- The Yellow Elder is the national flower of the Bahamas. It was chosen as national flower through the combined popular vote of members of all four of New Providence's garden clubs of the 1970s – the Nassau Garden Club, the Carver Garden Club, the International Garden Club, and the Y.W.C.A. Garden Club.
They reasoned that other flowers grown there viz., bougainvillea, hibiscus, and poinciana, had already been chosen as the national flowers of other countries. At that time, the yellow elder was unclaimed as national flower by other countries. Since then, however, it has also become the national flower of the United States Virgin Islands. (35)
Yellow bell is an erect,
branched, sparingly hairy or nearly smooth shrub, about 2 to 4 meters
in height. Leaves are opposite, odd-pinnate, and up to 20 centimeters in length,
with 5 or 7 leaflets. Leaflets are lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate,
6 to 13 centimeters long, pointed at both ends, and toothed at the margins. Flowers
are yellow, faintly scented, borne in short, dense, terminal clusters.
Calyx is green, 5 to 7 millimeters long and 5-toothed. The capsules are linear,
compressed, 15 to 20 centimeters long, 6 to 8 millimeters wide, pointed and hanging from
the branches. Seeds are numerous, less than 2 centimeters long, 7 millimeters wide and
furnished with a transparent wing.
- Widely distributed in cultivation, although scarcely naturalized in the Philippines.
- Native of tropical America.
- Planted as an ornamental throughout the tropics and subtropics.
- Considered an invasive in six South African provinces and neighboring countries. (32)
- Phytochemical analysis yielded tannin, flavonoids, phenol, alkaloids, steroids, anthraquinones and saponins in all solvent extracts.
- Isolated from the seed kernels: water,
fixed oil, ash, tannin, resin, a bitter principle and a tannoid. From
the leaves, water, ash, fat, resin and resinic acid. From the bark,
water, ash, curnarin, a little fat, resin.
- Plant yields monoterpene alkaloids.
- Air-dried flowers yielded a new fatty acid cinnamate ester and a mixture of stigmasterol and sitosterol in a ratio of 1:1.
- In India, a foliage study yielded 17% crude protein, 6% ash, 18% fat, 25% fiber, and 14% total polyphenols.
- Study for T. stans seeds for seed oil yielded an oil content of 15%. GC-MS analysis for fatty acids yielded α-linolenic acid (45.47%), oleic (25.56%), linoleic (11.48%), palmitic (6.09%), and stearic (4.12%) acids as major constituents. Total tocopherol content was 266.06 mg/100g, and main component was γ-tocopherol (78.79%). Total phenolic and total flavonoid content were 168.69 mg GAE/100 g oil and 5.54 mg CE/g oil, respectively. (26)
- Ethanol extract of flowers yielded alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, carbohydrates, tannins, phenolic compounds, steroids, and flavonoids. (see study below) (31)
- Study of different solvent extracts of heartwood yielded tannin, flavonoids, phenol, alkaloids, steroids, anthraquinones and saponins. (see study below) (36)
- Phytochemical screening of leaves for secondary metabolites yielded alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, and cardiac glycosides. (see study below) (40)
- Study (1981) isolated a glucoside (5-deoxystansioside) along with plantarenaloside and stansioside. (41)
- Analysis of various extracts (aqueous/A; ethanol/E/ and n-hexane/H) yielded alkaloids, coumarins, flavonoids, sesquiterpene lactones, insaturaciones
(A, E), carbohydrates (A), saponins (E,H) and quinones (E). (42)
- Study of various extracts of dried leaves
yielded major alkaloids viz., tecomine, boschniakine and 5-hydoxyskitanthine, as well as two new alkaloids confirmed by GC-MS analysis. (48)
- Study of bark extract yielded phytosterols, triterpene, glycosides, phenols, flavonoids, saponins, and tannins. (see study below) (49)
- Considered diuretic, tonic, anti-syphilitic, and vermifuge.
- Studies have shown antiulcer, lipoxygenase inhibitory, genotoxic, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, nephroprotective, antifungal, CNS depressant, anticancer, antiobesity, lipid lowering, cardioprotective properties.
- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- Roots are reported to be diuretic,
tonic, anti-syphilitic and vermifuge.
- In Veracruz, decoction of flowers and bark are used for stomach pains.
- In Central America, used to treat diabetes.
- In Mexico, infusion of aerial parts used for treatment of diabetes mellitus. An herbal mixture of Tecoma stans with B. cavallinensii and Opuntia sp is available as a commercial preparation for treatment of DM. (36)
- Ground roots applied to snake bites; with lime juice drunk in small
amounts for the same.
- Flowers used as diuretic.
