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Family Scrophulariaceae
Tala
Limnophila rugosa (Roth) Merr.

SWAMP LEAF
Da ye shi long wei

Scientific names Common names
Herpestis rugosa Roth Bintugo (Sub.)
Limnophila rugosa (Roth) Merr. Kalaoo (Bik.)
  Patalatala (Pamp.)
  Tala (Tag., Bik.)
  Tala-tala (Pamp.)
  Tara-tara (Ilk.)
  Taram-hapan (Tag.)
  Rice paddy herb (Engl.)
  Swamp leaf (Engl.)
Limnophila rugosa (Roth) Merr. is an accepted name The Plant List
Quisumbing's synonyms i.e., Limnophila roxburghi and Limnophila menthastrum are unresolved names. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Da ye shi long wei.
FRENCH: Herbe a paddy.
INDIA: Kala karpur.
SPANISH: Hierba del arrozal.

Botany
Tala is an erect herb reaching a height of about 50 centimeters. Leaves are opposite, oblong-ovate, 3 to 10 centimeters long, 1.5 to 4 centimeters wide, pointed at both ends, and toothed at the margins. Upper surface of the leaves is rough. Flowers are about 1 centimeter long, purplish, and clustered on stems which are found in the axils of the leaves or which terminate the leafy branches.

Distribution
- In open, wet places at low altitudes in Lepanto, Nueva Viscaya, Pampanga, Bulacan, Camarines and Sorsogon Provinces in Luzon; Palawan, Panay, Negros and Mindanao.
- Also occurs in India to Malaya and Polynesia.

Constituents
- Phytochemical screening yielded phenolics, flavonoids, terpenoids, amino acids.
- Leaves yield an essential oil.

- Essential oil has yielded p-methoxybenzoic acid, anisaldehyde, anisylacetone, trans-anethole, cis-anethole, methylchavicol, formic acid, propionic acid, acetic acid, valeric acid, acetone and hentriacontanol.
- Aerial parts and roots yielded 5-hydroxy-7,2′,4′-trimethoxyflavone from a petrol extract.
- Study of essential oil yielded main constituents of trans-anethole (24.96–27.12 %) and methyl chavicol (70.79–71.00 %). (8)
- Study of plant essential oil yielded linalool (0.1%), estragole (22%), cis-anethole (0.03%), anisaldehyde (0.05%), trans- anethole (75%), anisyl acetone (0.03%), caryophyllene (0.08%), humulene (0.15%) and 'ALFA'-bulnesene (0.01%). (9)

Properties
- Aromatic with a flavor similar to Chinese star anise.
- Considered carminative, digestive tonic, diuretic, refrigerant.
- Studies suggest antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, hypotensive properties.

Parts used
Leaves, plant juice.

Uses

Culinary
- Anise-scented leaves used as flavoring for food in Java.
- Essential oil used as food flavoring. (10)
Folkloric
- Infusion of leaves used as diuretic and digestive tonic.
- Juice of the plant rubbed over the body for pestilent fever.
- Juice, with coconut oil, applied on elephantiasis.
- Decoction of leaves mixed with Ocimum basilicum is taken internally for gonorrhea and impotence.
- In Thailand, decoction of leaves used as expectorant; externally as cosmetic for skin care.
- In India, used as diuretic and stomachic.
- Leaf decoction used externally for cosmetic skin care. (13)
- Decoction and steam-bath of aromatic leaves used to relieve itching eyes. (9)
- In India, plant juice used in dysentery. (10)
Others
- Perfume: Essential oil used for perfuming of hair oils.
- Decorative: In India, Konda reddis tribe use the branches for decoration and worship. (13)


