peperomia pellucida and in the surrounding soil. An emerging concern in many developing countries is industrial pollution that may threaten the health of local government by contamination of vegetation with heavy metals, pesticides, or radioactivity. In this study, the level of radionuclides showed much higher concentrations than that present in day-to-day diet. In the context of plant extraction for phytotherapies and the consumption of herbs by the population, the study of radionuclide concentration in medicinal plants has great significance. (42)
• Cytotoxicity: Study evaluated various extracts of P. pellucida for phytochemical constituents and cytotoxicity potential by in vitro MTT assay using HEK 293 (human epithelial kidney) HeLa (human cervical cancer) and HepB2 (human hepatic carcinoma) cell lines. The methanol extract showed maximum phytochemicals and significant cytotoxic activity against the test cancer cell lines and showed less cytotoxicity against normal human kidney cells (HEK293) suggesting safety for normal cells. (44)
• Antifungal / Leaves: Study of Peperomia pellucida leaf ethanol extract showed most effective antifungal activity against C. albicans colony growth inhibition at 70% concentration. (45)
• Patuloside A / Xanthone Glycoside / Antimicrobial / Cytotoxicity: Study pf Peperomia pellucida isolated a xanthone glycoside, Patuloside A (3-β-D glucopyranosyloxy-1,5,6-trihydroxy-9H-xanthene-9-one). The compound showed significant antibacterial activity against four gram-positive and six gram-negative bacteria and weak antifungal activity against A. flavus and C. albicans. It showed cytotoxicity against brine shrimp nauplii with an IC50 of 18.24 µg/ml. (46)
Acaricidal / Essential Oils: Study evaluated leave and stem for essential oil by GC and GC-MS analysis. Sesquiterpenes were the most abundant class of compounds. Activity of the oil against Tetrnychus urticae showed the stem oil were fourfold more toxic than the leaf oil, but 2.5-fold less activity than eugenol which was used as positive control. (see constituents above) (47)
Pharmacological Mechanism against Eye Disease / Review: Review covers the phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and its role in the treatment of cataract, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy. Chemicals identified include ß-caryophyllene, carotol, dillapiole, ellagic acid, pellucidin A, phytol and vitexin, which exhibit strong pharmacological activities within the mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) signaling pathways in inflammatory eye disease. The anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and anti-angiogenic activities displayed in in-vitro, in-vivo, and clinical studies suggest its potential role in management of anti-inflammatory diseases. P. pellucida extract was non-toxic against normal cell lines but showed mild toxicity in animal models. (50)
Biosynthesis of Pellucidin A: Study of leaf extracts isolated 2,4,5-trimethoxycinnamic acid, 5,6,7-trimethoxyflavone, 2,4,5-trimethoxystyrene, 2,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde, dillapiol, and sesamin in addition to pellucidin A. The biosynthesis of pellucin A involves a sequence of reactions starting with L-phenylalanine, cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, 2,4,5-trimethoxycinnamic acid, which decarboxylates to form 2,4,5-trimethoxystyrene which is then photochemically dimerized to produce pellucidin A. (51)
Hepatotoxicity and Mutagenicity Studies / Subchronic Invivo Exposure: Study evaluated the potential hepatotoxic and mutagenic effects of subchronic administration of P. pellucida aqeuous extracts using two concentrations (60 and 30 mg/kg) of decoction and freeze-dried extracts in vivo to BALB/c mice for nine weeks. Results showed no sufficient evidence hepatotoxic effects on subchronic exposure; however, the 60 mg/kg concentration may be mutagenic. Study suggest that although the herb is safe for prolonged consumption, moderation is advised due to the possibility of potential mutagenic effects.  (52)
Antidiabetic / Antioxidant: Study evaluated the antioxidant capacity of P. pellucida using invitro and in vivo methods and its α-amylase inhibitory ability. Results showed invitro antioxidant activity using DPPH, ABTS, RP and TAC with EC50 of 730.34 µg/mL, 84.22 µg/mL, and 95.28 µg/mL, respectively and Abs0.5 value of 114.73 µg/mL. Extract showed α-amylase inhibitory activity with EC50 of 115.32 µg/mL. (53)