- In Bangladesh, leaves used for pain; also for piles.
- Beer: In Guadalajara, roots used for making beer.
- Wood: Wood is hard and durable; used for making tools, cabinetry, light construction. Also used for firewood and making charcoal.
Inhibitory Activity: Screening of 20 extracts
from different parts of 10 Malaysian plants belong to 4 families showed
the methanol extract of leaves and stems of Stenolobium stans had moderate
inhibitory activity against soybean 15-lipoxygenase.(1)
/ Secondary Metabolites: Air-dried flowers of
Stenolobium stans yielded a new fatty acid cinnamate ester and a mixture
of stigmasterol and sitosterol in a 1:1 ratio. (2)
• Genotoxic / Cytotoxic Potential: Study evaluated aqueous and ethanolic extracts on bone marrow cells from BALB/c mice through mitotic index and chromosomal aberrations and cytotoxic effects on extracts of two MEF cell lines. the genotoxic potential of T. stans in in vivo and in vitro systems. There was no clastogenic effect. In vivo testing showed cytotoxic effects on mouse embryo in vitro, and suggests caution in the use of the substance as medicine. (5)
• Antiulcer: Study of ethanolic extract for antiulcer properties showed a reduction of gastric juice, pH, free acid ulcer score, and percentage of ulcer protection in pyloric ligated models. It was as effective as standard synthetic drugs like Ranitidine. Results showed a therapeutic potential for control of ulcer. (6) Study evaluated the gastroprotective effects of T. stans leaf extract against aspirin induced and pylorus ligation gastric ulcer models. Treatment reversed the biochemical markers of ulcer to near normal levels in a dose dependent manner. Activity may be attributed to polyphenolic compounds flavonoids and tannins. (33)
• Antidiabetic: Study of evaluated the antidiabetic mechanisms of Tecoma stans and Teucrium cubense. Results showed both exert their antidiabetic effects through stimulation of glucose uptake in both insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant murine and human adipocytes without significant proadipogenic and antiadipogenic side effects. (7)
• Antimicrobial / Antioxidant: Study of methanol and ethanol extracts showed potent antimicrobial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, K. pneumonia, P. aeruginosa, P. fluorescens and moderate activity against Xanthomonas oryzae. All solvent extracts showed high activity against Aspergillus and Alternaria. Although the DPPH radical scavenging activity was less than ascorbic acid, results showed a proton donating ability and a potential to serve as free radical inhibitors or scavenging, acting possibly as primary antioxidants. (8)
• Nephroprotective / Gentamicin Induced Nephrotoxicity: Study an ethyl acetate floral extract showed an important role of reactive oxygen species and the relation to renal dysfunction and suggest a therapeutic potential of T. stans in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. (9)
• CNS Depressant Activity: Study in albino mice evaluated the CNS depressant potential of different extracts of T. stans flowers by measuring pentobarbitone-induced sleeping time and locomotor activity. The methanolic extract exhibited the highest depressant activity. (10)
• Anti-Obesity / Hypolipidemic / Flowers: Study showed a methanol extract of flowers to possess significant anti-obesity and anti-hyperlipidemic effects in rats fed an atherogenic diet. (12)
• Anticancer / Flowers: Study evaluated the anticancer activity of a methanolic flower extract of T. stans in both in vitro and in vivo methods. In vitro antitumor activity was evaluated by MTT assay using Vero and HEP-2 cell lines. In vivo activity was evaluated using Ehrlich ascites carcinoma tumor model. Results showed the METS possess significant dose dependent antitumor activity. (13)
• Antispasmodic / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of leaves extract on rat ileum contractility. Results showed antispasmodic effect without involvement of ß-adrenoceptors, opioid receptors, potassium channels and NO production. Results suggest involvement of calcium channels in the spasmolytic effect. (14)
• Antinociceptive / Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves / Flowers: Study showed an alcohol leaf extract of Tecoma stans to have excellent antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity, which may be due to its high phenolic and flavonoid content. (15) Study evaluated a methanolic crude extract of flowers for anti-nociceptive activity by acetic acid inducing writhing test and anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema testing. Results showed significant dose-dependent anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities comparable to indomethacin. Study suggests an important role of flavonoids via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. (25)
• Nephroprotective / Cisplatin, Gentamicin, and Paracetamol Induced Renal Damage: Study of an ethanolic extract of leaves showed significant inhibition of cisplatin, gentamicin, and paracetamol induced renal damage in rats, an effect attributed to its antioxidant properties. (16)
