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Family Apocynaceae

Catharanthus roseus (L.) G.Don.

Chang chun hua

Scientific names  Common names 
Ammocallis rosea (L.) Small Amnias (Tag.)
Catharanthus roseus (L.) G.Don. Atai-bia (Tag.)
Lochnera rosea (L.) Rchb. ex Spach Atay-bia (Tag.) 
Pervinca rosea (L.) Gaterau Kantotan (Tag.)
Vinca rosea Linn. Lubitos (Ivan.)
Vinca speciosa Salisb. Sirsirika (Bik.)
Accepted infraspecifics (2) Sitchirika (Tag.)
Catharanthus roseus var. angustus (Steenis) Bakh. Tsitsirika (Tag.)
Catharanthus roseus var. nanus Markgr. Bright eyes (Engl.)
Lochnera rosea var. angusta Steenis Cape periwinkle (Engl.)
Catharanthus roseus var. roseus Church flower (Engl.)
Lochnera rosea var. flava Tsiang Graveyard periwinkle (Engl.)
Vinca gulielmi-waldemarii Klotzsch Madagascar periwinkle (Engl.)
Vinca rosea var. albiflora Bertol. Old maid (Engl.)
  Pink periwinkle (Engl.)
  Ram-goat rose (Engl.)
  Rose periwinkle (Engl.)
Catharanthus roseus (L.) G.Don is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Yan lai hong, Ri ri cao, Ri ri xin, San wan hua, Chang chun hua.
FRENCH: Kihapai, Prevenche de Madagascar.
HAWAIIAN: Pervenche de Madagascar, pervenche du pays
MALAYSIA: Kemunting cina.
MYANMAR: Thenbanmahnyoban.
SPANISH: Chatas, chavelas, chula.lai hong, pervinca de Madagascar, Chichirica, San Pedro.
TONGAN: Siale, siale vao.
OTHERS: Arivotaombelona, Rivotambelona, Tonga, Tonagatse, Trongatse, Tsimatiririnina, Vonenina.

Gen info
- Catharanthus roseus is a perennial species of flowering plant in the family Apocynaceae. It was formerly in the genus Vinca as Vinca rosea.
- In the U.S. it often remains identified as "Vinca".
- Two varieties are recognized: Catharanthus roseus var. roseus and C. roseus var. angustus.
- Based on flower color, C. roseus has two cultivars: pink flowered "Rosea" and white colored "Alba". Breeding techniques have produced more than 100 varieties, with improved floral traits, increase tolerance to disease and alkaloid yield. (40)
- In the United Kingdom it has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. (74)

• Tsitsirika is an erect, smooth or slightly hairy, simple or slightly branched plant, 30 to 50 centimeters high. Stems are somewhat woody. Leaves are oblong, 4 to 7 centimeters long, rounded at tip, pointed at base. Flowers are white, pink, or red, or variegated white and red, 3.5 cm to 5 centimeters across, borne in the axils of the leaves. Calyx-lobes are green and very slender. about 4 millimeters long. Corolla-tube is slender, 2.5 to 3 centimeters long, and pale green; the limb is spreading with obliquely obovate lobes 1.7 to 2.5 centimeters wide. Fruit is a hairy and cylindric follicle, 2 to 3 centimeters long.

• Subshrubs or perennial herbs to 1 m tall, erect or decumbent. Young stems puberulent. Leaves obovate or elliptic, 2.5-9 X 1-3.5 cm, herbaceous, apex minutely apiculate; lateral veins 7-11 pairs. Corolla red to pink or white and then mostly with a pink or less often yellow eye; tube 2.5-3 cm, pilose inside, throat villous; lobes broadly obovate, 1.2-2 cm. Follicles 2-3.8 cm X ca. 3 mm. (Flora of China)

- Introduced as an ornamental.
- Native to Madagascar.
- Flowers all year-round.
- Established in many parts of the Philippines and is often very abundant along sandy seashores.
- Now pantropic.

- Listed as a noxious weed in Western Australia and the Australian Capital Territory, and parts of eastern Queensland. (74)

- Leaves yield a volatile oil containing aldehyde, sesquiterpenes, furfural, sulphur-containing compounds, lochnerol, vincamine, vinpocetin (ethyl aponvincaminate), vincarosin.
- Plant yields an amorphous alkaloid, vincarosin.
- Compounds identified: Alkaloids (vincristine, vinblastine, ibogaine, yohimbine, raubasine), flavonoids (hirsutidin).
- Plant yields more than 100 monoterpenoid indole alkaloids in different organs. Principle component is vindoline (up to 0.5%). Others are vinblastine (arevincaleukoblastine), vineristine ( oxovincaleuko-blastine), reserpine, vincamine, alstonine, leurocristine, ajmalicine, vinine, vinomine, vinoxine, vintsine, and leurosine.
- Leaves and stems yield dimeric alkaloids vincristine and vinblastine.
- Roots yield ajmalicine and serpentine.
- Comparative study of elemental composition of leaves and flowers yielded (dry weight basis, mg/g): Na 4.721 ± 0.530 (leaves) 2.310 ± 0.260 (flowers); K 23.070 ± 4.98 L, 23.42 ± 5.05 F; Ca 36.19 ± 3.04 L, 6.05 ± 5.05 F; Mg 5.13 ± 0.26 L, 1.75 ± 0.09 F; Cr 0.009 ± 0.001 L, 0.002 ± 0.004 F; Fe 1.04 ± 0.083 L, 0.559 ± 0.044 F; Zn 0.023 ± 0.002 L, 0.048 ± <0.005 F; Al 0.035 ± 0.004 L, 0.022 ± 0.005 F; Cu 0.006 ± <0.001 F; Pb 0.008 ± <0.001 L, 0.003 ± <0.001 F; Cd 0.002 ± <0.001 L, 0.001 ± <0.001 F; Mn 0.130 ± 0.009 L, 0.020 ± 0.001 F; Ni 0.006 ± 0.001 L, 0.0024 ± <0.001. (see study below)
- GC-MS analysis of methanolic extract of leaves yielded major components:
mono-inositol (1), hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (2), hexadecanoic acid (3), 9- octadecanoic acid(Z)-methyl ester (4), heptadecene-(8)-carbonic acid (5), octanoic acid (6), eicosanoic acid, methyl ester (7), Icosanoic acid (8), 1,2- benzenedicarboxylic acid (9), squalene (10), desmethoxyvidoline (11) and tetracontane (12).   (48)
- Qualitative screening of leaves and stems yielded alkaloid, tannin, flavonoids, saponins, glycoside, steroid, phenol, and anthocyanins. Leaves and stems yielded alkaloid content of 11.84  ±1.2% and 7.84 ± 0.2%, respectively. Proximate composition of leaf and stem bark yielded: protein 4.74 and 2.67, fat 42.80 and 54.21, fiber 17.55 and 19.34, ash 8.94 and 4.76, and carbohydrate 4025 and 56.71, respectively. (53)
- Study evaluated leaves and flowers for essential oil by GC-FID and GC-MS. Pink flower of C. roseus yielded leaf oil consisting mainly of linolenic acid ethyl ester (43.9%), stearic acid (10.6%), phytol (7.3%), and hexadecanoic acid (6.8%), while the flower yielded limonene (34.1%), phytol (29.6%), and linolenic acid ethyl ester (14.0%). The while flower leaves yielded main constituents of of limonene (23.2%), dodecyl alcohol (9.8%), geraniol (7.3%), and citral (7.0%), while the flower yielded limonene (37.2%) and dotricontane (16.1%) as main compounds. (58)
- Study fir essential elements and minerals yielded (concentration/ppm) Fe 148.7, Zn 0.048, Se 0.094, Na 450.2, Ca 260.5, Mg 2800, and K 90.61. (66)