Antibacterial against Propionibacterium acne Bacteria: Acne vulgaris is a common inflammatory condition in young adults characterized by blackheads, papules, pustules, and nodules. Study evaluated the effectiveness of P. pellucida in inhibiting the growth of Proponibacterium acne using agar diffusion method with doses of 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, and 1 gr/ml, gentamycin as positive control and DMSO as negative control. Results showed the higher the concentration the higher the antibacterial activity with average zone of inhibition zones of  9.53, 10.53, 13.36, and 15.7 mm, respectively. Results showed antibacterial efficacy to inhibit the growth of P. acnes bacteria. (54)
Antihemorrhagic Testing / No Hemostatic Effect: Study evaluated the hemostatic effect of P. pellucida crude plant extract on Mus musculus domesticus (albino mice). Bleeding time and clotting times were measured by nicking the tail and noting time bleeding stopped and fibrin thread appeared, respectively. Results showed no hemostatic effect.  (55) (see: 23)
Hair Growth Promoting Activity Testing / Topical Gel: Study evaluated the effect of ethanolic plant extract of suruhan (P. pellucida) on rabbit hair growth with shaved skin treated with CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose) gel containing extracts of 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% (v/v), with 2% minoxidil as positive control. Results showed topical CMC gel containing the plant extracts of suruhan significantly increased the animal hair length in a concentration dependent manner. Results suggest potential as topical formulation for hair growth. (57)
Antidiabetic / Amelioration of Male Infertility: Study evaluated the effect of P. pellucida extracts on blood glucose level and sperm parameters in male albino mice with alloxan-induced hyperglycemia. Results showed the plant extract significantly lowered blood glucose levels, ameliorated sperm count, viability, motility, and morphology. Results suggest potential as antidiabetic and male fertility recovery agents. (58)
Libido Enhancing / Antihyperglycemic: Study evaluated the effect of suruhan plant extracts on blood glucose level and libido of alloxan-induced male mice, using extract doses of 56, 112, and 168 mg/kbw. Results showed suruhan significantly lowered blood glucose levels, shortened courtship and mounting latency, and increased mounting frequency of mice. Results suggest potential as antihyperglycemic and libido enhancing agents in male subjects. (59)
Amelioration of Renal Histological Abnormalities: Study evaluated the ability of P. pellucida to improve renal abnormalities in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic male albino mice using extract doses of 56, 112, and 168 mg/kbw, with glibenclamide as positive control. Extract was given daily for 35 days. Results extract significantly reduced histological abnormalities of renal tubular and glomerular cells. P. pellucida has potential against diabetes-related complication and as anti-hyperglycemic agent. (60)


Updated February 2024 / October 2018 / June 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Peperomia pellucida (L.) HBK (Piperaceae)
/ Maria de Fatima Arrigoni-Blank et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology / Volume 91, Issues 2-3, April 2004, Pages 215-218 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2003.12.030
Neuropharmacological effects of Peperomia pellucida leaves in mice / Khan A, Rahman M, Islam M.S / DARU Vol. 16, No. 1 2008
Antipyretic Activity of Peperomia pellucida Leaves in Rabbit
Alam KHAN, Moizur RAHMAN, Shariful ISLAM / Turk J Biol 32 (2008) 37-41
Antibacterial activity of Hygrophila stricta and Peperomia pellucida / Fitoterapia. 2002 Jun; 73(3): 251-4
Seed germination, phenology, and antiedematogenic activity of Peperomia pellucida (L.) H. B. K./ Maria de Fatima Arrigoni-Blank et al / BMC Pharmacology 2002, 2:12doi:10.1186/1471-2210-2-12

Bioactive compounds from Peperomia pellucida / Su Xu, Na Li, Ning Meng-Meng et al / Journal of natural products, 2006, vol. 69, no2, pp. 247-250
ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY OF THE FREEZE-DRIED AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF Peperomiap ellucida ( L ) HBK (ulasimangb ato) IN MICE / Susie O Sio, Nelia P Cortez-Maramba, Isidro C Sia / Acta Medica Philippina
Isolation and Bioactivity of a Xanthone Glycoside from Peperomia pellucida / Alam Khan, Moizur Rahman, Shariful Islam / Life Sciences and Medicine Research, Volume 2010: LSMR-1
Preliminary Investigation into the Chemical Properties of Peperomia pellucida L. / R.U. Egwuche, A.A. Odetola and O.L. Erukainure / Research Article / Science Alert
pellucida ( L ) HBK (ulasimang bato) IN RATS
/ Susie Sio, Nelia Cortes-Maramba, Isidro Sia / Acta Medica Philippina
In vivo Anti-inflammatory and in vitro Antioxidant Activities of Peperomia pellucida / Mutee A F, Salhimi S M, Yam M F, Lim C P et al / International Jour of Pharmacology. 01/2010 / DOI: http://www.doaj.org/doaj?