• Corrosion Resistance on Mild Steel: Study evaluated the inhibition potential of mild steel by T. stans leaves. Results showed the extract to be a potent inhibitor on mild steel in acid medium. Polarization studies showed the extract to be a mixed type inhibitor. (17)
• Anti-Diarrheal: Study evaluated acute toxicity and anti-diarrheal effect of an ethanolic flower extract of Tecoma stans using Wistar albino rats. Results showed a significant anti-diarrheal effect attributed to flavonoids and tannins. The LD50 was10,715 mg kg, indicating it is not dangerous to use, as suggests a potential herbal therapy for the treatment of diarrhea. (19)
• Lipid Lowering Effect: Study evaluated the lipid lowering effect of the hydroalcoholic flower extract of T. stans in triton and diet induced hyperlipidemic models of wistar albino rats. There was significant attenuation of elevated serum total cholesterol and triglycerides with an increase in HDL. The lipid lowering effect was attributed to the interference of cholesterol biosynthesis and utilization of lipids. (20)
• Cardioprotective / Flowers: Study evaluated the cardioprotective effect of a 70% ethanolic extract of flowers against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rat myocardium. Results showed the extract prevented a fall in antioxidants and retarded the elevation of cardiac damage markers in isoproterenol treated rats. Results were supported by histopathological findings. The cardioprotective effect was attributed to polyphenolics and phytofragments found in GC-MS analysis.(21)
• Antidiabetic / Stems: Study of T. stans stem extract in alloxan induced diabetic albino rats showed antidiabetic activity. Phytoanalysis yielded saponins, flavonoids, and monoterpenoid alkaloids (tecostanine and tecomine). The antidiabetic activity was similar to that of standard drug glibenclamide. In addition, there was reduction of triglycerides, cholesterol, and LDL. (22)
• Tecomine / Anti-Diabetic: Tecomine, an alkaloid with considerable hypoglycemic activity, was subjected to a stability study. Results showed pH dependent degradation of the alkaloid and that antioxidants are beneficial in delaying its deterioration. (23)
• Antioxidant / Antibacterial / Leaves: Study evaluated methanol, EtOAc and CHCl3 extracts of leaves and branches of T. stans for antibacterial and antioxidant potential. The extracts exhibited significant activity against the test bacteria i.e., B. subtilis, M. luteus, S. lutea, S. aureus, E. coli, S. marcescens, S. typhi. P. vulgaris and P. aeruginosa. The ME showed highest total phenolics (50.3 ± 3.0 mg GAE/g extract) and flavonoids (40.66 ± 5.03 mg catechin equivalents/g extract. An EtOAc fraction of leaves and branches showed highest antioxidant activity (%) with 83.4 ± 0.31 and 82.06 ± 0.54 %, respectively. (27)
• Hepatoprotective / Flowers: Study of ethanolic extract of flowers of T. stans showed dose dependent hepatoprotective activity against liver injury induced by CCl4, paracetamol and thioacetamide and chronic liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. (28)
• Trypsin Inhibitor
/ Antifungal / Leaves: Previous studies have reported on the antifungal activity of T. stans and the presence of trypsin inhibitor activity from its leaves. This study characterized the trypsin inhibitor (TesTI) and investigated it for antifungal activity. MIC show the TesTI was more effective in inhibiting replication of C. albicans cells. TesTI promoted reduction of ATP levels and lipid peroxidation in Candida cells. Results showed TesTI has antifungal activity against C. albicans and C. krusei, without toxicity to human cells. (29)
• Antibacterial / Antifungal: Study evaluated three plants traditionally used for medicinal purposes in Pakistan viz., Artemisia indica, Medicago flacata, and Tecoma stans against selected bacteria and fungi. Chloroform, butanol, and EA extracts of the plants showed high inhibitory activity against E. coli, P. aerugnosa and S. aureus. The n-hexane extract of T. stans completely inhibited Fusarium solani, while the EA extract showed excellent activity against Aspergillus niger. (30)
• Antimicrobial / Flowers / Heartwood: Study of ethanol extract of flowers of T. stans showed broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against pathogenic gram-positive and gram-negative test bacteria viz., S. aureus, E. faecalis, B. subtilis, B. megaterium, S. mutans, E. coli, K pneumonia, P. aeruginosa, and P. vulgaris. (see constituents above) (31) Study evaluated various extracts of heartwood of Tecoma stans for antimicrobial activity. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts showed strong antimicrobial activity compared to a water extract. (see constituents above) (36)
• Antioxidant / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated the antioxidant activity of various extracts of aerial parts of T. stans using DPPH and NO as scavenging reagents. All extracts showed significant antioxidant activity, which was higher in the ethanol than the methanol and acetone extract. (34)
