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Family Lamiaceae
Rosmarinus officinalis

Mi die xiang

Scientific names Common names
Rosmarinus angustifolius Mill. Dumero (Tag.)
Rosmarinus flexuosus Jord. & Fourr. Romero (C. Bis., Tag., Span.) 
Rosmarinus latifolius Mill. Rosmarino (Ital.) 
Rosmarinus laxiflorus Noë Rosemary (Engl.) 
Rosmarinus laxiflorus Noë ex lange  
Rosmarinus officinalis L.  
Rosmarinus palaui (O.Bolos & Molin) Rivas Mart. & Costa  
Rosmarinus prostatus Mazziari  
Rosmarinus rigidus Jord. & Fourr.  
Rosmarinus serotinus Loscos  
Rosmarinus tenuifolius Jord. & Fourr.  
Salvia fasciculata Fernald  
Salvia rosmarinus Schleid.  
Rosmarinus officinalis L. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Iklil al jabal.
BULGARIAN: Rozmarin.
CHINESE: Mi die xiang.
CROATIAN: Ružmarin .
CZECH: Rozmarýna, Rozmarýna lékařská, Rozmarýn lékařský.
DANISH: Rosmarin.
DUTCH: Rozemarijn.
ESTONIAN: Harilik rosmariin, Rosmariin.
FINNISH: Rosmariini.
FRENCH: Romarin, Romarin commun.
GERMAN: Rosmarin.
GREEK: Dendrolivano, Dentrolivano, Rozmari.
HEBREW: Rozmarin.
HUNGARIAN: Rozmaring.
ICELANDIC: Rósmarín, Sædögg .
ITALIAN: Rosmarino.
JAPANESE: Mannenrou, Roozumari, Roozumarii, Rozumarii, Rosumarin, Mannenrou.
KOREAN: Ro ju ma ri.
NORWEGIAN: Rosmarin.
PERSIAN: Eklil kuhi, Rozmari.
POLISH: Rozmaryn.
RUSSIAN: Rozmarin.
SERBIAN: Ružmarin.
SLOVAKIAN: Rozmarín, Rozmarín lekársky.
SLOVENIAN: Rožmarin.
SPANISH: Romero, Romero comun, Rosmario.
SWEDISH: Rosmarin.
TURKISH: Biberiye, Hasalban, Kuşdili otu.
UKRAINIAN: Rozmaryn, Rozmaryn spravzhnii.
VIETNAMESE: Lá hương thảo.

Romero is a small, erect. flowering woody undershrub, about 1 meter high, with densely arranged branches and leaves. Leaves are linear, about 1 to 3 centimeters long, with strong revolute edges, the lower portion covered with gray hairs. Flowers are bluish, less than 1 centimeter long, borne on racemes 1 to 3 centimeters long.

- Introduced from Europe.
- Commonly sold in markets.
- Cultivated in gardens for medicinal purposes.

- Antispasmodic, abortifacient, emmenagogue, stimulant, bitter tonic, astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, aromatic, nervine, stomachic, febrifuge.
- Bitter and astringent leaves considered diuretic, dissolvent, and aperient.
- Oil is carminative and stimulant.
- Studies have suggested antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antihyperglycemic, hypolipidemic, renoprotective, anti-implantation, hepatoprotective properties.

- Volatile oil, 1.2 - 2% - alpha-pinene, cineol, borneol, camphene, rosemarin.
- The most important constituents are caffeic acid and its derivatives such as rosmarinic acid.
- Rosmarin oil contains d-pinene, cineol, borneol, camphene and camphor.
- Study of essential oil yielded 29 chemical compounds. Main constituents were 1,8 cineole (43.77%), camphor (12.53%), and α-pinene (11.51%). (see study below) (
- Study of leaf essential oil yielded 37 compounds. Major constituents were dimenthol (38.83%), campholene aldehyde (16.02%),
α-pinene (11.05%), borneol (10%), camphene (5.31%), and terpenyl acetate (4.92%). (see study below) (27)
- Study of leaf essential oil yielded 23 compounds representing 63.81% of total oil. Major components were a-pinene (18.25%), camphor (6.02%), 1,8-cineole (5.25%), camphene (5.02%), ß-pinene (4.58%), bornylacetate (4.35%), limonene (3.56%), borneol (3.10%),
α-terpineol (2.89%), and cymene (2.02%). (29)