Peperomia pellucida / common name details from PIER
Studies on ether-soluble neutral compounds ofPeperomia pellucida / Josefina B. Manalo, Byung Hoon Han, Yong Ham Han, Myung Hwan Park, Felicidad E. Anzaldo / Archives of Pharmacal Research, December 1983, Volume 6, Issue 2, pp 133-136
Phytochemical, Antimicrobial and ToxIicological evaluation of the leaves of Peperomia Pellucida (L.) HBK (Piperaceae) / Tavs A Abere, Freddy O Agoreyo, Gerald I Eze / Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences, Vol. 9 No. 3 (2012)
Proximate composition, nutritional attributes and mineral composition of Peperomia pellucida L. (Ketumpangan Air) grown in Malaysia. / Ooi DJ, Iqbal S, Ismail M. / Molecules. 2012 Sep 17;17(9):11139-45 / DOI: 10.3390/molecules170911139.
Possible Mechanism of Action of the Hypotensive Effect of Peperomia pellucida and Interactions between Human Cytochrome P450 Enzymes / Chukwuemeka R. Nwokocha*, Daniel U. Owu, Kelece Kinlocke, JeAnn Murray, Rupika Delgoda, Karen Thaxter, Garsha McCalla and Lauriann Young / Med Aromat Plants 2012, 1:4 / http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2167-0412.1000105
The essential oils of Peperomia pellucida Kunth and P. circinnata Link var. circinnata / Milton Helio L. da Silva, Maria Das Graças B. Zoghbi, Eloisa Helena A. Andrade, José Guilherme S. Maia* / Flavour and Fragrance Journal, Vol 14, NO 5, pp 312–314, Sept/Oct 1999 / DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1026(199909/10)14:5<312::AID-FFJ835>3.0.CO;2-B
Characterization of anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant properties and chemical compositions of Peperomia pellucida leaf extract. / Wei LS, Wee W, Siong JY, Syamsumir DF. / Acta Med Iran. 2011;49(10):670-4.
Ethanol extract of Peperomia pellucida (Piperaceae) promotes fracture healing by an anabolic effect on osteoblasts. / Ngueguim FT, Khan MP, Donfack JH, Tewari D, Dimo T, Kamtchouing P, Maurya R, Chattopadhyay N. / J Ethnopharmacol. 2013 Jun 21;148(1):62-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.03.063. Epub 2013 Apr 8.
Hemostatic Effects of Peperomia pellucida Plant Crude Extract, in vitro / Norlainie C. Omar / Undergraduate Thesis / Bachelor of Science in Biology / March 2013 / Mindanao State University
Chemical Investigation and Antibacterial Activity of the Leaves of Peperomia pellucida L. HBK (Piperaceae) / Okenwa Uchenna Igwe* and Nkoli Mary-Ann Mgbemena / Pharma Research Library
Peperomia pellucida in diets modulates hyperglyceamia, oxidative stress and dyslipidemia in diabetic rats / Rabiat U. Hamzah*, Adebimpe A. Odetola, Ochuko L. Erukainure, Ademola A. Oyagbemi /Journal of Acute Disease (2012)135-140 / doi: 10.1016/S2221-6189(13)60074-8
Proximate composition, nutritional attributes and mineral composition of Peperomia pellucida L. (Ketumpangan Air) grown in Malaysia. / Der-Jiun Ooi, Shahid Iqbal, Maznah Ismail / Molecules 2012 17;17(9):11139-45. Epub 2012 Sep 17.
