Granadilla is a stout, smooth,
herbaceous vine, reaching a length of 10 to 15 meters. Stems are
four-angled and narrowly winged. Leaves are entire, ovate to elliptic, 10 to 15 centimeters long,
with pointed tip and broadly rounded base. Stalks bear scattered glands. Flower is large, solitary and
fragrant; petals are reddish, the corona-filaments are violet. Fruit is large, fleshy,
edible, ellipsoid, 15 to 20 centimeters long.
Note.: The photo is that of P. edulis, a vine with rounded stems
and 3-deeply lobed leaves with 2-4 glands in the stalk. The flowers
are white with a crown of light purple pink. The oval fruits
have more acids and provides for a tasty drink.
- Cultivated in the
Philippines for its fruit and as an ornamental vine.
- Introduced from tropical America.
- Now pantropic.
- Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, glycosides, and flavonoids.
- Leaves produce hydrocyanic acid, 0.009 - 0.20 %, therefore poisonous.
- Contains flavonoids, essential oil in trace amounts, gynocardin (a cyanogenic
glycoside), ß-carboline alkaloids, and a tri-substituted benzoflavone.
- Fruit and unripe seeds also contain hydrocyanic acid.
- Passion fruit
is considered antispasmodic, sedative, narcotic.
- Considered analgesic, antiscorbutic, antispasmodic, astringent, diaphoretic, hypnotic,
narcotic, sedative, and vasodilating.
- Root thought to be narcotic.
- Leaves considered poisonous because of its hydrocyanic acid.
Edibility / Nutrition
- Eaten green as boiled vegetable; ripe, iced and sugared.
- Fruit contains vitamin
C, citric and malic acids.
- High in niacin.
- Flowers cooked as a vegetable or made into syrup.
- Fruit wall is often candied.
- Skin of the fruit , bark
of root, used for intestinal tapeworms and parasites.
- Decoction of root bark used for malaria, splenic enlargement, tuberculous
Infusion of powdered flower buds prescribed for bronchitis, as a wound
wash, and to expel worms.
- Fruits, powdered with the seeds, as an infusion for dyspepsia, stomach
pains, dysentery, colitis, and antihelmintic.
- Used for anxiety , nervousness and insomnia.
- Used for epilepsy, neuralgia, premenstrual tension.
- Folk remedy for hyperactivity.
- Use for whooping cough, morphine addiction, insomnia, neuroses in children, teething, spasms.
- Poultice of roots applied to boils, cuts, earaches, inflammation.
- In the Americas and Europe, used traditionally as a "calming" herb for anxiety, seizures and hysteria.
- In Mauritius, used as diuretic and emetic.
- In Guiana, used as vomitive and taeniacide.
- Indigenous tribes in the Amazon have long used the leaves for its sedative and pain-relieving properties; also, as a heart tonic and for coughs.
- Used for treatment of insomnia, epilepsy, tetanus and muscle spasms.
• Andesitic / Sleep Aid: Studies in animals
support the traditional use of P. in car nata for the relief of mild symptoms
of mental stress and and as a sleep aid.
• Anticonvulsant: Anticonvulsant effects of aerial
parts of Pass if lor a in car nata extract in mice: involvement of benzodiazepine
and opioid receptors: Study suggests the usefulness
for treatment of absence seizures. Also considered: the role of benzodiazepine
receptors in the effects and the involvement of an opioid receptor mechanism.
• Reversal of Morphine Tolerance and Dependence: Study describes the use of P in car nata in reversing the development of dependence and tolerance of morphine in mice. It decreased the precipitated withdrawal jumps in mice rendered tolerant with chronic treatment with morphine.
• Preoperative Use for Reduction of Anxiety: In out-patient surgery, preoperative use of oral Passiflora incarnata reduces preoperative anxiety.
• Anxiolytic: (1) A fraction from a methanol extract exhibited significant anxiolytic effect in mic. Results
suggest the possibility of a phytoconstituent with a benzoflavone nucleus
responsible for the bioactivity of P. incarnata. (2) In a comparative study, the methanol extract of P incarnata exhibited significant anxiolytic activity whereas P edulis was devoid of any significant activity. (3) Passionflower is believed to work by increasing the levels of GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) in the brain, with its consequent effect on brain cells and its relaxing activity. Study showed passionflower was as effective as oxazepam (Serax) for treating symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder. Those given passionflower prior to surgery had less anxiety and quicker post-anesthetic recovery. (4) Chrysin, a flavonoid, has shown significant antianxiety activity.
• Hemolysin: Hemolysins and cytolysins found in some plants are potential sources of bactericidal and anticancer drugs. Study demonstrated for the first time the presence of hemolysin from the leaves of P quadrangularis. Study suggests the Passiflora hemolysin is a saponin, with cholesterol-dependent membrane susceptibility, forming a stable complex with cholesterol, with rapid erythrocyte lysis kinetics.
• ADHD / Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Study showed passiflora may be a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of ADHD. To boot, it has a tolerable side-effect profile.
• Anticonvulsant / No Role of Chrysin: An earlier study suggested a possible role of chrysin for its anticonvulsant activity. A study of a methanolic extract containing significant amounts of chrysin lacks anticonvulsant effect, while while an aqueous extract and a hydroalcoholic extract with insignificant chrysin content, showed significant anticonvulsant effect. Results suggest chrysin is not responsible for its anticonvulsant effect.
• Analgesic: In a study of leaves evaluating the analgesic activity of PI, the leaf extract showed significant reduction in paw licking in neurogenic and inflammatory phase. Results suggest significant analgesic activity probably mediated through central mechanism by modulation of opioid receptors and nicotinic receptors.
• Benefits in Menopausal Sociosexual Behavioral Disturbances: Study showed sociosexual behavioural disturbances were present in more than 80% of the sample, with significant reduction of such unpleasant behaviors by P. incarnata.
• Antidiabetic / Antihyperlipidemic: Study of methanolic extract of leaves showed significant anti-hyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activities in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice.
• Chrysin / Anxiolytic: Study showed chrysin may have anxiolytic properties similar to midazolam, but to a lesser magnitude at the 2 mg/kg dose used in the study.
• Additive and Synergistic Effects: (1) Reports have been made of risks of interactions between herbal medicines and conventional with additive or synergistic effects. Used with benzodiazepines, the active principles of Valerian and passionflower may increase the inhibitory effects of benzodiazepine binding to GABA receptors with consequent severe secondary effects. (2) May increase the effects of MAO inhibitors: isocarboxazid, phenelzine, tranylcypromine. (3) Passion flower should be used with caution in conjunction with CNS-depressants or stimulants. It should not be used at all with the potent CNS-depressant analgesic, methotrimeprazine. (4) Avoid used with procarbazine antineoplastic drugs. (5) The neuromuscular relaxing action of passion flower may be enhanced by use with aminoglycoside antibiotics, such as clindamycin.
Cultivated for its fruit and ornamental vine.
In the cybermarket: teas, infusions, tinctures and extracts.