- Study of 10 commercial samples of rosemary oil quantified 9 major terpenoid constituents. The major constituents were 1,8-cineole (52% of the oil by weight), α-pinene, β-pinene, and camphor. (see study below) (33)
- GC and GC-MS analysis of essential oil yielded 36 components representing 95.33-97.03% of total oil composition. Main components were 1,8-cineole (22.61% - 23.85%), camphor (24.40% - 25.85%), α-pinene (10.74% - 12.59%), verbenone (4.90% - 5.77%), camphene (5.46% - 6.16%), β-pinene (3.28% - 4.02%), limonene (2.86% - 3.39%) and S-myrcene (1.89% - 1.95%). (see study below) (34)

Parts used

As condiment in flavoring and preserving meat.
- Steam of strong decoction of herb inhaled for coughs.
- D ecoction of herb used as diuretic..
- Gas pains: Take decoction of herb as needed.
- For rheumatism, affected area soaked in decoction of herb.
- Conjunctivitis: Infusion of leaves used as an eyewash, 4 to 5 times daily.
- Vapor baths, using 30 to 40 gms of leaves in boiling, water, used for rheumatism, catarrh.
- Juice of leaves applied to areas of thinning hair and dandruff; also, as rosemary vinegar.
- Rosemary tea also used as conditioning hair rinse,
- Infusion of leaves as tea for dyspepsia, flatulence.
- Decoction of leaves as mouthwash for gums disease, halitosis, sore throat.
- Decoction of herb used in aromatic baths.
- Infusion with oil for massages.
- Daily use of rosemary tea believed to prevent cataracts.
- For Hair wash:
Steep 25 g of rosemary in 2 pints of cider vinegar for two weeks, shaking occasionally; strain. In hair washing, put 1-2 tsp in the final rinse.
- For dandruff, massage rosemary vinegar thoroughly into scalp, 20 mins before washing.
- As hair restorer, romero is macerated in alcohol and rubbed on twice daily. The hair lotion is suppose to stimulate the hair bulbs to renewed activity and prevents baldness.
- Postpartum bath: Boil a head of petals in a quart of water). (Related article:
- Used as antispasmodic in renal colic and dysmenorrhea.

- Decoction of leaves used as carminative and as an abortive.
- Infusion of leaves used for gastralgia, dyspepsia, flatulence and palpitations.
- Leaves used as febrifuge.
- In Mexico, a 2% infusion of leaves or its essence (6 drops every 24 hours) is considered stomachic.
- Volatile oil used as stimulant in liniments.
- Rituals: Used to ward off evil.
- Cosmetics

A study of the extracts of 8 Rosemary clones indicated the antioxidant capacity of volatile oils and plant extracts were closely related to the total phenol content. (1)
Phytochemicals / Rosmarinic Acid:
Studies yield rosmarinic acid, ursolic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, carnosolic acid, rosmanol, carnosol, diterpenes, among others. Rosmarinic acid is well absorbed from the GI tract and skin. It increases the production of prostaglandin E2 and reduces the production of leukotrine B4 in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes and inhibits the complement system and presents therapeutic potential in the treatment of asthma, spasmogenic disorders, peptic ulcer, inflammatory diseases, cataract, cancer and poor sperm motility.
Anti-Inflammatory / Antinociceptive:
Study of rosemary essential oil suggests it possesses anti-inflammatory and peripheral antinociceptive activities. (3)