- Leaves are vomitive.
- Leaf alkaloids considered anti-cancer.
- Roots are purgative, vermifuge, depurative, hemostatic.
- Considered antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral.
- It is the only plant which produces more than 100 monoterpenoids and indole alkaloids, which possesses two major cytotoxic diametric alkaloids commercially available for cancer treatment.
- Studies have shown antibacterial, anticancer, antidiabetic, hypotensive, hypolipidemic, antioxidant, wound healing, anthelmintic, anti-fertility, phytoremediative, anti-atherosclerotic, antiulcer, antigonorrheal, antileukemic, genotoxic, antiatherosclerotic, abortifacient, antiaging properties.

- Abortifacient potential: Avoid use during pregnancy. (78)

Parts utilized
Leaves, whole plant.

- In the Philippines, decoction of leaves used in diabetes.
- Decoction of young leaves used for stomach cramps.
- Root decoction for intestinal parasitism; as emmenagogue; may produce abortion.
- Infusion of leaves used for treating menorrhagia.
- Crude leaf extract has anticancer activity.
- Recent use of roots for anticancer applications.
- Roots used for dysentery.
- In Madagascar, the bitter and astringent leaves used as vomitive; roots used as purgative, vermifuge, depurative, hemostatic and toothache remedy.
- In Orissa, juice of leaves used as application to wasp stings.
- In Mauritius, infusion of leaves used for indigestion and dyspepsia.
- In Ayurveda, used for diabetes.
- In India, juice of leaves used for bee stings.
- In India, West Indies, and Nigeria used for diabetes.
- In Cuba and Jamaica, flower extract used for eyewash in infants.
- In the Bahamas, flower decoction used for asthma.
- In Bermuda, used for high blood pressure.
- In Malaysia, plant decoction used for diabetes, hypertension, insomnia, and cancer.
- In Indo-China, used for dysmenorrhea.
- In South Africa, used by Bapedi traditional healers for the treatment of gonorrhea. (41)
- A traditional recommendation: 10 leaves and 10 flowers boiled in water as decoction or tea, or 9 pink flowers in 0.5 L of water for 3 hours ("solar tea") sipped throughout the day. (No clinical data or study to support this dosing recommendation) (77)

