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Family Asteracea
Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr.

Bai bing ca

Scientific names Common names
Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr. Gues (Neg.)
Gynura affinis Turcz. Kamañgi (Tag.)
Gynura angulosa F.-Vill. Purpuriket (Ilk.)
Gynura sarmentosa DC. Sabuñgai (Ig.)
Gynura scabra Lour. Mollucan spinach (Engl.)
Senecio cacaliaster Blanco Longevity spinach (Engl.)
Senecio mindorensis Elm. Cholesterol spinach (Engl.)
Ping wo ju san qi (Chin.) Leaves of Gods (Engl.)
  Bai bing ca (Chin.)

Other vernacular names
CAMBODIA: Chi angkam.
CHINESE: Man san qi cao, Lam fei yip
INDONESIA: Daun dewa, Sambung nyawa
MALAYSIA: Dewa raja, Akar sebiak, Kacham akar.
THAILAND: Paetumpung
VIETNAMESE: Kim That Tai. Cay Tieu Duong, Tiem Vinh

Sabuñgai is a twining vine, smooth except for the peduncles. Leaves are stalked (the uppermost ones stalkless), ovate-elliptic or lanceolate, 3.5 to 8 centimeters long, and 0.8 to 3.5 centimeters wide, with somewhat entire or toothed margins. Flowering heads are panicled, narrow, yellow, and 1 to 1.5 centimeters long. Involucral bracts are smooth and up to 6 millimeters long. Achenes are very small and smooth, with very close and slender ribs.

- In thickets along streams, in old clearings, etc., at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 1,500 meters, from northern Luzon to Mindanao, in most islands and provinces.
- Also occurs in Thailand and Indo-China to Malaya.

- Study identified abundant proteins from the leaves. Peroxidase was the abundant protein in the leaves. Other valuable proteins in the leaves were osmotin like protein I and thaumatin like protein I (TL) (see studies below) (4)
- An ethanolic extract yielded alkaloids and volatile oils.

Leaves considered anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-inflammatory.

Parts used
Whole plant, leaves, shoots.


- In many Asian countries, leaves eaten fresh or cooked; added to salads or stand-alone salad; used for sauces, as flavoring.
In Java, used for kidney troubles.
In Malacca, decoction used for dysentery.
In Thailand, used as topical inflammation, rheumatism, and viral ailments.
Poultice used for rheumatic and general body pains.
In some parts of Asia, used as abortifacient.
In Malaysia, a folk remedy for diabetes and hyperlipidemia.