Antinociceptive: Study showed the aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis possess antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity and supports the use of the plant in folk medicine. (6)
Hyperglycemic / Volatile Oil:
A study showed the volatile oil of RO has hyperglycemic and insulin release inhibitory effects in rabbit. (4)
Antidiabetogenic: Study concluded that RO extracts showed antidiabetogenic effect probably from its potent antioxidant properties.
Radioprotective / Leaves:
Study of the modulatory influence of Rosemary leaves extract in Swiss albino mice dosed with 3 Gy gamma radiation showed increase in lipid peroxidation and regaining of hematologic parameters. Results suggest the possible radioprotective ability of the rosemary extract. (7)
Smooth Muscle Relaxant Effect:
The effects of volatile oil of Rosmarinus officinalis leaves showed a direct smooth muscle relaxant effect in vitro testing of isolated aortic segments of rabbits. The inhibition of the contractions were dose-dependent and reversible. (8)
Study on the antibacterial activity of three selected plants (Rosmarinus officinalis, Origanum majorana and Trigonella foenum-graecum) against beta lactamase-producing E coli and K pneumonia showed all three exhibited relatively low MICs and could be considered strong antibacterials. (9)
Effect on Morphine Withdrawal Syndrome / Aerial Parts: Study showed the aqueous and ethanol extracts of aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis could diminish morphine withdrawal syndrome in mice. (10)
Rosemary Scent / Cognitive Benefits / Alzheimer's Disease:
Study suggests the aroma of rosemary may boost cognitive performance. The study assessed cognitive performance and mood in 20 volunteers exposed to 1,8-cineole. Participants performed serial subtraction and visual information processing tasks in cubicles diffused with aroma of rosemary. Results suggested serum levels of 18-cineole correlated with performance outcomes (correct responses and reaction times). The relationship between cineole and mood was "less pronounced." Results presented implications for Alzheimer's disease. 1,8-cineole is a simple monoterpene-type compound found in many essential oils. The compound can inhibit acetylcholinesterase, a key enzyme in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Study concludes the compounds absorbed from rosemary aroma affect cognition and subjective state independently through different neurochemical pathways. (11)
Anti-Proliferative / Antioxidant:
Study evaluated the anti-proliferative property of R. officinalis on several human cancer cell lines and its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro in a mouse RAW 264.7 macrophage/monocyte cell line. Results showed the crude ethanolic extract to have differential anti-proliferative effects on human leukemia and breast carcinoma cells. RO also showed substantial antioxidant activity. (14)
Antibacterial / Anti-Cancer / Essential Oil:
Study evaluated the essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis and three of its main components
1,8-cineole, α-pinene, and β-pinene for in vitro antibacterial activities and toxicology properties. The essential oil possessed similar antibacterial activities to α-pinene, and a little bit better than β-pinene, while 1,8-cineole possessed the lowest antibacterial activities. The essential oil also exhibited strongest cytotoxicity towards three human cancer cells. (15)
Lipid Benefits and Hypoglycemic Effects:
Study evaluated the hypoglycemic and lipid effects of RO in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with rosemary for four weeks. Results showed a decrease in sugar, total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL with an increase in HDL cholesterol. (16)
Effects on Renal Ischemia and Reperfusion:
Study evaluated the effect of intake of oral rosemary extract (gavage) on hemodynamic changes and tissue damages caused by I/R (ischemia / reperfusion. Results showed a significant reduction in plasma creatinine, BUN, absolute excretion of sodium, and an increase in absolute potassium excretion. Histopathological exam revealed a significant decrease in vascular congestion, Bowman's capsule space and oxidative stress.
Male Antifertility Potential:
Study evaluated the antifertility potential of an ethanolic extract of R. officinalis in male albino rats. Results showed microscopic changes in the testis, compression of most of the seminiferous tubules, with irregular basement membrane and devoid of spermatogenic cells. Study revealed morphological evidence of dose dependent antifertility potential. (18)
Antihypotensive / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the effect of essential oil on primary hypotension. Results showed a clinically significant antihypotensive effect.
Renoprotective / Essential Oil:
Study evaluated the protective role of rosemary on CCl4-induced renal damage. Exposure to CCl4 is known to induce the formation of reactive oxygen species. Results showed a renoprotective effect which was attributed to its antioxidant activity. (
Androgenic Effect / Male Contraceptive Potential:
Study evaluated the hormonal and cellular effects of Rosmarinus officinalis extract on testes of adult male Wistar rats. Results showed RO may have some hormonal and cellular effects on the testes which may contribute to the spermatogenesis process in rat. RO may have androgenic effect and a potential as an herbal male contraceptive. (
Antimicrobial / Antioxidant / Leaves:
Study of rosemary leaf extracts confirmed antioxidant (DPPH and total phenolic content), antibacterial, and antifungal (S. aureus, B. cereus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and Candida albicans) activities. (
Hepatoprotective / Essential Oil:
Study of rosemary essential oil in rats with carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver damage showed prevention of CCl4-induced increase of lipid peroxidation in liver homogenates. Pretreatment also significantly reversed the activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase, peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. (see constituents above) (
Anti-Implantation Effects: Study evaluated the embryotoxic effects of rosemary plant on two different periods of Wistar rat pregnancy. Results suggest an anti-implantation effect without interfering with the normal development of the concept after implantation. (25)