Hypoglycemic / Leaves:
Study on the leaf juice of C roseus showed a dose-dependent lowering of blood glucose in both normal and diabetic rabbits comparable to the standard drug, glibenclamide. The mechanism of action was probably through enhanced secretion of insulin from the ß-cells. (1)
Antidiabetic: Study of C roseus, A indica and A sativum showed significant antidiabetic activity for all three medicinal plants supporting its Ayurvedic use for diabetes. (3) Study of aqueous extract of leaves in alloxan induced diabetic rats significantly (p<0.001) decreased blood glucose levels and decreased TC, LDL, VLDL and TG close to normal levels.
Anti-Cancer / Vincristine and Vinblastine:
The anti-cancer drugs, vincristine and vinblastine, are derived from the alkaloids of periwinkle. The alkaloid has growth inhibition effects to some human tumors. Vinblastine is used experimentally for treatment of neoplasms and is recommended for Hodgkin's disease and choriocarcinoma. Vincristine, another alkaloid, is used for leukemia in children. Vinblastin is sold as Velban; vincristine, as Oncovin. source
Crude extracts from different parts of C roseus was tested for antibacterial activity. Extracts from the leaves showed significantly higher efficacy. Study suggests that bioactive compounds of CR can be a potentially exploited as antibacterial agents. (
Anti-Bacterial: Study showed pattern of inhibition depends on extraction procedure, part of plant used, state of plant, solvent used, and microorganism tested. The ethanolic extract was most active against almost all bacterial organisms tested. Gram positive bacteria were found more sensitive than gram-negative ones. (11)
Cytochrome P450 Inhibition:
Study isolated two triterpenes and three alkaloids. Two alkaloids, ajmalicine and serpentine showed very potent inhibitory activity against CYP2D6. (5)
Wound Healing / Flowers:
Study evaluated a flower extract for antimicrobial and wound healing activity in Wistar rats. Results showed increased wound contraction and tensile strength, increased hydroxyproline content in a dead space wound model (p<0.05). Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus showed sensitivity to C. roseus. Results support the topical use of CR in wound healing. (6)
Triadimefon / Antioxidant / Ajmalicine:
The effects of triadmefon, a triazole compound on the antioxidant potentials and root alkaloid ajmalicine content were studies in two varieties of C roseus, rosea and alba. Triadimefon treatment increased the antioxidant potentials and the indole alkaloid ajmalicine (more in the rosea variety than the alba variety) content. Results suggest triadimefon may be a useful tool for increasing alkaloid production in medicinal plants. (7)
C roseus is known to produce a distinct spectrum of terpenoid indole alkaloids. A growth-related decrease in shoot/leaf dat and sgd transcript levels were paralleled by a decrease in shoot/leaf vindoline content. (8)
Polyphenolics / Antioxidants:
Study of non-colored phenolics in C roseus characterized three caffeoylquinic acids and 15 flavonol glycosides. The scavenging ability of different plant matrices was assessed and a concentration-dependent protective effect was observed for seeds and tissues, with petals found to be most active. (9)
Hypotensive / Hypolipidemic / Leaves:
C roseus leaves extract made significant changes in each cardiovascular parameter after investigation with hypotensive and hypolipidemic effects in leaves extract treated animals. (11)
Anthelmintic / Leaves:
Study of leaves extract of Cr showed potent anthelmintic activity in experimental adult earthworm Pheretima posthuma. There was concentration dependent paralysis and decrease in death time. In the study, the control drug Piperazine citrate showed more potent anthelmintic activity compared to the methanol aqueous, ethanol and ethyl acetate extract. (12) Study evaluated an ethanol extract of C. roseus leaves for anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma. Results showed significant anthelmintic activity, more efficient than the standard drug, piperazine citrate. (55)
Antidiabetic / Increased Enzymic Activity:
Study of a dichlormethane:methanol extract of leaves and twigs in a STZ-induced diabetic rat model exhibited hypoglycemic activity. Decreased enzymic activities in liver of diabetic animals were significantly improved after extract treatment. Increased levels of lipid peroxidation indicative of oxidative stress were also normalized by extract treatment. (13)
Antimicrobial / Leaves:
Study of extracts of leaves showed it can be used as a prophylactic agent in regions with endemic disease but no in pandemic scale. Leaf yielded indole alkaloids and some phenolic compounds.
(16) Study of ethanol leaf extract of C. roseus showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli and Candida albicans. (35) Study of various solvent leaf extracts showed maximum antibacterial activity against all tested pathogenic microorganisms. (43)
Vincristine / Anticancer Ingredient:
Vincristine is a dimer-indo-akaloid from the leaves of C. roseus, used in the treatment of acute lymphocytic cell leukemia, Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin disease. Side effects limits its clinical use. Study summarizes its properties, advances in decreasing side effects, and new phamaceutical approaches. (17)
Phytoremediation / Cadmium:
Study exposed exposed C. roseus to different concentration of heavy metals to observe bioaccumulation efficiency. Total alkaloid was found decreased in the roots of CdCl2 treated plants. Analyses of leaves of treated plant showed 5-10% accumulation of cadmium, but no accumulation of lead at all. (18)
Toxicity Study / Sub-Acute Toxicity / Oral Toxicity Study / Leaves:
Study evaluated the sub-acute oral toxic effects of methanol leaves extract of C. roseus on liver and kidney functions in Sprague Dawley rats. Fourteen days of oral administration of 0.1 g/kbw was shown to be safe in female SD rats without any significant damages to the liver and kidney.
(19) Study evaluated the acute oral toxic effects of ethanol extract of leaves related to heart, kidney, and liver in wistar albino rats using a single dose of varying doses of 5, 50, 300, and 2000 mg . Results showed no mortality at dose of 2000 mg. However, at doses higher than 300 mg, the extract can produce signs of biochemical and histopathological toxicity in liver, kidney and heart with elevations of SGOT, SGPT, CPK, LDH, urea, and creatinine. (71)
Study of a plant leaf dichlormethane methanol extract was found to exhibit significant antihyperglycemic effect in alloxan induced diabetic rats. (20) Study evaluated the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effect of C. roseus leaf powder in STZ induced diabetic rats. Results showed lowering of plasma glucose and plasma insulin, with significant enhancement of plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL, and normalization of atherogenic index of the diabetic rats. (
Vinpocetine / Spatial Learning Effect: Vinpocetin from the periwinkle plant has been shown to increase cerebral blood flow, enhancing the flow of nutrients, oxygen, glucose, and neurotransmitter substrates. Study showed the plant decoction can affect spatial learning of rats in escape latencies. (21)
Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated the antioxidant activity of methanolic leaf extracts of Catharanthus roseus. Results showed increased activity of SOD and POX antioxidant activities. (22)
Prevention and Management of Insulin Resistance and Oxidative Stress: Study evaluated the preventive role of C. roseus leaf powder in alleviating high-fructose diet-induced insulin resistance and oxidative stress in adult Wistar rats and suggests a potential use as adjuvant for the prevention and/or management of insulin resistance and related disorders. (23)
Anticancer / Free Radical Scavenging: Study investigated the anticancer and antioxidant activity of C. roseus, Dendrophtoe pentandra, Piper betle and Curcuma mangga aqueous extracts in T47D human ductal breast epithelial tumor cell line. Apoptotic analysis showed C. roseus induced apoptosis for 37.67%, compared to doxorubicin for 36.06. Its DPPH radical scavenging activity was 71.87%.
Hypoglycemic: Study investigated the hypoglycemic activity of extracts from flower, leaf, stem, and root in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The aqueous extracts and its alkaloid-free fraction significantly reduced blood glucose in diabetic mice, with a hypoglycemic activity comparable to tolbutamide. (25)
Hypolipidemic / Anti-Atheroscletic Activity / Leaf Juice: Study investigated the hypolipidemic activity of leaf juice of Catharanthus roseus in guinea pigs. Results showed significant anti-atherosclerotic activity suggested by reduction in serum lipids and histological findings in the aorta, liver, and kidney. The result was attributed, possibly, to the antioxidant effect of flavonoid, and probably, vinpocetine-like compound in the leaf juice. (26)
Cytotoxicity to Leukemic T-Cells: Study of a crude aqueous extract of C. roseus showed a differential effect on the inhibition of proliferation of Jurkat leukemic T-cells and promoting normal peripheral blood immune cells proliferation. (27)
Antidiabetic / Flower Extract: Study evaluated an aqueous flower extract for antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic potential on alloxan induced diabetes in male albino rats. Results showed significant reduction in blood glucose, reduction in lipid profile, and histological observation of reduced pancreatic fatty changes and inflammatory cell infiltrates. (28)