• Chrysoeriol / Polyphenols / Lipase Inhibitory Activity: Study evaluated and characterized a hydroalcoholic extract and fractions for lipase inhibitory activity. Bio-guided purification of the extract produced fractions and isolated compounds viz., chrysoeriol, apigenin, luteolin, and verbascoside, with the ability to inhibit the activity of pancreatic lipase. Most active fractions were a mixture of Chrysoeriol and Apigenin, 96%/4%, respectively. The mixture showed a percentage inhibition of 85% at 0.25 mg/mL. Luteolin and chrysoeriol produced a noncompetitive and mixed inhibition with IC50s of 63 and 158 µM, respectively. Both flavones showed highest inhibition of lipase enzyme in a concentration dependent manner. The results suggest potential for a novel phytopharmaceutical drug (luteolin, chrysoeriol, and apigenin) as auxillary treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. (38)
- Antioxidant / Cytotoxicity Against
Lung Cancer Cell Line: Study evaluated T. stans extracts for antioxidant and cytotoxic activity against lung cancer cell line in comparison with vincristine drug. On DPPH assay, a ME showed better antioxidant activity than standard L-ascrobic acid. Cytotoxic activity on MTT assay showed concentration related increase in cell death at 100 µg/mL concentration, there was an increase in cytotoxic activity too 99% cell inhibition. (39)
• Insecticidal / Repellent / Antifeedant / Leaves: Study of crude extracts and fractions of fresh powdered leaves showed antifeedant, repellent, and insecticidal activities. (see constituents above) (40)
Phytopathogens / Oleanolic Acid / Leaves: Study investigated the potential of T. stans as plant-derived fungicide. Bioassay guided fractionation of a dichlormethane (DCM) extract of leaves isolated and characterized oleanolic acid (OA). The DCM extract and OA were active against 10 tested plant fungal pathogens with average MIC of 130 µg/mL. The DCM and OA were toxic to Vero cells with LC50 of 0.413 mg/mL and 0.129 mg/mL, respectively, compared to berberine with LC50 of 15.48 µg/mL. Results suggest a potential for a commercial product for controlling plant fungal pathogens. (43)
• Anti-Arthritic / Leaves: Study of methanol and water extracts of T. stans leaves showed significant antiarthritic activity using Diclofenac as standard in in-vitro models of protein denaturation and membrane stabilization effects. (44)
• Antimicrobial / Corrosion Inhibition / Rutin / Flowers: Study of air-dried flowers of Nerium oleander and Tecoma stans yielded pigments myricetin and rutin, respectively. The EA fraction of flowers of both plants were highly sensitive to S. aureus, S. albus, Klebsiella sp, moderately sensitive to Pseudomonas and Proteus sp, active against fungi C. albicans and A. niger. The extracts also showed corrosion inhibition on mild steel and aluminum, with percentage of inhibition increasing with increase in volume and concentration of the extracts. (45)
• Glucosidase and Lipase Inhibitory Activities: Study evaluated the inhibitory effects on glucosidase and lipase enzymes of 23 medicinal plants used as traditional treatments for diabetes in Mexico. Sixty percent of all tested extracts inhibited more than 25% of α-glucosidase activity. On lipase activity, L. octovalvis and Tecoma stans showed highest inhibition at 31.4%/IC50=288 µg/mL and 27.2%/IC50=320 µg/mL, respectively. (46)
• Cytotoxicity / Anti-Inflammatory / Flowers: Study evaluated various extracts for cytotoxicity activity by brine shrimp lethality assay and anti-inflammatory activity by egg albumin method. Results showed moderate cytotoxicity against brine shrimp (LC50 285.71µg/mL and significant protection against heat induced protein denaturation at concentration of 500 µg/ml. (47)
• Wound Healing / Bark: Study evaluated various extracts of T. stans bark for wound healing potential in incision and excision wound models in albino rats. A methanol extract showed significant increase in wound contraction and formation of scar in the excision wound model. Extract showed significant increase in breaking strength of resutured incision wound. The methanolic extract showed better wound healing properties than the PE and chloroform extracts in both wound models. Activity was attributed to the antimicrobial effects of T. stans. Phytoconstituents, either individually or in synergism, may be contributed to the wound healing. (see constituents above) (49)
• Male Fertility Effects / Leaves: Study investigated the effect of 50% ethanol extract of leaves in adult Wistar male rats. Hormonal assay showed a decrease in testosterone level, significant reduction in epididymal sperm count, motility and fertility test (%), along with histopathological evidence of marked degenerative changes in the testes. There was also reduction i size of the seminiferous tubules, vacuolization in Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, and atrophy of Leydig cells. (50)
- Seeds in the cybermarket.