Anti-Acne / Inhibition of Propionibacterium acnes-Induced Inflammation:
Study investigated the inhibitory effect of rosemary extract on P. acnes-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Results showed significant suppression of secretion and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In an in vivo mouse model. concomitant intradermal injection of the ethanolic extract attenuated P. acnes-induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. (26)
Antibacterial / Essential Oil: Study of essential oil showed antibacterial activity against Enterobacter, Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus. Activity was attributed to main essential oil components. (27)
Inhibitory Against Food-Borne Pathogens / Essential Oil: Study showed the essential oil of R. officinalis with high antibacterial activity could be a potential source for inhibitory substances against some food-borne pathogens and has the potential for use in food or food-processing systems. (28)
Anti-Inflammatory / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the effects of R. officinalis essential oil dietary administration in carrageenan paw edema and trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) colitis. Findings showed suppression of the extent of paw edema and protective effects on colonic mucosa and significantly decreased macroscopic scores for colonic inflammation. Results showed rosemary essential oil is able to influence several variables of murine experimental inflammatory models. (30)
• Effect on Glucose Level and Lipid Profile in Humans: Study evaluated the effects of Rosemary leaves powder on glucose level and lipid profile in human. Rosmarinus officinalis improved not only hyperglycemia but also dyslipidemia in a dose-dependent manner and decreased lipid peroxidation by increasing antioxidant levels and suggests a potential to reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease. (31)
• Treatment of Opium Withdrawal Syndrome / Clinical Trial: Study evaluated the efficiency of an herbal product as adjunct therapy for alleviation of withdrawal syndrome in opium abuse in a clinical trial of 81 patients. The case group was treated with methadone and powdered dried leaves while the control group was treated with methadone and placebo. Results showed less severe withdrawal syndrome (bone pain, perspiration, and insomnia) in the case group compared to the control group. Study suggests rosemary has potential as an optional extra drug for treatment of opium withdrawal syndrome. (32)

• Insecticidal / Oil: Rosemary oil has insecticidal properties and is an active ingredient in a number of commercial insectides. Study explored the relationship between chemical composition and insecticidal activity of 10 commercial samples of rosemary oil. Results suggest that the toxicity of rosemary oil, at least to lepidopteran larvae, is due to the combined and possibly synergistic effects of several constituents, with no individual compound making a dominating contribution. (see constituents above) (33)
• No Seasonal Variation in Essential Oil Composition: Study in the hilly region of north India showed there were no drastic changes in the essential oil content and composition of rosemary due to season. Results suggests the crop may be harvested in any season to get good quality oil. (see constituents above) (34)
• Drug Interactions: Rosemary can affect the activity of various medications: anticoagulants (aspirin, coumadin, clopidogrel), ace inhibitors (lisinopril, captopril, enalapril), diuretics (may increase the effect of diuretics like furosemide and hydrochlorothiazide) and lithium (may increase lithium to toxic levels). (36)
• Skin Protective and Antiageing Effects / Combination of Rosemary and Grapefruit: Study evaluated the efficacy of a combination of rosemary (R. officinalis) and grapefruit (C. paradisi) in decreasing the individual susceptibility to UVR exposure and in improving skin wrinkling and elasticity. Results showed the long-term oral intake of Nutroxsun® can be considered a complementary nutrition strategy therapy to avoid the negative effects of sun exposure. The effects may be due to inhibition of UVR-induced ROS and inflammatory markers (lipoperoxides and cytokines), as well as their direct action on intracellular signaling pathways. (37)
• Carnosol / Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties of R. officinalis extract and its major constituent, carnosol, in male NMRI mice. Results conclude that ROL extract and carnosol suppressed pain and inflammation induced by formalin through inhibition of COX1 and COX2 enzymes activity. (38)

Rosemary oil in the cybermarket.

© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Updated May 2017 / March 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Public Domain / Flora von Deutschland Osterreich und der Schweiz (1885) / Rosmarinus officinalis / GNU Free Documentation License / Kurt Stueber, 2007 / www.BioLib.de
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Flowers / Rosmarinus officinalis 'Tuscan Blue' / Rosmarinus officinalis 'Tuscan Blue'1.jpg / Kenpei / Creative Commons Attribution / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Antioxidant effect of various rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) clones
Volume 47(1-4):111-113, 2003 / Acta Biologica Szegediensis
Rosemary vinegar / The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Natural Remedies, p. 127 / Norman Shealy, MD., PhD / ElementBooks 1998
Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Essential Oil in Experimental Animal Models / I. Takaki, L.E. Bersani-Amado, A. Vendruscolo, S.M. Sartoretto, S.P. Diniz, C.A. Bersani-Amado, and R.K.N. Cuman / Journal of Medicinal Food. December 2008, 11(4): 741-746. / doi:10.1089/jmf.2007.0524.
Hyperglycemic and insulin release inhibitory effects of Rosmarinus officinalis
J Ethnopharmacol/22Jul1994;43(3):217-21
Pharmacology of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linn.) and its therapeutic potentials / M R Al-Sereitia et al / Indian Journal of Experimental Biology • Vol. 37, February 1999, pp.124-131
Evaluation of the antinociceptive effect of Rosmarinus officinalis L. using three different experimental models in rodents / M E Gonzalez-Trujano et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology • Volume 111, Issue 3, 22 May 2007, Pages 476-482 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2006.12.011
PREVENTION OF RADIATION INDUCED HEMATOLOGICAL ALTERATIONS BY MEDICINAL PLANT ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS, IN MICE / Garima Sancheti and P K Goyal / African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative medicines (AJTCAM), Vol 4, No 2 (2007)
A Vascular Smooth Muscle Relaxant Effect of Rosmarinus officinalis /
Mahmoud B. Aqel / Summary
Pharmaceutical Biology • 1992, Vol. 30, No. 4, Pages 281-288 / DOI 10.3109/13880209209054014/

Antibacterial Activity of the Extracts Obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis, Origanum majorana, and Trigonella foenum-graecum on Highly Drug-Resistant Gram Negative Bacilli / Roula Abdel-Massih, Elias Abdou et al / Journal of Botany, Vol 2010 (2010), Article ID 464087, 8 pages / doi:10.1155/2010/464087
Effect of Rosmarinus officinalis L. aerial parts extract on morphine withdrawal syndrome in mice / Hossein Hosseinzadeh and Mahnaz Nourbakhsh / Phytotherapy Research, Vol 17, Issue 8, pages 938–941, September 2003
Scent of Rosemary May Boost Cognitive Performance
/ Megan Brooks / Medscape Medical News
Plasma 1,8-cineole correlates with cognitive performance following exposure to rosemary essential oil aroma / Mark Moss / Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology, February 24, 2012/ 2045125312436573

