Pasionaring-mabaho is a herbaceous vine with slender and rounded
stems, covered with prominent villous hairs. Leaves are ovate to oblong-ovate,
6 to 9 centimeters long, shallowly 3-lobed, often sinuate and ciliate, with pointed
tip and heart-shaped base. Flower is solitary, white or pinkish, 3 centimeters
in diameter, subtended by a prominent involucre of 3 bracts. Fruit is
dry, inflated, ovoid, orange, 3 to 5 centimeters long. All parts of the plant have a
- In waste places at low altitudes, esp.
in the Laguna, Rizal and Quezon provinces.
- Introduced from tropical America.
- Now pantropic.
- Before maturity, the leaves and green fruit contain a cyanogenetic glucoside, and in excess can be dangerous
- Study yields maltol, phytosterols, cyanogenic glycoside, flavonoids and their glycosides.
- Phytochemical screening of leaves yielded sterols, polyterpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids, and saponosides. (7)
- Screening for nutritive value yielded crude protein (25.83 to 26.05%), crude fiber (9.55 to 9.61%), crude fat (2.87 to 2.98%), ash (28.55 to 28.84%), carbohydrate (40.46 to 40.69%), and moisture (1.79 to 1.96%).
- Phytochemical screening of ethanol extract of leaves yielded saponins, tannins, cardiac glycosides, alkaloid, anthraquinones, steroid, and flavonoid.
- P. foetida has yielded several active constituents like hydrocyanic acid, groups of flavonoids, harman alkaloids, passifloricins, α-pyrones, and vitexin.
- Phytochemical screening yielded the presence of alkaloids, flavanoids, tannins, phenols, steroids, cardioglycosides, saponins and terpenoids. GC-MS analysis yielded 27 bioactive compounds in seed ethanolic extract
of Passiflora foetida. (see study below) (30)
- Leaves and roots are emmenagogue.
- Flowers are pectoral.
- Considered antibacterial.
Leaves, fruits, and flowers.
The sweetish pulp is edible
- Infusion of leaves and roots used for hysteria.
- Plant used for itchy conditions.
- Decoction of fruit used for asthma and biliousness.
- Decoction of leaves and roots used as emmenagogue.
- Fruit used as emetic.
- Leaves applied to the head for headaches and giddiness.
- In India, traditionally used for diarrhea,
throat and ear infections, liver disorders, tumors, itches, fever and skin diseases and for wound dressing.
- In Malaysia, used for treatment of asthma.
- In Argentina, used to treat epilepsy.
- In Africa, used gas, colds, and pregnancy
to keep the baby active.
- In French Guiana, decoction of leaf and
bark mixed with the same of Annona glabra as anthelmintic for flatworms
and nematodes. Decoction of fresh whole plant drunk as children's anthelmintic, for intestinal nematodes and flatworms. Decoction of dried plant used for colds and chest colds. In NW guyana, used for treatment of tuberculosis, worms, coughs and colds. (6)
- In Brazil, used as lotion or poultice for erysipelas and skin diseases with inflammation.
Study of PF showed the
leaf extracts to have remarkable activity against all bacterial pathogens
compared to the fruit extracts. Study supports the traditional use of
the herbal extracts against a variety of diseases – diarrhea, fever, skin diseases, ear and throat infections. (1)
• Antibacterial / Roots: Study of invitro antibacterial activity of roots of P foetida showed the methanol extract to have significant activity against K pneumonia, P aeruginosa and E coli with levofloxacin, amikacin and sparfloxacin as standard antibiotics. (4)
• Antiproliferative: One of nine
selected Thai medicinal plants tested, the aerial parts of Passiflora
foetida showed antiproliferative activity against SLBR3 human breast
adenocarcinoma cell line. (2)
• Hepatoprotective: The ethanolic extract of fruits of Passiflora foetida significantly reduced the biomarkers of hepatic injury (SGOT, SGPT, Alk Phos, GGTP). Results indicate the fruits of Pf possess hepatoprotective activity, a property that may be attributed to the presence of flavonoids. (3)
• Estrogenic Effects / Toxicity Study: Study evaluated oral acute toxicity and potential estrogenic activity of various extracts of Passiflora foetida leaves in female Wistar rats. Oral LD50 of three extracts were greater than 5000 mg/kg with no observed behavioral abnormality. Results showed an estrogenic effect with disruption followed by blockage of estrous cycle at the estrous phase, with uterotrophic activity and increase of 17ß estradiol-induced uterotrophic effect. (7)
• Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: An ethanolic extract of leaves showed highly significant analgesic activity and highly significant anti-inflammatory effect. (8)
• Neuroprotective Against Cerebral Ischemia: Study evaluated an alcoholic extract for neuroprotective effect against brain damage and impairment in cerebral ischemia induced by MCA occlusion in male Wistar rats. Results showed decreased brain infarct volume in both cortical and subcortical structures, together with enhancement of neurological score and improved sensory response to both mechanical and temperature stimuli. (9)
• Harmaline / Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitory Effect: Harmaline, a beta carboline alkaloid was extracted from Passiflora leaf material. Harmaline was found to have monoamine oxidase inhibitory effect, useful for antidepressant activity. Study presents an economic, rapid, and effective separation method of harmaline from Passiflora. (10)
• Antiepileptic / Analgesic / Leaves: Study evaluated a leaf extract for antiepileptic and analgesic activity. A methanol extract of leaves showed dose-dependent anti-epileptic activity in Maximum electricshock induced and pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions. Extract showed good analgesic activity with peripheral and central nervous system mechanisms. (11)