Study of ethanol extract showed antiinflammatory activity. (1)
Antihypertensive: Study showed the oral administration of aqueous extract significantly lowered blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Results suggest GPE may be useful for prevention and treatment of hypertension through increasing NO (nitric oxide) production in blood vessels. (2)
Glucose Lowering: Ethanolic extract of leaves significantly suppressed elevated serum glucose levels in diabetic rats. The extract did not significantly suppress glucose levels in normal rats. Results conclude the leaves of GP may be biguanide-like activity. (3)
Abundant Leaf Proteins / Peroxidase: Study found few abundant proteins from the leaves of GP; among these, peroxidase was found the most abundant of the extracted proteins. Results suggest a natural source for peroxidase for use in the cosmetic and skin care industry. The presence of TL protein in leaves indicate it may not be suitable as food in the raw state. However, raw eating of leaves is common in the Asian region. (see constituents above) (4)
Nutritive / Antioxidative Properties: Ethanolic Gynura extract exhibited the highest antioxidative properties in every assay. Nutritive evaluation suggests the extract is a good protein source and may have positive effects on free radical scavenging and iron chelating. (5)
Gynura procumbens Medical Toothpaste: A Gynura procumbens toothpaste invention consists of" gynura procumbens (Lour.) extractant of 1-20%, glycerol of 20-55%, diglycol of 10-15%, abradant of 20-45%, carboxymethyl cellulose of 0.5-1.5%, sodium dodecyl sulfate of 0.5-2%, additive of 1-4%, essence of 1-2% and saccharin of 0.1-1%. (6)
Anti-Ulcerogenic: Study results suggest the ethanolic leaf extract of Gynura procumbens promotes ulcer protection as shown by significant reduction of ulcer area, histologic decreases in ulcer areas, with absence or reduction of edema and leucocyte infiltration of submucosal layer. (7)
Anti-Diabetic: / Increase Glucose Uptake: Study evaluating the water extract of G. procumbens in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats showed a hypoglycemic effect by promoting glucose uptake by muscles. (8)
Anti-Diabetic / Increase Glucose Uptake and Insulin Potentiation:Study results suggest the antidiabetic effect may be mediated through the stimulation of glucose uptake and the potentiation of insulin action. (10)
Toxicological Evaluation: Administration of a methanol extract of G. procumbens did not produce mortality or significant changes in various parameters in both acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies.(9)
Wound Healing / Acute Toxicity Study: Acute toxicity study of leaf extract showed no mortality with 5g/kg dose. In a wound healing model in rats, wounds dressed with leaf extract showed significant enhancement and acceleration of wound healing. (12)
Antioxidant Effects: Study showed ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) may be scavenged effectively by the antioxidant system of G. procumbens leaves. The ratio between chlorophyll and carotenoid was higher than in other green plants.
Hypoglycemic Effects / GSK3ß Phosphorylation: Study evaluated the hypoglycemic effects of G. procumbens and the involvement in the glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3), a key component of insulin biosignaling. Results showed the plant did not exhibit GSK3 inhibitory activity, and suggests the hypoglycemic actions of the fractions could be from direct or indirect effects on upstream insulin biosignaling pathway. (13)
Blood Sugar Reduction: Major flavonoid constituents were identified in the n-butanol fraction. A methanolic extract of leaves showed reduction of blood glucose in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Results were compared to glibenclamide as standard drug.
Antiproliferative Effects / DBMA-Induced Rat Liver: Study evaluated the antiproliferative effect of an ethanolic leaf extract on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)antracene-induced male rat liver. Results showed significant antiproliferative activity, with histopathology showing no primary liver tumor on the DMBA group. (20)