Vincamine and Vindoline / Anti-Ulcer: Study evaluated the antiulcer activity of total extract and fractions of C. roseus. A chloroform extract fractionation and its compounds, vincamine and vindoline, significantly showed protection in the Cold Restraint Ulcer model, confirming its anti-ulcer activity. The effect could be due to its anti-secretory activity. (29)
Phytoremediation / Cadmium: Study evaluated the bioaccumulation efficiency of Catharanthus roseus to different concentrations of heavy metals. AAS analysis of leaves of treated plants showed 5-10% accumulation of cadmium, but no accumulation of lead at all. (
Elemental Composition of Leaves and Flowers: Study evaluated 13 important elements in leaves and flowers of C. roseus. Result showed the presence of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cr, Fe, Zn, Al, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Mn in both leaves and flowers. Leaves showed high concentration of all elements except K and Zn while flowers showed higher concentration of K and Zn. (
Antifertility / Leaves: Oral administration of leaf extract caused widespread testicular necrosis, hyalinization of tubules. Notable reduction in glycogen and fructose levels in reproductive tissues supported the histological findings and confirm the antifertility properties of C. roseus extract. (34)
In Vivo and In Vitro Antitumor Activity: Study evaluated the antitumor activity of C. roseus using both in vitro and in vivo methods. Results showed in vitro antitumor activity using MCF (breast cancer) cell lines and in vivo antitumor activity using Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) tumor model. (3
Cytotoxicity / Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Line: Study evaluated C. roseus for cytotoxic activity using MTT assay against Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Line (HCT 116). Results showed dose dependent cytotoxic activity with the chloroform fraction showing the highest activity. Catharanthine showed the most promising dose dependent cytotoxic activity with IC50 value of 60 µg mL. (3
• Elemental Composition: Study of elemental composition of leaves and flowers yielded 13 important elements: Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cr, Fe, Zn, Al, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Mn. Leaves showed high concentration of all elements except K and Zn while flowers showed higher concentrations of K and Zn. (see constituents above) (39)
• Treatment for Gonorrhea / Roots: Study evaluated the anti-gonorrheal property of C. roseus root extract. The plant has been used by traditional Bapedi healers in the Limpopo Province of South Africa for the treatment of gonorrhea. Study concludes the C. roseus extracts might be effective against Neiserria gonorrhea. (41)
• Antidiabetic / Antioxidant / Alkaloids: Study reports on the in vivo antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of major alkaloids isolated from C. roseus leaves extract. Study isolated four alkaloids: vindoline I, vindolidine II, vindolicine III, and vindolinine IV from a dichlormethane extract of leaves. All four alkaloids induced relatively high glucose uptake in pancreatic ß-TC6 or myoblast C2C12 cells, with III showing the highest activity. Compounds II-IV showed good protein tyrosine phosphatae-1B inhibition activity suggesting a therapeutic potential for T2DM. Compound III showed the highest antioxidant potential in ORAC and DPPH assays. (42)
• Peroxidase and Biosynthesis of Terpenoid Indole Alkaloids / Leaves: The first natural drugs used in cancer therapy—the dimeric terpenoid indole alkaloids vinblastine and vincristine—were produced from the leaves of C. roseus. This study isolated two other terpenoid indole alkaloids: ajmalicine, used as antihypertensive, and serpentine, used as sedative. Study present an overview of the class III plant peroxidases in the biosynthesis of terpenoid indole alkaloids in C. roseus. (44)
• Biological Plant Mechanisms in the Separation of Vinca Drug Components: Study reports on the complex development-, environment-, organ-, and cell-specific controls involved in the expression of MIA (monoterpenoid indole alkaloids) which are coupled to secretory mechanisms that keep catharanthine and vindoline separated from each other in living plants. Catharanthine accumulates in leaf wax exudates, while vindoline is found within leaf cells. (45)
• Acute Toxicity Study: Study evaluated the acute toxicity effect of C. roseus crude aqueous extract on some hematological and biochemical parameters. Results suggest use of C. roseus extract as infusion for disease remedy may be well tolerated since there was no mortality or severe adverse effects on the test animals. However, there is a risk of renal- hepato- and hematopoeitic toxicity at the tested doses. Concentrations lower than 1000 mg/kg is suggested to increase the safety margin. (46)
• Bioactive Compounds from Leaves: GC-MS analysis of methanolic extract of leaves yielded bioactive components. Major compounds —hexadecanoic acid, 9-octadecanoic acid, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, tetracontane—were used for antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antioxidant, and anticancer activity. (see constituents above) (48)
• Antidiarrheal / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-diarrheal activity of ethanolic leaf extract in wistar rats with castor oil-induced diarrhea. Results showed dose dependent inhibition of induced diarrhea at doses of 200 and 500 mg/kbw. Loperamide and atropine sulfate were used as standard drugs. (49) (61)
• Memory Enhancing / Vinpocetine: Vinpocetine, an intriguing dietary supplement derived from the alkaloid vincamine, has been reported to improve brain function and memory, and of particular potential benefit in Alzheimer's disease. In clinical trials of dementia and stroke, it has been found to be tolerated up to 60 mg/d dose, with no significant adverse events. However, it should not be used with blood thinning agents (warfarin or aspirin) and some dietary supplements (ginkgo, vitamin E, and garlic). (49)
• Hypoglycemic / Hypolipidemic / Comparison with Diabenese / Leaves, Flowers, and Stems: Study aqueous extracts prepared from leaves, flowers, and stems of C. roseus in alloxan-induced diabetic rats showed significant reductions (p≤0.05) in glucose levels, protein, cholesterol, liver enzymes. and lipid peroxidation. Reductions were higher compared to groups treated with diabenese. (50)
• Toxicity / Vincristine / Leaves and Flowers: (1) Cases of neurotoxicity have been reported with the use of vincristine in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. (2) A study reported on the development of peripheral neuropathy with use of vincristine at normal dosage in 10 of 20 children. (3) Peripheral neuropathy has been reported in cats and dogs, along with involvement of the bone marrow, kidney, and GIT. (4) Study reports of liver damage in rabbits after taking o.1g/kg of an aqueous leaf extract of C. roseus for 9 days. (5) Study showed an LD50 of methanol leaf extract at 2.1g/kg in mice. (6) Prolonged treatment at repeated dose of 0.5g and 1.0 g/lg extract cause diarrhea and mortality in rats. (7) Study reports of accidental poisoning of sheep fed ad libitum amounts of leaves and flowers. Acute toxicity occurred within 24 hours with all animals manifesting salivation, incoordination, staggering, dyspnea, anorexia , bloody diarrhea and dehydration, with all animals dying within two days of onset of manifestations. (51)
• Essential Oil / Leaves and Flowers: GC-MS evaluated leaves and flowers of C. roseus for essential oil. Leaves yielded 24 compounds representing 95.99% of total, while the flowers yielded 10 compounds representing 98.20%. Identified components in the leaves were terpenoids 75.41%, alkanes 6.0%, aldehydes 5.5%, fatty acids 3.6%, ketones 3.2%, and alcohol 2.28%, while the flowers yielded 98.20% component fatty acid esters. (52)
• Alkaloids / Anti-Leukemic: Study of vinca rosea yielded twelve crystalline compounds and describes the procedure leading to preparation of pure substances. Two of the alkaloids, vincaleukoblastine and leurosine showed activity against P-1534 leukemia in mice. (54)
• Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles / Antibacterial / Leaves: Study reports on the fast, easy, cost-effective and eco-friendly biosynthesis of ZnO nanoparticles from leaves of C. roseus. On antibacterial evaluation against four bacterial species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed more susceptibility than the other species. (55)
• Genotoxicity Study: Study of alcoholic extracts of C. roseus showed genotoxic activity using Drosophila melanogaster as model organism. Results suggest further studies to identify the active compounds responsible for genotoxicity to ensure safe use of C. roseus for medicinal purposes. (57)
• Gold Nanoparticles / Caspase-Mediated Apoptosis in Cervical Cancer Cells: Study reports on the effectiveness of photosynthesized C. roseus gold nanoparticles (AuNOs) on induction of mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic signaling pathways via reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced cytotoxicity in cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) in an invitro model. (59)
• Silver Nanoparticles / Antiplasmodial / Leaves: Study reports on a novel green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaves extract of C. roseus, which has been proven active against malaria parasite Plasmodium falcifarum. (60)