Sorting Rosmarinus names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia.
Anti-proliferative and antioxidant properties of rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis.
/ Cheung S1, Tai J. / Oncol Rep. 2007 Jun;17(6):1525-31.
Antibacterial Activity and Anticancer Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Essential Oil Compared to That of Its Main Components / Wei Wang, Nan Li, Meng Luo, Yuangang Zu,* and Thomas Efferth / Molecules 2012, 17, 2704-2713; doi:10.3390/molecules17032704
Effects of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) on Lipid Profile of Diabetic Rats
/ Abdul-Rahim Al-Jamal,* and Taha Alqadi / Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences, Vol 4, No 4, December 2011, pp 199-204.
The Study of the Effects of Post Treatment with Rosmarinus Officinalis Aqueous Extract the First 48 Hours after Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion in Rats / Saeed Changizi Ashtiyani , Marzieh Zohrabi, Akbar Hassanpoor, Saeed Hajihashemi , Nasser Hosseini / Journal of Physiology and Pathophysiology Vol. 3(2), pp. 12-19, March 2012 / DOI: 10.5897/JPAP11.035
An Electron Microscopic Study of the Antifertility Potential of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) in Male Albino Rats / Rania A. Salah El-Din, Abd El-Rahman El-Shahat & Rasha Ahmed Elmansy / Int. J. Morphol., 30(2):666-672, 2012.
Protective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis) Leaves Extract on Carbon Tetrachloride - Induced Nephrotoxicity in Albino Rats / Saber A. Sakr and Hawazen A. Lamfon / Life Science Journal, 2012;9(1)
Evaluation of an Aqueous-Ethanolic Extract from Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) for its Activity on the Hormonal and Cellular Function of Testes in Adult Male Rat / Hamed Heidari-Vala, Reza Ebrahimi Hariry, Mohammad Reza Sadeghi, Mohammad Mehdi Akhondia, Marefat Ghaffari Novin and Mahnaz Heidari* /
Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research (2013), 12 (2): 445-451
Rosmarinus officinalis / Synonyms / The Plant List
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) - a study of the composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of extracts obtained with supercritical carbon dioxide / Aziza Kamal Genena; Haiko Hense, *; Artur Smânia Junior; Simone Machado de Souza /
Ciênc. Tecnol. Aliment. vol.28 no.2 Campinas Apr./June 2008 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-20612008000200030
Antioxidant activity of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) essential oil and its hepatoprotective potential./
Rašković A, Milanović I, Pavlović N1, Ćebović T, Vukmirović S, Mikov M. / BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014 Jul 7;14:225 / doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-225.
Study of the embryotoxic effects of an extract of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.). / Lemonica IP, Damasceno DC, di-Stasi LC. / Braz J Med Biol Res. 1996 Feb;29(2):223-7.
Rosmarinus officinalis Extract Suppresses Propionibacterium acnes–Induced Inflammatory Responses /
Tsung-Hsien Tsai, Lu-Te Chuang, Tsung-Jung Lien, Yau-Rong Liing, Wei-Yu Chen, and Po-Jung Tsai / J Med Food. 2013 Apr; 16(4): 324–333. / doi: 10.1089/jmf.2012.2577
Extraction and study of the essential oil Rosmarinus Officinalis Cuellie in the Region of Taza, Morocco /
N. Chahboun, A. Esmail, N. Rhaiem, H. Abed, R. Amiyare, M. Barrahi, M.Berrabeh, H.Oudda, M.Ouhssine / Der Pharma Chemica, 2014, 6(3):367-372
Study of effect Rosmarinus officinalis oil and nisin on the growth of Streptococcus iniae in lab conditions and fillets of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). / Roomiani, Laleh / PhD Thesis 2012 / Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, 147pp.
AROMATIC AND MEDICINAL PLANTS OF MOROCCO: CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ESSENTIAL OILS OF Rosmarinus officinalis AND Juniperus Phoenicea / E Derwich, Z Benziane, R Chabir / International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology, Volume: 2: Issue-1: Jan-Mar 2011
Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Rosmarinus of cinalis Essential Oil in Mice / Štefan Juhás, Alexandra Bukovská, Štefan Čikoš, Soňa Czikková, Dušan Fabian, Juraj Koppel / ACTA VET. BRNO 2009, 78: 121–127; doi:10.2754/avb200978010121
The Effects of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) Leaves Powder on Glucose Level, Lipid Profile and Lipid Perodoxation / Louay Labban, Usama El-Sayed Mustafa, Yasser Mahmoud Ibrahim / IJCM, Vol.5 No.6, March 2014 / DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2014.56044
Beneficial Effects of Rosmarinus Officinalis for Treatment of Opium Withdrawal Syndrome during Addiction Treatment Programs: A Clinical Trial / Hassan Solhi, MD, Bahman Salehi, MD, Abbas Alimoradian, PhD, Shirin Pazouki, MD, Mohsen Taghizadeh, MD, Ali Mohammad Saleh, MD, and Amir Mohammad Kazemifar, MD / Addict Health. 2013 Summer-Autumn; 5(3-4): pp 90–94.
Insecticidal Activities of Commercial Rosemary Oils (Rosmarinus officinalis.) Against Larvae of Pseudaletia unipuncta. and Trichoplusia ni. in Relation to Their Chemical Compositions / Murray B. Isman, Joanne A. Wilson & Rod Bradbury / Pharmaceutical Biology, 2008, Vol. 46, Nos. 1–2, pp. 82–87
Study on the Extraction Process for Carnosic Acid from Rosmarinus officinalis Linn. / WEI Jing; WANG Shang-wen; YU Hao-fei; ZHAO Rong-hua; WANG Kou; ZHANG Rong-ping / Journal of Kunming Medical University / Kunming Yike Daxue Xuebao, 2015, Vol. 36 Issue 1, p58-61
Rosemary: Health benefits, precautions, and drug interactions / Medical News Today
SKIN PHOTOPROTECTIVE AND ANTIAGEING EFFECTS OF A COMBINATION OF ROSEMARY (ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS) AND GRAPEFRUIT (CITRUS PARADISI) POLYPHENOLS / Vincenzo Nobile*, Angela Michelotti, Enza Cestone, Nuria Caturla, Julián Castillo, Obdulio Benavente-García, Almudena Pérez-Sánchez and Vicente Micol / Food & Nutrition Research, Vol 60, 2016 / http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/fnr.v60.31871
Hydroalcoholic Extract of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and its Constituent Carnosol Inhibit Formalin-induced Pain and Inflammation in Mice. / F. Emami, H. Ali-Beig, S. Farahbakhsh, N. Mojabi, B. Rastegar-Moghadam, S. Arbabian, M. Kazemi, E. Tekieh, L. Golmanesh, M. Ranjbaran, C. Jalili, A. Noroozzadeh and H. Sahraei / Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 16: 309-316, 2013 / DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2013.309.316

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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