Cardiovascular Effects: A water extract of G. procumbens showed promising cardiovascular effects. Significant vasodilation and -ve chronotropic and ionotropic effects were observed with the water extract compared to the ethanolic extracts. (16)
Antihyperglycemic / Leaf Extracts: Study evaluated leaf extracts for antidiabetic activity. Results showed significant lowering of fasting blood glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Study suggests extracts contain active principles that possess anti-hyperglycemic but no hypoglycemic effect. The antidiabetic action may be via a mechanism similar to metformin. (18)
Anticancer Proteins: An earlier study yielded plant defense proteins, peroxidase, thaumatin-like proteins and miraculin the the leaf of G. procumbens. Study investigated the bioactivity of the leaf extract proteins. An active protein fraction, SN-F11/12 inhibited the growth of a breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231. The proteins in the fraction can be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for breast cancer treatment. (19)
Antiherpetic: An ethanol extract of aerial parts of G. procumbens showed virucidal and antireplicative actions against herpes simplex HSV-1 and HSV-2. Several antiherpetic compounds were isolated from fractions: caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, phytosteryl glucosides, and glycoglycerolipids. Flavonoids probably imparted an anti-inflammatory effect. Lab evidence and reduction of infection supported the antiherpetic effect of G. procumbens. (21)
Suppression of Osteosarcoma Cell Proliferation and Metastasis In Vitro: Study showed an ethanolic extract is able to induce apoptosis and suppresses proliferation and metastasis in U2-OS cells via inhibition of the nuclear translocation of NF-kB. (22)
Vasorelaxant / Potassium Channel Openers and Prostacyclin: Study confirms the vasodilatory effects of G. procumbens through blocking of calcium channels. The vasodilatory effect may also be due to opening of potassium channels and stimulation of prostacyclin production. Putative compounds are probably flavonoids in nature. (23)
Chemopreventive / Colon and Breast Cancer: Study of an ethyl acetate fraction investigated for cytotoxic properties and selectivity against colon cancer and breast cancer cells showed selective effect against cancer cells and reveals potential as cancer chemopreventive agent. (24)
Antiherpetic: An ethanol extract of Gynura procumbens showed virucidal and antireplicative activities against herpes simplex virus (HSV-1 and HSV-2). Antiherpetic activity was attributed to caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, phytosteryl glucosides, and glycoglycerolipids. A double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial of the products was performed in patients with recurrent herpes labialis. The insignificant result was attributed to a low number of patients and insufficient concentration of plant extract. (25)
Decrease Blood Pressure / Inhibition of Calcium Channels: An intravenous butanolic fraction elicited significant and dose dependent decreases in mean arterial pressure. Results suggest the presence of putative hypotensive compounds that appear to inhibit calcium influx via receptor-operated and/or voltage-dependent calcium channels to cause vasodilation and a consequent decrease in blood pressure. (26)
Antioxidant / Inhibition of Drug Metabolizing Enzymes: Study investigated various extracts of G. procumbens for antioxidant capacity and CYP34A and CYP1A2 enzyme activities. Results showed the inhibition of CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 followed the rank order of total flavonoid content, where the higher the total flavonoid content the higher the inhibition of drug metabolizing enzymes. (27)
Antioxidant / Antitumor: Study evaluated the antioxidant activities of plant extracts of G. procumbens, A. aspera and P. tomentosum using the DPPH assay. G. procumbens showed the more potent antioxidant activity. Gynura procumbens also showed antitumor activity at a dose of 1000 ppm. (28)