• Effect on Liver and Kidney / Toxicological Study / Leaves: Study evaluated the toxicological potentials of aqueous leaf extract of C, roseus in rabbits using 100 mg/kg and 399 mg/kbw. Increased levels of ALT, AST, and ALP were found suggesting liver damage, which was confirmed by histopathological studies that revealed centrilobular hemorrhagic necrosis of the liver. Oxidative glomerulonephritis was also noted. The effect of the extract on hepatocellular enzymes was concentration dependent. (62)
• Anticancer Molecules: Long used as an anticancer agent, the extraction of bioactive compound results in the generation of large quantities of pollution with wasted solvents. Toxic pollution occurs when synthetic chemicals are discharged or natural chemicals accumulate to toxic levels in the environment. Review covers the extraction of anticancer phytochemical compounds
. Review also addresses recent advances using biological cell cultures. (63)
• Antidiabetic / Effect on Glucose Transport Gene: Study evaluated the molecular mechanism of the antidiabetic potential of C. roseus. It was hypothesized that the insulin mimetic effect of an ethanolic extract of C. roseus might add to glucose uptake through the improvement in expression of genes of glucose transport (GLUT) family messenger RNA (mRNA) in liver. Study evaluated the antidiabetic efficacy of C. roseus ethanolic extract and expression of GLUT-2 and GLUT-4 gene in STZ induced diabetic rats. Results showed the antidiabetic effect was a result of complex mechanisms of GLUT gene mRNA expression. (64)
• Antidiabetic / Alkaloid Vindolicine: Study evaluated the potential effects of alkaloid vindolicine from leaves of Catharanthus roseus in reducing blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Previous studies have showed vindolicine alkaloid to increase ß-cell activity and increase insulin secretion. The alkaloid also showed a role in activating pancreatic ß-TC6 cells. (65)
• Anticancer / Review: This review focuses on the importance of Catharanthus roseus for anti-cancerous activity, with vincristine and vinblastine as the identified anti-cancerous compounds. Vincristine and vinblastin are known for inhibiting mitosis i.e. it stops cell division and results in killing of the cells. Catharanthus roseus is the only plant that produces more than 100 monoterpenoids and indole alkaloids, which possess two major cytotoxic diametric alkaloids commercially available to cure cancer. (67)
• Bioremediation / Cadmium Induced Renal Toxicity: Cadmium is the second most hazardous metal with bio-concentration factor (BCF) > 100.. Because of the industrial utility of this metal, it is far above the WHO permitted cadmium concentration in drinking water of 0.005 mg/L. Oral exposure can results in metabolic disorders especially in the liver and kidney. Study in an albino rat model the functional renal changes under the effect of cadmium and C. roseus. Study showed efficient nephro-protection by the C. roseus extract against Cadmium toxicity. (68)
• Effect of Plant Regulators on Biosynthesis of Vinblastin, Vindoline and Catharanthine: Study evaluated the effect of different plant regulators applied to the plant during the blooming period on the biosynthesis of vinblastine, vindoline, and catharanthine. Salicylic acid and ethylene (ethephon) treatments resulted in significant increase in vinblastine, vindoline, and catharanthine while abscisic acid and giggerellic acid showed strong negative influence on the accumulation of the three important alkaloids. Chlormequat chloride highly enhanced the accumulation of vinblastine but greatly decreased vindoline and catharanthine. (69)
• Zn-Doped Nanoparticles / Enhanced Anti-Diabetic Activity / Leaves: Study reports on the eco-friendly synthesis of Zn-doped C. roseus leaves using a fac8ile photon induced method for green biomaterials. The biosynthesized NPs showed encouraging inhibitory effects on alpha-amylase enzyme. (70)
• Antibiogram of Rosea and Alba Varieties: Study evaluated the antibiogram of different extracts of two varieties of C. roseus i.e. "rosea' and 'alba' from different plant parts (leaves, stems, roots, and flowers) using three solvents (methanol, acetone and ethyl acetate). The ethyl acetate extracts of different pant parts showed best antibiogram followed by methanol and acetone extracts. The 'rosea' showed better activity than 'alba.' All extracts showed largest antibiogram towards B. subtilis followed by E. coli. Staphylococcus aureus was moderately sensitive to various solvent extracts. (72)
• Vincristine from CrP14 / Apoptosis in Human Squamous Carcinoma A431: Previous study reported that Eutypella spp.-CrP14 isolated from a stem cutting showed significant antiproliferative activity in vitro against HeLa cell line. Study identified the anticancer compound responsible for the antiproliferative activity. The anti-proliferative activity of the fungal anticancer compound, vincristine showed strong cytotoxic activity towards human squamous carcinoma cells - A431 in MTT assay. The fungal vincristine could induce apoptosis in A431 cells through generation of reactive oxygen species and activation of the intrinsic pathway leading to loss of MMP. Results demonstrated for the first rime that the vincristine from Eutypella spp-CrP14 is an efficient induces of apoptosis in A431 cells. (73)
• Anti-Aging / Review: A previous study evaluated the antioxidant activity of C. roseus at various concentrations (200 - 1000g). Flower petals, seeds, and other parts exhibited antioxidant properties. Phenolic compounds have redox properties that allow them to act as reducing agents, hydrogen donors, or singlet oxygen quenchers. Review highlights the amazing antioxidant properties of the plant and suggests potential for C. roseus to be used for its anti-aging properties. (75)
• Reversal of Ampicillin Resistance / Roots: Study evaluated the mechanism by which an ethanolic extract of C. roseus root (EECRR) causes the reversal of ampicillin resistance in S. aureus. Results showed EECRR can be an efficient growth inhibitor of Staphylococcus aureus that reduces the expression on PBP2a. EECR can also render ampicillin-resistant S. aureus susceptible to antibiotic. (76)
• Abortifacient Potential / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of methanolic leaf extract of C. roseus on some reproductive parameters, weight of fetus, and pregnancy outcome in female wistar rats. Doses of 125, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kbw were used.  Results showed significantly decreased levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and estrogen (p<0.05). There was significant increase in prolactin level, a significant (p<0.05) loss in maternal body weight, and reduction in weight of fetus. A significant increase in percentage of dead fetus was observed with higher doses (up to 500 mg/kg) of extract. Results suggest the methanol leaf extract may possess abortifacient potentials and may increase fetal loss. (78)
• Effect on Urea and Creatinine Levels in Acute Kidney Failure Model / Leaves: Study evaluated the effectiveness of Rosy Periwinkle on the levels of urea and creatinine in male Wistar strain rats on acute kidney failure models induced by gentamicin. Results showed Rosy Periwinkle boiled in water (5.2 g in 300 cc of boiled water reduced to 100 at 3.6 cc/day for 7 days) is effective in reducing the level of urea and creatinine of male Wistar strain rats with acute kidney failure. (79)
• Comparative Elemental Composition / Leaves and Flowers: Study evaluated the elemental composition of leaves and flowers of C. roseus using atomic absorption spectrophotometer for quantitative analysis. Results indicated the presence of Na, K, Ca, Mag, Cr, Fe, Zn, Al, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd and Mn in both leaves and flowers. The leaves showed higher concentration of all elements except K and Zn. Different parts of the plant are enriched in some micro and macro nutrients like Fe, Ca, Na, K, and Zn, important for  the biological metabolic system and human health. (80)