Chemical Constituents and Antiamoebic of Methanolic Fraction from Peperomia pellucida (Linn.) Kunth / C. Sangsuwon, W. Jirujchariyakul, K. Roongruangchai / Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vol 709, pp. 417-421, Dec. 2014
Anti-Hypertensive Potentials of Peperomia pellucida (L.) HBK in Anaesthetized Normotensive Rats / *Taiye R. Fasola and J.O. Adeboye / Advances in Life Science and Technology, Vol.29, 2015
HYPOGLYCEMIC, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF PEPEROMEA PELLUCIDA (L.) HBK (PIPERACEAE) / Hasib Sheikh*, Shotabdi Sikder, Sagar Kumar Paul, A.M. Rashedul Hasan, Md. Mofizur Rahaman and Sangita Paul Kundu / IJPSR, 2013; Vol. 4(1): 458-463
Peperomia pellucida / Synonyms / The Plant List
GC MS determination of bioactive components of Peperomia pellucida (L.) Kunth / V. Narayanamoorthi, K.Vasantha*, R. C. Rency and A. Maruthasalam / Bioscience Discovery, 6(2):83-88, July - 2015
Pepper Elder (Peperomia pellucida) to Decrease Uric Acid Levels / Herbalzzz
Anti-hyperuricemic effects of Peperomia pellucida on potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemic rats. / Josefino Alvero, Romy Quijano, Alfaretta Tan-Reyes, Antonio Anastacio, Jose Albert Reyes III, Abelardo Prodigalidad, Rommel M. Aquino / Journal of Medicine of the UERMMMC (University of the East Ramon Magsaysay Memorial Medical Center), Jan-Jun 1992; Vol 1, Issue 1
Phytochemical and antimicrobial analyses of extracts of Peperomia pellucida (L)
/ Edewor-Kuponiyi Theresa. Ibibia / Journal of Pharmacy Research, 2012; 5(5): pp 2934-2937
Aqueous extract of Peperomia pellucida (L.) HBK accelerates fracture healing in Wistar rats / Nquequim Tsofack Florence, Sakouong Talle Suewellyne Huguette, Donfack Jean Hubert, Gounoue Kamkumo Raceline, Dzeufiet Djomeni Paul Desire, Kamtchouing Pierre, and Dimo Theophile / BMC Complement Alter Med., 2017; 17 / doi:  10.1186/s12906-017-1686-3
Bioaccumulation of lead in the medicinal plant Peperomia pellucida (L.) Kunth / Belonias BS / Philippine Herbs and Supplements Research Database
Bioactive constituents, radical scavenging, and antibacterial properties of the leaves and stem essential oils from Peperomia pellucida (L.) Kunth / Sunday O Okoh, Benson C Iweriebor, Omobola O Okoh, Anthony I Okoh / Pharmacognosy Magazine, 2017; 13(51): pp 392-400 / DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_106_17
Protective Effects of Peperomia pellucida (L.) Crude Methanolic Extract Against Elevated Blood Glucose Levels and Alterations in Pancreas Histology of HFD/STZ-Induces Diabetic Mus musculus / Kimberly B. Benjamin, Rohani B. Cena, Dawn S. de Loreto, Junel Carla O. Magbuhat
Dillapiole, Isolated from Peperomia pellucida, Shows Gastroprotector Activity against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Lesions in Wistar Rats / Raúl Rojas-Martínez, Jesús Arrieta, Leticia Cruz-Antonio, Daniel Arrieta-Baez, Antonio Magdiel Velázquez-Méndez and María Elena Sánchez-Mendoza / Molecules, 2013; 18: pp 11327-11337 / doi:10.3390/molecules180911327
NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY DETERMINATION IN SAMPLES OF Peperomia pellucida COMMONLY USED AS MEDICINAL HERB / Fábio V. Sussa, Sandra R. Damatto, Marcos M. Alencar, Barbara P. Mazzilli and Paulo S C Silva / 2011 International Nuclear Atlantic Conference - INAC 2011 Belo Horizonte,MG, Brazil, October 24-28, 2011
Analgesic activity of Peperomia pellucidaaerial parts in mice / Peter I Aziba, A Adedeji, M Ekor, O Adeyemi / Fitoterapia, Jan 2001; 72(1): pp 57-58 / https://doi.org/10.1016/S0367-326X(00)00249-5
Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and In-vitro Cytotoxicity Activity of Peperomia Pellucida Linn.  / Dr Leena K Pappachen, Chacko Annam / Pharmacie Globale, 2013; Vol 4, No 8 /
Antifungal activity of Piper aduncum and Peperomia pellucida leaf ethanol extract against Candida albicans / Utami Sri Hastuti, Yunita Putri Irsadul Ummah, and Henny Nurul Khasanah / AIP Conference Proceedings 1844, 020006 (2017) / doi: 10.1063/1.4983417