• Antidepressant / Leaves: Study evaluated a methanolic extract of leaves for antidepressant activity in mice. Results showed dose-dependent decrease in immobility time in both tail suspension and forced swim tests, with effects comparable to fluoxetine and imipramine. Results showed antidepressant effects in vivo, with therapeutic interest for use in the treatment of patients with depressive disorders. (12)
• Antimicrobial: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of leaf, root, and fruits of P. foetida against various pathogenic microorganisms. Results showed both extracts to have broad spectrum activity and very effective activity against both gram positive and gram negative organisms. (13)
• Antihypertensive: Study evaluated various extracts of P. foetida for antihypertensive activity. An ethyl acetate extract showed significant anti-hypertensive activity, which may be due to activation of NO-dependent vasodilation and also due to the presence of flavonoids in the EA extract. (14)
• Memory Enhancement: Study evaluated the effect of P. foetida on spatial memory both in normal and cognitive deficit conditions. Results showed the Passiflora foetida extract is a potential cognitive enhancer in both normal and cognitive deficit conditions. However, the underlying mechanism and active ingredients have yet to be determined. (15)
• Antiulcer / Antioxidant: Study evaluated the effects of an ethanolic extract of whole plant on ethanol and aspirin-induced gastric ulcer models. Results showed significant reduction of ulcer index and significantly increased gastric pH of both ethanol and aspirin-induced ulcer rats. There was significant reduction in lipid peroxidation and increased in reduced glutathione levels. (16)
• Vitexin / Leaves: Vitexin has been reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-thyroid, anti-arteriosclerotic, antihypertensive, and antihepatotoxic properties. Study reports on a a simple, rapid, precise accurate high performance thin layer chromatography method for determination of vitexin from the extract of P. foetida leaves. The contents of vitexin in P. foetida leaf extracts were within the range of 0.03%-0.310%. (21)
• Chronic Toxicity Study: Study evaluated the safety of an ethanolic extract of Passiflora foetida containing 0.84% vitexin in Wistar rats given doses of 16, 160, 800, and 1600 mg/kg/day for six months. Results showed the ethanolic extract in the given doses did not induce any harmful effects in the rats. Although fatty infiltration in the adrenal cortex was noted, it is possibly physiological rather than pathological change. (22)
• Anti-Dyslipidemia / Leaves: Study evaluated ethanol extracts of P. foetida leaves for anti-dyslipidemia effect in dextrose-induced diabetic Wistar rats. A 500 mg/kb body weight of ethanol extract showed significant effect with lowering of the total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, and VLDL together with an HDL boosting effect. The effect may be attributed to glucose utilization and depressed mobilization of fat. (23)
• Anthelmintic / Leaves: Study evaluated the in-vitro anthelmintic activity of ethanolic extract of leaves against Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Results showed significant anthelmintic activity compared to standard albendazole at 10 mg/ml concentration. Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, cyanogenetic glycosides, tannins, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, among others. (24)
• Harmaline / Leaves: Study of a hydroalcoholic extract of Passiflora foetida leaves identified harmaline, a betacarboline alkaloid. Harmaline is found to have monoamine oxidase inhibitory effect and useful for antidepressant activity. Study reports on a simple, rapid, economic, and effective method for the separation of harmaline from Passiflora. (25)
• Antibacterial / Passiflora foetida Activated Carbon: Study evaluated activated carbon prepared from Passiflora foetida for bacterial efficacy against 12 different microorganisms. Results showed effective antibacterial activity with effective and high zones of inhibition against almost all the microorganisms tested. Activity was considerably more against Shigella flexneri (MTCC 1457) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (MTCC 10309). (26)
• Antidermatophytic / Leaves: Study evaluated the in-vitro antifungal activity of leaf and fruit extracts of P. foetida against three fungi viz., Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, and yeast fungus Candida albicans. An ethanolic leaf extract showed better antifungal activity against T. rubrum, followed by T. mentagrophytes and C. albicans. (27)
• Silver Nanoparticles / Antidiabetic: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of P. foetida aerial parts and silver nanoparticles on carbohydrate metabolic enzymes of dextrose induced diabetic rats. Results suggest that P. foetida extracts and silver nanoparticles maintained glucose homeostasis and has potential in the management of diabetes mellitus. (28)
• Protective to Thyroid Function in Met-Amphetamine Receiving Rats: Study evaluate the effects of passiflora extract on serum T3 and T4 levels in Shisheh receiving male Wistar rats. Serum T3 and T4 significantly increased in rats receiving amphetamine. Passiflora extract showed protective effects on thyroid function in met-amphetamine receiving animals. (29)
• α-Glucosidase and α-Amylase Inhibitory Activity: Study evaluated the α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of P. foetida. GC-MS analysis yielded 27 bioactive compound from the seed ethanolic extract. Results suggest the bioactive compounds exert α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with potential for use in the management of diabetes. (see constituents above) (30)
Capsules and extracts in the cybermarket.