- Wild-crafted.
- Cultivated ornamental plant.

Updated November 2023 / Aug 2021 / October 2018 / July 2017 / March 2016

Photo © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE / Close up of flower / White Catharanthus roseus / CC-BY-SA 2.0 Generic / titanium22 / click on image or link to go to source page / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Catharathus roseus flower / Joydeep / CC BY-SA 3.0  / click on link or image to go to source page / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
The juice of fresh leaves of Catharanthus roseus Linn. reduces blood glucose in normal and alloxan diabetic rabbits / Srinivas Nammi et al / BMC Complement Altern Med. 2003; 3, Art 4 / DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-3-4.
Catharanthus roseus (Apocynaceae) / National Tropical Botanical Garden
In Vitro Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity Using Crude Extracts of Catharanthus roseus L. (G.) Don. / Ethnobotanical Leaflets 12: 1067-72. 2008.
Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) Inhibitory Constituents of Catharanthus roseus / Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, Vol. 28 (2005) , No. 6 1021
Catharanthus roseus flower extract has wound-healing activity in Sprague Dawley rats./ BS Nayak and Lexley M Pinto Pereira / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2006, 6:41 / DOI:10.1186/1472-6882-6-41
Triadimefon induced changes in the antioxidant metabolism and ajmalicine production in Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don. / C Abdul Jaleel et al / Plant Science, Aug 2006; Volume 171, Issue 2: pp 271-276 / DOI:10.1016/j.plantsci.2006.03.018
Transcriptome analysis in Catharanthus roseus leaves and roots for comparative terpenoid indole alkaloid profiles / Ashutosh K Shukla et al / Journal of Experimental Botany 2006 57(14):3921-3932; / doi:10.1093/jxb/erl146
New Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Potential of Catharanthus roseus / Federico Ferreres et al / J. Agric. Food Chem., 2008, 56 (21), pp 9967–9974 / DOI: 10.1021/jf8022723
In vitro evaluation of crude extracts of Catharanthus roseus for potential antibacterial activity / Pankaj Goyal et al / Int J Green Pharm [serial online] 2008 [cited 2010 Feb 8];2:176-81.
Comparative study of Anthelmintic Activity of Different Extract of Catharanthus roseus / Akash Jain, Akhilesh Rawal / Journal of Pharmaceutical Reserach and Opinion
Effect of an antidiabetic extract of Catharanthus roseus on enzymic activities in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats / Som Nath Singh, Praveen Vats et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Aug 2001; 76(3): pp 269–277 /
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(01)00254-9
Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don / Catlogue of Life, China
Catharanthus roseus: common name / PIER
Antimicrobial Activity of Catharanthus roseus – A Detailed Study
/ Prajakta J. Patil and Jai S. Ghosh / British Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology 1(1): 40-44, 2010
Advances in the study of vincristine: an anticancer ingredient from Catharanthus roseus / Lu Y, Hou SX, Chen T. / Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2003 Nov;28(11):1006-9.
Impact of cadmium and lead on Catharanthus roseus--a phytoremediation study. / Pandey S, Gupta K, Mukherjee AK. /J Environ Biol. 2007 Jul;28(3):655-62.
Sub-acute oral toxicity study of methanol leaves extract of Catharanthus roseus in rats / LYW Kevin, AH Hussin, I Zhari, JH Chin* / Journal of Acute Disease, 2012; 1(1): pp 38-41 / doi: 10.1016/S2221-6189(13)60052-9
Vinpocetine from Periwinkle Plant (Catharanthus roseus) and its Effect on Spatial Learning of Ratsmore
/ Mark Allan Mananggit et al / Central Luzon State University College of Arts and Sciences, Department of Psychology, Jan 2010
Analysis of Antioxidant Activity of Catharanthus roseus L. and it's Association with Habitat Temperature / Asheesh Kumar et al / Asian Journal Exp Biol Sci., 3(4) 2012: 706-713
Preventive effect of Catharanthus roseus (Linn.) against high-fructose diet-induced insulin resistance and oxida-tive stress in male Wistar rats / Karuna Rasineni, Saralakumari Desireddy /
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus,Vol.1 No.3, August 2011 / DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2011.13010
Anticancer and free radical scavenging potency of Catharanthus roseus, Dendrophthoe petandra, Piper betle and Curcuma mangga extracts in breast cancer cell lines / Wahyu Widowati, Tjandrawati Mozef, Chandra Risdian, Yellianty Yellianty / Oxid Antioxid Med Sci. 2013; 2(2): 137-142doi: 10.5455/oams.100413.or.038
Hypoglycemic Activity of Aqueous Extracts from Catharanthus roseus / Elisa Vega-Ávila, José Luis Cano-Velasco, Francisco J. Alarcón-Aguilar, María del Carmen Fajardo Ortíz, Julio César Almanza-Pérez, and Rubén Román-Ramos / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2012 (2012) /
Catharanthus roseus Aqueous Extract is Cytotoxic to Jurkat Leukaemic T-cells but Induces the Proliferation of Normal Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells / Nor Hazwani Ahmad, Rohanizah Abdul Rahim and Ishak Mat* / Tropical Life Sciences Research, 2010; 21(2): pp 101–113 / PMCID: PMC3819071 / PMID: 24575203
Effect of Aqueous Flower Extract of Catharanthus roseus on Alloxan Induced Diabetes in Male Albino Rats /  A. Natarajan, K. Syed Zameer Ahmed, S. Sundaresan, A. Sivaraj, K. Devi, B. Senthil Kumar* / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research 2012; 4(2): pp 150-153
Vincamine and Vindoline from Catharanthus roseus linn. Protects the Gastric Mucosa of Gastric Ulcer in Rats
/ Vijai Lakshmi, Santosh Kumar Agarwal, Abbas Ali Mahdi, Vaibhav Mishra, Haushila Prasad Pandey and Gautam Palit / Pharmacologia, Volume 4 Issue 3, 2013
Catharanthus roseus / Synonyms / The Plant List
Antihyperglycemic activity of Catharanthus roseus leaf powder in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
Karuna Rasineni, Ramesh Bellamkonda,1 Sreenivasa Reddy Singareddy, and Saralakumari Desireddy / Pharmacognosy Res. 2010 May-Jun; 2(3): 195–201. / doi: 10.4103/0974-8490.65523
Impact of cadmium and lead on Catharanthus roseus--a phytoremediation study. / Pandey S, Gupta K, Mukherjee AK. / J Environ Biol. 2007 Jul;28(3):655-62.


