Hilagak is a woody climbing shrub, 5 to 6 meters high. The younger and lower surfaces
of the leaves are rather hairy, with stellately arranged, rusty short hairs. Leaves are borne on
very short stalks, oblong-ovate to oblong-lanceolate, 8 to 16 centimeters long,
with pointed tip and rounded or heart-shaped base. Flowers are extra-axillary,
solitary, two or three in depauperate cymes, 1.5 to 2 centimeters in diameter.
Fruit is fleshy and red when mature.
- In thickets in low and medium altitudes from northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao.
- Also occurs in the Malaysia, Laos, Indonesia, India, Cambodia and Thailand.
• The bark contains an alkaloid. The active principle is parasympathetic
of the atropine group with activity similar to artabotrine of Marañon.
• Study yielded an oil rich in sesquiterpenes in which the principal
component was alpha-humulene (50%). Also, benzyl benzoate (5%).
• Bioassay-guided purification of crude methanolic extract isolated a mixture of 1:1 of flavanols kaempferol (1) and quercetrin (2). (see study below) (9)
• Study of essental oils hydrodistilled from leaves yielded main constituents of δ-3-carene (12.8 %), n-hexadecanoic acid (9.1 %), β- caryophyllene (5.9 %), (Z)-β-ocimene (5.7 %) and γ-terpinene (5.4 %); the stem oil yielded germacrene D (38.4 %), benzyl benzoate (18.1 %) and n-eicosane (5.5 %). (11)
• Study of stem bark yielded seven compounds: benzyl benzoate (1), caryophyllene oxide (2), glutinol (3), 5-hydroxy-7- methoxyflavone (4), 5-hydroxy-6,7-dimethoxyflavone (5), 2,5-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (6) and 5,7-dihydroxyflavanone (7). (12)
- Study of CHCl and butanolic extract of roots yielded 15 known compounds. The CHCl crude extract yielded six flavonoids, 2,5-dihydroxy-7-methoxy flavanone (1), tectochrysin (2), 5-hydroxy-7-methoxy flavanone (3), 6,7-O,O-dimethylbaicalein (6), 7-O-methylwogonine (7) and 2,5-dihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxy flavanone (8), together with two aromatic compounds, benzoyl benzoate (4) and 2-methoxybenzyl benzoate (5).
Butanolic crude extract yielded seven alkaloids, liriodenine (9), lanuginosine (10), oxoanolobine (11), roemerine (12), anonaine (13), xylopine (14) and roemeroline (15). (see study below) (14)
- Studies have suggested anti-diabetic, anti-tubercular, antioxidant properties.
- Fruits are edible, with a tart and sweet flavor.
- Alcoholic tincture of the roots used as an ecbolic (promoting labor
by increasing uterine contractions.
- Ati Negritos use
decoction of dried stems for hemorrhage. Also, decoction of dried stems used postpartum as wash or external application. (15)
- In Thailand, Uvaria rufa is macerated and mixed with Corvus macrorhynchus, Xanthophyllum glaucum, and Oryza sativa with potable water, and taken orally for skin allergy (rash and redness). (8) Decoction of wood drunk for fever. (16) Root decoction drunk during pregnancy. (17)
- Handicraft: Wood used as substitute for rattan in making furniture and handicrafts.
Oil / Sesquiterpene: Uvaria
rufa yielded an oil rich in sesquiterpene, in which the principle component
as [alpha]-humulene (50%). Benzyl benzoate was also present at 5%. (1)
• Flavonoid Glycosides
/ Advanced Glycation End-Products Inhibition / Anti-Diabetic: Study yielded five flavonol glycosides: rutin, isoquercitrin, kaempferol 3-O-ß-galactopyranoside, astragalin, isoquercitrin-6-acetate. 2 of the compounds showed an ability to inhibit the formation of AGEs in the bovine serum albumin-glucose assay. AGEs contribute to the development and progression of diabetic complications and aging. (3)
• Polyoxygenated Cyclohexene Derivatives: Study yielded four new polyoxygenated cyclohexene derivatives, uvarirufone A, uvarirufols A-C, along with 10 known compounds from the aerial parts of Uvaria rufa. (4)
• Antitubercular: Study evaluated various extracts, fractions, and secondary metabolites against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H(37)Rv. Results demonstrated a potential source of compounds with promising antitubercular activity. Also, polar pigments enhanced inhibition against M. tuberculosis H(37)Rv. (6)
• Roots / Alkaloids: Study for alkaloidal compounds from the roots yielded compounds including oxoanolobine, lanuginosine, and roemeroline. (7)
• Flavanol Derivatives / Anti-tubercular: Study yielded a mixture of 1:1 flavonols kaempferol and quercetrin. Microplate Alamar Blue Assay showed moderately strong antitubercular activity fo these flavonol derivatives. (9)
• Attenuation of Prostatic Hyperplasia: Study evaluated the therapeutic potential of Uvaria rufa on BPH using in vitro and in ivo models.
UR-EtOAc exhibited highest potency of inhibition of 5aR and possessed potent antioxidants rich in phenolic and flavonoid contents. The active compound by HPLC analysis was ß-sitosterol. UR-Et)Ac and finasteride treated groups showed increased prostatic and serum testosterone levels. At all treatment doses used, no toxic effects were observied on vital organs and serum biochemical parameters. (10)
• Antibacterial / Twigs: In a study of 31 samples of crude extracts from 24 species of mangrove and beach forest plants, Uvaria rufa (twigs) was one ofb ten plants that showed potent antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. (13)
• Antioxidant / Roots: In a study of of 40 Thai medicinal plants for antioxidant activity using DPPH as stable radical, CHCl and butanolic extracts of Uvaria rufa roots showed promising activity. Chromatographic separation of the two extracts isolated 15 known compounds. Compound 8 (2,5-dihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxy flavanone) showed the highest scavenging activity on DPPH and superoxide radicals with IC50 of 0.16 and 1.03 mg/mL, respectively. (see constituents above) (14)