Isolation and Bioactivity of a Xanthone Glycoside from Peperomia pellucida / Alam Khan, Moizur Rahman, Md Shariful Islam / Life Sciences and Medicine Research, Volume 2010
Chemical composition and acaricidal activity of essential oils from Peperomia pellucida Kunth. against Tetranychus urticae /de Oliveira, J. C. S.;* da Camara, C. A. G.; Neves, R. C. S.; Botelho, P. S. / Rev. Virtual Quim., 2017; 9 (6): pp 2204-2213 / http://rvq.sbq.org.br
Peperomia  pellucida / Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines
Peperomia / Wiikipedia
Peperomia pellucida (L.) Kunth and eye diseases: A review on phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology / Keat Lam Ho, Phaik Har Yong, Chee Woon Wang et al /  J Integr Med., 2022; 20(4): pp 292-304 /DOI: 10.1016/j.oim.2022.02.002
Biosynthesis of Pellucidin A in Peperomia pellucida (L.) HBK / Marcilio M de Moraes, Massuo J Kato / Frontiers Plant Sci., 2021; Volume 12 / DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2021.641717
Hepatotoxicity and Mutagenicity assessment during chronic in vivo exposure to aqueous extracts from Peperomia pellucida / Yu-Wen Huang, Arianne Jan Tuozo, Rogers S Tan / Cellular and Molecular Biology, 2022; 94(2) / DOI: 10.1590/0001-3765202220191255
Antioxidant and in vitro antidiabetic activities of Peperomia pellucida (L.) Kunth extract / Tran Thanh Men, Le Thi Kiim Tu, Nguyen Thi Kim Anh, Huynh Hong Phien, Nguyen Thi Bich Nhu, Nguyen Thi To Uyen et al / Veterinary Integrative Sciences, 2022; 20(3) / DOI: 10.12982/VIS.2022.052 / ISSN: 2629-9968
The Effectiveness of Peperomia Pellucida Extract Against Acne Bacteria / Susan Kosasih, Chrismis Novalinda Ginting, Linda Chiuman, I Nyoman Ehrich Lister / American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences, 2019; 59(1): pp 149-153
Antihemorrhagic effect of ethanol crude plant extract of Peperomia pellucida (Ulasimang bato) in Mus musculus domesticus (Albino mice) / Daniel Erick T Amparado, James Patrick P Cebrecus, Ross Elizabeth V Cortes et al / Thesis/Dissertations: 2016, Cebu Institute of Medicine
Pharmacological benefits of plant extract of Peperomia pellucida growing wild in Suburb of Bandar Lampung, Indonesia / Mohammad Kanedi / World Journal of Advanced Research and Reviews, 2022; 13(2): pp 519-522 / DOI: 10.30574/wjarr.2022.13.2.0177
Hair-growth promoting activity of plant extracts of suruhan (Peperomia pellucida) in Rabbits / Mohammad Kanedi, Martha Lulus Lande, Nuning Nurcahyani et al / IOSR: Journal of Pharmacy and Biomedical Research, 2017; 12(5VerVI): pp 18-23 / DOI: 10.9790/3008-1205061823
Plant extracts of suruhan (Peperomia pellucida L. Kunth) ameliorate infertility of male mice with alloxan-induced hyperglycemia / Mohammad Kanedi, Sutyarso Hendri Busman, Risky Amellia Mandasari, Gina Dania Pratami /  International Journal of Biomedical Research, 2019; 10(2) / pISSN: 2455-0566 /
eISSN: 0976-9633
AMELIORATIVE EFFECT OF PLANT EXTRACTS OF SURUHAN (PEPEROMIA PELLUCIDA) ON BLOOD GLUCOSE AND LIBIDO OF MALE MICE INJECTED WITH ALLOXAN / Mohammad Kanedi, Martha Lulus Lande, Yulianty, Sutyarso Sutyarso et al / European Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2019; 6(2): pp 18-21 / ISSN: 2349-8870
Ameliorative Effect of Plant Extract of Suruhan (Peperomia pellucida) on Renal Histological Abnormality in Alloxan-Induced Hyperglycemic Mice / Mohammad Kanedi, Dzul Fitria Mumtazah, Eti Purwanti / South Asian Research Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2021; 3(3) / DOI: 10.36346/sarjps.2021.v03i03.001 / pISSN: 2664-4142 / eISSN: 2664-6749

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants
                                          New plant names needed
The compilation now numbers over 1,300 medicinal plants. While I believe there are hundreds more that can be added to the collection, they are becoming more difficult to find. If you have a plant to suggest for inclusion, native or introduced, please email the info: scientific name (most helpful), local plant name (if known), any known folkloric medicinal use, and, if possible, a photo. Your help will be greatly appreciated.

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