Comparative studies of elemental composition in leaves and flowers of Catharanthus roseus growing in Bangladesh / Shahin Aziz, Koushik Saha, Nasim Sultana, Husna Parvin Nur, Md. Aminul Ahsan, Shamim Ahmed, Md. Kamal Hossain / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Volume 6, Issue 1, January 2016, Pages 50–54
Antifertility efficacy of Catharanthus roseus Linn: a biochemical and histological study. / Mathur R , Chaudan S / Acta Europaea Fertilitatis, 1985; 16(3): pp 203-205 PMID: 4036518
Antimicrobial Activity of Ethanol Leaf Extracts of Catharanthus Roseus From Saudi Arabia
/ Amjad Khalil /
2012 2nd International Conference on Environment Science and Biotechnology IPCBEE vol.48 (2012) © (2012) IACSIT Press, Singapore / DOI: 10.7763/IPCBEE. 2012. V48. 2
In-vitro and In-vivo Antitumor Activity of Catharanthus roseus / Shabi Ruskin. R*, Aruna. S.R / Int. Res J Pharm. App Sci., 2014; 4(6):1-4
Cytotoxic Activity of Catharanthus roseus (Apocynaceae) Crude Extracts and Pure Compounds Against Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Line / M.J. Siddiqui, Z. Ismail, A.F.A. Aisha and A.M.S. Abdul Majid / International Journal of Pharmacology, 6: 43-47.
Catharanthus roseus Leaves as an Anti- diabetic and Hypolipidemic Agents in Alloxan- Induced Diabetic Rats / Leena Muralidharan* / AJPC(2)(12)(2014) 1393-1396
Comparative studies of elemental composition in leaves and flowers of Catharanthus roseusgrowing in Bangladesh / Shahin Aziz, Koushik Saha, Nasim Sultana, Husna Parvin Nur, Md. Aminul Ahsan, Shamim Ahmed, Md. Kamal Hossain / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Vol 6, Issue 1, Jan 2016, Pp 50-54
Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don.: Extraordinary Bapedi medicinal herb for gonorrhoea / S.S. Semenya* and M. J. Potgieter / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 25 May 2013; Vol. 7(20), pp. 1434-1438 / DOI: 10.5897/JMPR12.728
Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Properties of Alkaloids from Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don
/ Soon Huat Tiong, Chung Yeng Looi, Hazrina Hazni, Aditya Arya, Mohammadjavad Paydar, Won Fen Wong, Shiau-Chuen Cheah, Mohd Rais Mustafa, and Khalijah Awang* / Molecules 2013, 18, 9770-9784 / doi:10.3390/molecules18089770
Antimicrobial potential activity of leaf extracts of Catharanthus roseus against human pathogens under laboratory conditions. / V. Shanmugaraju* and R.Bhakyaraj / Int. J. Curr. Res. Biol. Med. (2016). 1(1): 35–51
Peroxidase and the biosynthesis of terpenoid indole alkaloids in the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseu(L.) G. Don / M. Sottomayor, I. Lopes Cardoso, L.G. Pereira, A. Ros Barceló / Phytochemistry Reviews, January 2004, Vol 3, Issue 1-2, Pp 159-171
Vinca drug components accumulate exclusively in leaf exudates of Madagascar periwinkle
/ Jonathan Roepke, Vonny Salim, Maggie Wu, Antje M. K. Thamm, Jun Murata, Kerstin Ploss, Wilhelm Boland, and Vincenzo De Luca / PNAS, Vol 107, No 34, Aug 24, 2010 / doi: 10.1073/pnas.0911451107
Acute toxicity studies of Catharanthus roseus aqueous extract in male Wistar rats / Zelipha N. Kabubii, James M. Mbaria, and Mathiu Mbaabu / Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. 2015. 4(4): pp 130-134
Studies on the proximate and mineral compostion of leave, Stem and Root of Catharanthus Roseus (Linn)
/ Ekwealor UK, *Okereke CN, Ugwoke EC, Ukpaka GC, Nweze EA, Iroka FC / European Journal of Biotechnology and Bioscience, Volume 4; Issue 5; May 2016; Page No. 35-39
GC-MS study of methanolic extract of leaves of Catharanthus roseus / Mayuri Thanwar, Dr. Dhananjay Dwivedi and Dr. Anil Kumar Gharia / International Journal of Chemical Studies, 2017; 5(2): pp 517-518
THE MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF PHYTOCHEMICALS IN CATHARANTHUS ROSEUS - A REVIEW / Renjini K. R., Gopakumar G. and Latha M. S. / European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical AND MEDICAL RESEARCH, 2017; 4(11): pp 545-551
Comparative study of the hypoglycemic and biochemical effects of Catharanthus roseus (Linn) g. apocynaceae (Madagascar periwinkle) and chlorpropamide (diabenese) on alloxan-induced diabetic rats / Emeka E. J. IWEALA and Clement U. OKEKE / Biokemistri, Dec 2005; 17(2): pp 149-156
Clinical and Pathological Investigations of Accidental Catharanthus roseus Toxicity in Sheep / Aydogan, A., Sezer, K., Ozmen, O., Haligur, M. and Albay, M.K. / Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Dec 2015; 70 (4)
Comparative studies of Volatile Components of the essential Oil of leaves and flowers of Catharanthus roseus growing in Bangladesh by GC-MS analysis / Shahin Aziz, Koushik Saha, Nasim Sultana, Mala Khan, Katrun Nada, Mirola Afroze / Indian J. Pharm. Biol. Res., 2015; 3(1): pp 6-10
Preliminary studies on the phytochemical and proximate compostion of Catharanthus roseus (Linn) / Akachukwu E Esther, Chukwuma O Maureen, Adimonyemma N Ruffina, Mbaukwu O Ann, Iroka F Chisom / International Journal of Botany Studies, March 2016; 1(3): pp 8-10
Alkaloids of Vinca rosea Linn. (Catharanthus roseus G. Don.) V. Preparation and characterization of alkaloids / Gordon H Svoboda, Norbert Heuss, Marvin Gorman / Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nov 1959; 48(11): pp 659-666 / https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.3030481115
Biological Synthesis of Zinc oxide Nanoparticles from Catharanthus roseus (l.) G. Don. Leaf extract and validation for antibacterial activity / G Bhumi N Savithramma / International Journal of Drug Development and Reearch
Evaluation of In-vitro Anthelminthic Activity of Catharanthus roseus Extract / Swati Agarwal, Simi Jacob, Nikkita Chettri, Saloni Bisoyi, Ayesha Tazeen, A. B. Vedamurthy, V. Krishna, H. Joy Hoskeri / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, 2011; 3(3): pp 211-213
Genotoxicity screening of Catharanthus roseus L extracts in Drosophila melanogaster M (Diptera: Drosophilidae) / Soumya K and Y Shibu Vardhan / Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 2016; 4(6): pp 173-177
Chemical Constituents of Essential Oils from Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don Grown in Nigeria / Oladipupo A Lawal, Isiaka A Ogunwande, Adedoyin E Ibirogba, Olamide M Layode and Andy R Opoku / Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, 2015; 18(1) / https://doi.org/10.1080/0972060X.2014.998720