Studies
Antimicrobial:
Essential oil and constituents have exhibited antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi. The essential oil has shown antifungal activity.
Flavonoids: Aerial parts and roots have yielded flavonoids: 5-Hydroxy-6,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (salvigenin), 5-Hydroxy-7,2',4'-trimethoxyflavone, and 5-Hydroxy-7,8,2',4'-tetramethoxyflavone.
Essential Oil: Leaves yielded about 0.5 to 0.7% essential oil. Results showed the presence of estragole and anethole in the oil. Toxicity gave an ED50 of 0.185 m>/100gm BW. (3)
Hypotensive / Nevadensin: Study of the whole plant yielded 3 /3-hydorxylup-20(29)-en-27-oic acid, nevadensin, and demethoxysudachitin from the whole herb of Limnophila rugosa (Roth) Merr. Nevadensin exhibited hypotensive effect on both normotensive and spontaneous hypertensive rats under pentobarbital anesthetization. (4)
Nevadensin / Bioactivity: Nevadensin, (5,7-dihydroxy-6,8,4'-trimethoxyflavone), a natural bioflavonoid has exhibited a wide range of biological activities including hypotensive, anti-tubercular, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and anti-cancer. Study details the natural sources, isolation, chemistry and biological activities of the flavonoid in detail. (5)
Anti-Inflammatory: Nevadensin was reported to have in vitro weak inhibitory activity against COX-1 and COX-2. (6)
Diuretic: Study of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of L. rugosa showed significant dose-dependent diuretic activity, with increase in urine volume and K+ excretion. (6)
Antibacterial / Antifungal / Leaves: Study evaluated various dilutions of methanol extract of leaves against important human pathogenic bacteria (S. aureus, S. pyogenes, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, A. niger, A. clavatus, and C. ablicans). Results showed antibacterial and antifungal activity with linear increase with increase in concentration of the extracts. (7)
Immunostimulant Effect: Study screened 15Thai medicinal plant extracts for in vitro immuostimulant effect on rat splenic lymphocyte proliferation and J774A.1 macrophage phagocytosis. Among five crude ethanolic plant extracts found to stimulate lymphocyte proliferation, Limnophila rugosa demonstrated the highest stimulation on rat lymphocyte proliferation with an effect on macrophage phagocytosis. The extract also showed highest inducing effect on IL-12 secretion from J774A.1cells. (11)

Availability
- Wild-crafted.
- Plant, essential oil in the cybermarket.

Last Update August 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: / Limnophila rugosa / © uncertain copyright status / click on image to go to source page / Please advise StuartXchange if use is inappropriate / sky.net/vbb
IMAGE SOURCE: / Photograph / Limnophila rugosa / © Aquaticmag / photo modified by G Stuart / Click on image to go to source page / aquaticmag.com

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Country Report /Thai Herbal Medicinal Products Industry / Dr Surapote Wongyai
(2)
Limnophila (Scrophulariaceae): Chemical and Pharmaceutical Aspects / Goutam Brahmachari / 34 The Open Natural Products Journal, 2008, 1, 34-43
(3)
A study on the essential oil of Limnophila rugosa (Roth. (Merrill (Fam Scrophulariaceae) / Imperial-Fajardo P / DOST-SciNET-Phi
(4)
Studies on Hypotensive Constituents of Limnophila Rugosa / Mon-Chun Liu, Zong-Shiow Chena, Li-Ching Chung, Meei-Shieu Yang, Shien-Tsong Ho, Ming-Tyan Chen / Chia Nan University of Pharmacy & Science Institutional Repository, 1991
(5)
A new flavone from Limnophila rugosa. / Mukherjee, K. S.; Chakraborty, C. K.; Bhattacharya, D.; Chatterjee, T. P. / Fitoterapia 1990 Vol. 61 No. 4 pp. 366-367
(6)
Review Article: Chemical and pharmacological aspects of Limnophila rugosa: An update / Dilip Gorai*, Shyamal K. Jash, Raj K. Singh, Atasi Sarkar and Sasadhar Majhi / International Journal of Natural Products Research 2013; 3(4): 120-124
(7)
Microbial evaluation of Limnophila rugosa Roth. (Merr) leaf / Rabinarayan Acharya, Ridhhish H. Padiya, Esha D. Patel, C. R. Harisha, and Vinay J. Shukla / Ayu. 2014 Apr-Jun; 35(2): 207–210. / doi: 10.4103/0974-8520.146259
(8)
Study of the Essential Oil of Limnophila Rugosa (Roth.) Merr. in the South of Vietnam / Nguyen Truc Linh & Le Ngoc Thach / Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, Volume 14, Issue 3 (2011) / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0972060X.2011.10643947
(9)
Limnophila rugosa / Useful Tropical Plants
(10)
Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants available in Panchet and Panchokot Hills, Purulia, West Bengal, India / DilipGorai*, AtasiSarkar and Raj Kumar Singh / Der Pharmacia Lettre, 2013, 5 (6):20-23
(11)
IMMUNOSITMULATION OF SOME THAI MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS / Chompunuch Boonarkart / Thai Thesis Database
(12)
Limnophila rugosa / World Vegetable Center
(13)
Limnophila rugosa / The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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