Buyers beware
• Ashitaba has been getting a lot of press, being touted as the new "miracle" herb.
However, a lot of potted "ashitaba" being sold locally from roadside herbal gardens and mall stalls, intentionally or unintentionally, is actually Sabungai rather than ashitaba (Angelica keiskei). (See Ashitaba)


Last Updated February 2015

IMAGE SOURCE: File / Photo / :Starr 080608-7430 Unknown sp..jpg / Forest & Kim Starr / 8 June 2008/ Creative Commons Attribution / click on image to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Illustration / Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr. [as Gynura sarmentosa (Blume) DC.] / Curtis's Botanical Magazine, vol. 118 [ser. 3, vol. 48]: t. 7244 (1892) [M. Smith] / PlantIllustrations.org

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Antiinflammatory screening of the medicinal plant Gynura procumbens / Iskander MN, Song Y et al / Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 57(3-4):233-244, 2002.
Antihypertensive Effects of Gynura procumbens Extract in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats / Mi-Ja Kim, Hee Jae Lee et al / Journal of Medicinal Food. Winter 2006, 9(4): 587-590. doi:10.1089/jmf.2006.9.587.
Effects of an Ethanolic Extract of Gynura procumbens on Serum Glucose, Cholesterol and Triglyceride Levels in Normal and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats / XF Zhang, BKH Tan /
Singapore Med J 2000; Vol 41(1):
THE IDENTIFICATION OF HIGH ABUNDANT PROTEINS IN THE LEAVES OF GYNURA PROCUMBENS / C S Hew, L H Gam / Biotechnol. & Biotechnol. eq. 24/2010/4 / DOi: 10.2478/v10133-010-0072-9
Evaluation of Nutritional Value and Antioxidative Properties of The Medicinal Plant Gynura procumbens Extract / D Puangpronpitag, S Chalchanadee et al /
Asian J. Plant Sci., 9: 146-151. / DOI: 10.3923/ajps.2010.146.151
Gynura procumbens medical toothpaste / Xie Ping /
Anti-ulcerogenic activity of Gynura procumbens leaf extract against experimentally-induced gastric lesions
in rats
/ A. A. Mahmood, Adbalbasit A et al / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 4(8), pp. 685-691, 18 April, 2010
Antidiabetic Properties and Mechanism of Action of Gynura procumbens Water Extract in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats / Zurina Hassan, Mun Fei Yam et al / Molecules 2010, 15, 9008-9023; doi:10.3390/molecules15129008
Toxicology evaluation of standardized methanol extract of Gynura procumbens / Rosidah, Mum Fei Yam et al /
Jour of Ethnopharmacology, Vol 123, No 2, 22 June 2009, Pp 244-249 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2009.03.011
GLUCOSE UPTAKE :Stimulatory Activity of Gynura procumbens in 3T3- F442A adipocytes / Mohd Bohari, Siti Pauliena et al / Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Institutional Repository
Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr./ Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
Acute toxicity study and wound healing potential of Gynura procumbens leaf extract in rats / A. A. Zahra, F. A. Kadir, A. A. Mahmood, A. A. Al hadi, S. M. Suzy, S. Z. Sabri , I. I. Latif1 and K. A. Ketuly / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 5(12), pp. 2551-2558, 18 June, 2011
Hypoglycemic Effects of Gynura procumbens Fractions on Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats involved Phosphorylation of GSK3β (Ser-9) in Liver / CHONG CHING JUNE, LEE HUI WEN, HALIMAH ABDULLAH SANI, JALIFAH LATIP, JUALANG AZLAN GANSAU, LEE PING CHIN, NOOR EMBI & HASIDAH MOHD SIDEK* / Sains Malaysiana 41(8)(2012): 969–975
Evaluation of Phytochemical Composition and Antibacterial Property of Gynura procumbens Extract. / N. Kaewseejan, D. Puangpronpitag and M. Nakornriab, 2012 / Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 11: 77-82.
Flavonoid Identification and Hypoglycaemic Studies of the Butanol Fraction from Gynura procumbens / G.A. Akowuah, A. Sadikun and A. Mariam / Pharmaceutical Biology, 2002, Vol. 40, No. 6 , Pages 405-410
Common names / Chinhtruc Xuan Nghiem / Docs.Google
Hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic study of Gynura procumbens leaf extracts / Khalid Algariri, Kuong Y Meng, [...], and Norhyati Ismail / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 2013 May, 3(5): 358-366
The Anti-Cancer Property of Proteins Extracted from Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr / Chaw-Sen Hew, Boon-Yin Khoo et al /
Antiproliferative effect of gynura procumbens (lour.) Merr. Leaves ethanolic extract on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)antracene induced male rat liver / Fithriyatun Nisa, Adam Hermawan, Retno Murwanti, Edy Meiyanto* / Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 2012, 2(1), 99-106 / doi: 10.5681/apb.2012.014
Antiherpetic Effects of Gynura procumbens / Siripen Jarikasem, Somyot Charuwichitratana, Sontana Siritantikorn, Wasan Chantratita, Magdy Iskander, August Wilhelm Frahm, and Weena Jiratchariyakul / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2013 (2013) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/394865
Gynura procumbens ethanolic extract suppresses osteosarcoma cell proliferation and metastasis in vitro / Heng Wang, Ji Wen Zhou, Da Hua Fu, Yang Zhou, Wen Zhao Cheng, Zhi-Li Liu / Oncology Letters / DOI: 10.3892/ol.2013.1315
Potassium channel openers and prostacyclin play a crucial role in mediating the vasorelaxant activity of Gynura procumbens / Hien-Kun Ng, Ting-Fung Poh, Sau-Kuen Lam, See-Ziau Hoe / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, July 2013, 13:188
Selectivity of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Gynura Procumbens on Colon Cancer and Breast Cancer
/ Nunuk Aries Nurulita *, Edy Meiyanto, Sugiyanto / Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention, 2011, 2(3): 274-280
Antiherpetic Effects of Gynura procumbens / Siripen Jarikasem, Somyot Charuwichitratana, Sontana Siritantikorn, Wasan Chantratita, Magdy Iskander, August Wilhelm Frahm, and Weena Jiratchariyakul / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2013 (2013) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/394865
Gynura procumbens Merr. decreases blood pressure in rats by vasodilatation via inhibition of calcium channels / See-Ziau HoeI; Chen-Neng LeeII; Shiueh-Lian MokII; Mohd Yusoff KamaruddinIII; Sau-Kuen LamI / Clinics vol.66 no.1 São Paulo 2011 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1807-59322011000100025
Study on Antioxidant and Antitumor Activities of Some Herbal Extracts / S.S. Maw, M. M. Mon, Z .K .Oo / World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol 5, 2011

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