Photosynthesized gold nanoparticles from Catharanthus roseus induces caspase-mediated apoptosis in cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) / Yang Ke, Mohammed Saleh Al Aboody, Faiz Abdulaziz Alfaiz et al / Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology, 2019; 47(1) / DOI: https://doi.org/10.10880/21691401.2019.1614017
Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaves of Catharanthus roseus Linn. G. Don and their antiplasmodial activities / S Ponarulselvam, C Panneersekvam, K Murugan, N Aarthi, K Kalimuthu, S Thangamani / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, July 2012; 2(7): pp 574-580 / https://doi.org/S2221-1691(12)60100-2
In vivo antidiarrheal activity of the ethanolic leaf extract pf Catharanthus roseus Linn. (Apocynaceae) in Wistar rats / Kyakulaga A Hassan, Alinda T Brenda, Vudriko Patrick, Ogwang E Patrick / African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Oct 2011; 5(15): pp 1797-1800 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.5897/AJPP11.505 / ISSN: 1996-0816
The effects of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don 1838 aqueous leaf extract on some liver enzymes, serum proteins and vital organs / S A James, L Bilbiss, B Y Muhammad / Science World Journal, 2007; 2(1) /
DOI: 10.4314/swj.v2i1.51700
Anticancer Molecules from Catharathus roseus / Zarani M Taher, Hesham Ali El Enshasy et al / Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy, 2019; 30(3)
Anti-diabetic potential of Catharanthus roseus Liinn. and its seffect on the glucose transport gene (GLUT-2 and GLIT-4) in streptozotocin induced diabetic wistar rats / Waleed M Al-Shaqha, Mohsin Khan, Anis Ahmad Chaudjary et al / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2014; 14, Art No 369 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-015-0899-6
Potential Effects of Alkaloid Vindolicine Substances in Tapak ara Leafs (Catharanthus roseus L. G. Don) in Reducing Blood Glucose Levels / Agung B S Satyarsa / Journal of Medicine and Health, 2019; 2(4) /
DOI: https://doi.org/10.27832/jmh.v2i4.1057
Estimation of essential elements and mineral in Catharanthus roseus and its biological importance as a medicinal plant / Huda E Mahood / Plant Cell Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, 2021; 22(25&26): pp 1-7 / ISSN: 0972-2025
Traditional Indian Herb Catharanthus roseus Used as Cancer Treatment: A Review / Sharma Vipasha, kaur Hardeep, Kumar Tarun, Mishra Tullika / International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Researcvh, 2016; 8(12): pp 1926-1928 / ISSN: 0975-4873
Bioremediation of cadmium induced renal toxicity in Rattus norvegicus by medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus / Mohammad Hashim, Baby Tabassum, Elsayed Fathi Abd-Allah, Abeer Hashem, Priya Bajaj / Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, Dec 2018; 25(8): pp 1739-1742 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2018.09.009
Effect of plant growth regulators on the biosynthesis of vinbastine, vindoline, and catharanthine in Catharanthus roseus / Qifang Pan, Yu Chen, Kexuan Tang / Plant Growth Regulation, 2010; 60: pp 133-141 /
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10725-009-9429-1
Green synthesis of Zn-doped Catharanthus roseus nanoparticles for enhanced anti-diabetic activity / Nagaraj Govindan, Kowsalya Vairaprakasan, Chandraleka Chinnasamy, Tamilarasu Sivalingam, Mustafa K A Mohammed / Mater. Adv., 2020; 1: pp 3460-3465 / DOI: 10.1039/D0MA00698J
Evaluation of Acute Oral Toxicity of Ethanol Leaves Extract of Catharanthus roseus in Wistar Albino Rats / Venkateswar Rao Vutukuri, M C Das, Muralidhar Reddy, Siva Prabodh, and Padma Sunethri / J Clin Diagn Res., 2017; 11(3): pp 1-4 / PMID: 28511405 / DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2017/24937.9325
Antibiogram of Cantharanthus roseus EXtracts / S Sathiya, R Karthikeyan, Cheruth Abdul Jaleel, M M Azooz, Muhammad Iqbal / Global Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2008; 1: pp 1-7 / ISSN: 1990-9241
Fungal vincristine from Eutypella spp.- CrP14 isolated from Catharanthus roseus induces apoptosis in human squamous carcinoma cell line-A431 / Gini C Kuriakose, Padmini P C Palem, Chelliah Jayabaskaran / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine,2016; 16: Art No 302 / https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-016-1200-2
Catharathus roseus / Wikipedia
Anti-Aging Potential of Catharanthus Roseus: Literature Review / Fatma S Ruffaida, Windy Yuliana Budianto, Wi9dya Nursantari, Prinandita Syafira, Ajrina Nurwidya Sari / Biomedical Journzl of Scientific &V Technical Research, 2021; 40(2): pp 32023-32034
Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don counteracts the ampicillin resistance in multiple antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by downregulation of PBP2a synthesis / Aparna Shil, Sushmit Mukherjee, Prerona Biswas, Mausumi Sikdar nee Bhakta et al /  Open Life Sciences /
DOI: 10.1515/biol-2022-0718
Periwinkle / Drugs.com
/ P E Dabor, C Obiandu, H O Asuzu-Samuel / European Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences / ISSN: 2349-8870
Effectiveness Rosy Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus L.) Decoction Toward Urea and Creatinine Serum Levels of Male Wistar Strain Rats with Acute Kidney Failure Model  / Rani Meinora Situmeang, Untung Sudharmono / Abstract Proceedings International Scholars Conference, 2019; 7(1): pp 768-779 /
DOI: 10.35974/isc.v7i1.2081
COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION IN LEAVES AND FLOWERS OF CATHARANTHUS ROSEUS GROWING IN BANGLADESH / Shahin Aziz, Koushik Saha, Nasim Sultans, Husna Parvin Nur, Md Aminul Ahsan et al / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 2015 /
DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.10.003

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants
                                          New plant names needed
The compilation now numbers over 1,300 medicinal plants. While I believe there are hundreds more that can be added to the collection, they are becoming more difficult to find. If you have a medicinal plant to suggest for inclusion, native or introduced, please email the info: local plant name (if known), any known folkloric medicinal use, scientific name (most helpful), and, if possible, a photo. Your help will be greatly appreciated.

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